Abstract

Linear (spectro) polarimetry is usually performed using separate photon flux measurements after spatial or temporal polarization modulation. Such classical polarimeters are limited in sensitivity and accuracy by systematic effects and noise. We describe a spectral modulation principle that is based on encoding the full linear polarization properties of light in its spectrum. Such spectral modulation is obtained with an optical train of an achromatic quarter-wave retarder, an athermal multiple-order retarder, and a polarizer. The emergent spectral modulation is sinusoidal with its amplitude scaling with the degree of linear polarization and its phase scaling with the angle of linear polarization. The large advantage of this passive setup is that all polarization information is, in principle, contained in a single spectral measurement, thereby eliminating all differential effects that potentially create spurious polarization signals. Since the polarization properties are obtained through curve fitting, the susceptibility to noise is relatively low. We provide general design options for a spectral modulator and describe the design of a prototype modulator. Currently, the setup in combination with a dedicated retrieval algorithm can be used to measure linear polarization signals with a relative accuracy of 5%.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

2006

2004

2002

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, , “Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).

F. Cremer, W. de Jong, K. Schutte, J. T. Johnson, and B. A. Baertlein, “Surface mine signature modeling for passive polarimetric IR,” Proc. SPIE. 4742, 51-62 (2002).

1999

F. J. Iannarilli, S. H. Jones, H. E. Scott, and P. Kebabian, “Polarimetric Spectral Intensity Modulation (P-SIM): Enabling simultaneous hyperspectral and polarimetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 474-481 (1999).

K. Oka and T. Kato, “Spectroscopic polarimetry with a channeled spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1475-1477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1993

M. Semel, J.-F. Donati, and D. E. Rees, “Zeeman-Doppler imaging of active stars. 3: Instrumental and technical considerations,” Astron. Astrophys. 278, 231-237 (1993).

1988

1985

1971

1966

R. J. King, “Quarter-wave retardation systems based on the Fresnel rhomb principle,” J. Sci. Instrum. 43, 617-621(1966).
[CrossRef]

1955

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates. Part II. An achromatic quarter wave plate,” Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sect. A 42, 24-31 (1955).

1949

1944

B. Lyot, “Le filtre monochromatique polarisant et ses applications en physique solaire,” Ann. Astrophys. 7, 31-75 (1944).

Aas, C.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

Baba, J. S.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, , “Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).

Baertlein, B. A.

F. Cremer, W. de Jong, K. Schutte, J. T. Johnson, and B. A. Baertlein, “Surface mine signature modeling for passive polarimetric IR,” Proc. SPIE. 4742, 51-62 (2002).

Beckers, J.

Biehl, L. L.

Cameron, B. D.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, , “Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).

Chung, J. R.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, , “Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).

Cote, G. L.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, , “Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).

Cremer, F.

F. Cremer, W. de Jong, K. Schutte, J. T. Johnson, and B. A. Baertlein, “Surface mine signature modeling for passive polarimetric IR,” Proc. SPIE. 4742, 51-62 (2002).

Day, G. W.

de Jong, W.

F. Cremer, W. de Jong, K. Schutte, J. T. Johnson, and B. A. Baertlein, “Surface mine signature modeling for passive polarimetric IR,” Proc. SPIE. 4742, 51-62 (2002).

de Vries, J.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

DeLaughter, A. H.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, , “Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).

Donati, J.-F.

M. Semel, J.-F. Donati, and D. E. Rees, “Zeeman-Doppler imaging of active stars. 3: Instrumental and technical considerations,” Astron. Astrophys. 278, 231-237 (1993).

Elmore, D.

S. Guimond and D. Elmore, “Designing effective crystal waveplates requires understanding the engineering tradeoffs,” oemagazine (May 2004).

Evans, J. W.

Ghosh, G.

G. Ghosh, Handbook of Thermo-Optic Coefficients of Optical Materials with Applications (Academic, 1998).

Grant, L.

Guimond, S.

S. Guimond and D. Elmore, “Designing effective crystal waveplates requires understanding the engineering tradeoffs,” oemagazine (May 2004).

Hale, P. D.

Hayakawa, M.

Hazel, G.

R. Mayer, R. Priest, C. Steliman, G. Hazel, and A. Schaum, “Detection of camouflaged targets in cluttered backgrounds using fusion of near simultaneous spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Naval Research Lab Tech. Note ADA392956 (Naval Research Laboratory, 2000).

Hoogeveen, R.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

Iannarilli, F. J.

S. H. Jones, F. J. Iannarilli, and P. L. Kebabian, “Realization of quantitative-grade fieldable snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter,” Opt. Express 12, 6559-6573 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Iannarilli, S. H. Jones, H. E. Scott, and P. Kebabian, “Polarimetric Spectral Intensity Modulation (P-SIM): Enabling simultaneous hyperspectral and polarimetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 474-481 (1999).

Johnson, J. T.

F. Cremer, W. de Jong, K. Schutte, J. T. Johnson, and B. A. Baertlein, “Surface mine signature modeling for passive polarimetric IR,” Proc. SPIE. 4742, 51-62 (2002).

Jones, S. H.

S. H. Jones, F. J. Iannarilli, and P. L. Kebabian, “Realization of quantitative-grade fieldable snapshot imaging spectropolarimeter,” Opt. Express 12, 6559-6573 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Iannarilli, S. H. Jones, H. E. Scott, and P. Kebabian, “Polarimetric Spectral Intensity Modulation (P-SIM): Enabling simultaneous hyperspectral and polarimetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 474-481 (1999).

Karalidi, T.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

Kato, T.

Kebabian, P.

F. J. Iannarilli, S. H. Jones, H. E. Scott, and P. Kebabian, “Polarimetric Spectral Intensity Modulation (P-SIM): Enabling simultaneous hyperspectral and polarimetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 474-481 (1999).

Kebabian, P. L.

Keller, C. U.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

C. U. Keller, “Instrumentation for astrophysical spectropolarimetry,” in Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, J. Trujillo-Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, and F. Sanchez, eds. (Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 303-354

King, R. J.

R. J. King, “Quarter-wave retardation systems based on the Fresnel rhomb principle,” J. Sci. Instrum. 43, 617-621(1966).
[CrossRef]

Laan, E.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

Lyot, B.

B. Lyot, “Le filtre monochromatique polarisant et ses applications en physique solaire,” Ann. Astrophys. 7, 31-75 (1944).

Mayer, R.

R. Mayer, R. Priest, C. Steliman, G. Hazel, and A. Schaum, “Detection of camouflaged targets in cluttered backgrounds using fusion of near simultaneous spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Naval Research Lab Tech. Note ADA392956 (Naval Research Laboratory, 2000).

Navarro, R.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

Oka, K.

Okabe, H.

Oomen, G.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

Pancharatnam, S.

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates. Part II. An achromatic quarter wave plate,” Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sect. A 42, 24-31 (1955).

Priest, R.

R. Mayer, R. Priest, C. Steliman, G. Hazel, and A. Schaum, “Detection of camouflaged targets in cluttered backgrounds using fusion of near simultaneous spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Naval Research Lab Tech. Note ADA392956 (Naval Research Laboratory, 2000).

Rees, D. E.

M. Semel, J.-F. Donati, and D. E. Rees, “Zeeman-Doppler imaging of active stars. 3: Instrumental and technical considerations,” Astron. Astrophys. 278, 231-237 (1993).

Robinson, B. F.

Schadt, M.

Schaum, A.

R. Mayer, R. Priest, C. Steliman, G. Hazel, and A. Schaum, “Detection of camouflaged targets in cluttered backgrounds using fusion of near simultaneous spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Naval Research Lab Tech. Note ADA392956 (Naval Research Laboratory, 2000).

Schutte, K.

F. Cremer, W. de Jong, K. Schutte, J. T. Johnson, and B. A. Baertlein, “Surface mine signature modeling for passive polarimetric IR,” Proc. SPIE. 4742, 51-62 (2002).

Scott, H. E.

F. J. Iannarilli, S. H. Jones, H. E. Scott, and P. Kebabian, “Polarimetric Spectral Intensity Modulation (P-SIM): Enabling simultaneous hyperspectral and polarimetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 474-481 (1999).

Semel, M.

M. Semel, J.-F. Donati, and D. E. Rees, “Zeeman-Doppler imaging of active stars. 3: Instrumental and technical considerations,” Astron. Astrophys. 278, 231-237 (1993).

Snik, F.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

F. Snik, “Astronomical applications for “radial polarimetry”,” in Astronomical Polarimetry 2008: Science from Small to Large Telescopes, P. Bastien and N. Manset, eds., ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2009).

Stalder, M.

Stam, D. M.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

Steliman, C.

R. Mayer, R. Priest, C. Steliman, G. Hazel, and A. Schaum, “Detection of camouflaged targets in cluttered backgrounds using fusion of near simultaneous spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Naval Research Lab Tech. Note ADA392956 (Naval Research Laboratory, 2000).

Taniguchi, A.

ter Horst, R.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

Vanderbilt, V. C.

Ann. Astrophys.

B. Lyot, “Le filtre monochromatique polarisant et ses applications en physique solaire,” Ann. Astrophys. 7, 31-75 (1944).

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

M. Semel, J.-F. Donati, and D. E. Rees, “Zeeman-Doppler imaging of active stars. 3: Instrumental and technical considerations,” Astron. Astrophys. 278, 231-237 (1993).

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. DeLaughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, , “Development and calibration of an automated Mueller matrix polarization imaging system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341-349 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Sci. Instrum.

R. J. King, “Quarter-wave retardation systems based on the Fresnel rhomb principle,” J. Sci. Instrum. 43, 617-621(1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sect. A

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates. Part II. An achromatic quarter wave plate,” Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sect. A 42, 24-31 (1955).

Proc. SPIE

F. J. Iannarilli, S. H. Jones, H. E. Scott, and P. Kebabian, “Polarimetric Spectral Intensity Modulation (P-SIM): Enabling simultaneous hyperspectral and polarimetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 3698, 474-481 (1999).

Proc. SPIE.

F. Snik, T. Karalidi, C. U. Keller, E. Laan, R. ter Horst, R. Navarro, D. M. Stam, C. Aas, J. de Vries, G. Oomen, and R. Hoogeveen, “SPEX, An in-orbit spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration,” Proc. SPIE. 7010, 701015 (2008).

F. Cremer, W. de Jong, K. Schutte, J. T. Johnson, and B. A. Baertlein, “Surface mine signature modeling for passive polarimetric IR,” Proc. SPIE. 4742, 51-62 (2002).

Other

R. Mayer, R. Priest, C. Steliman, G. Hazel, and A. Schaum, “Detection of camouflaged targets in cluttered backgrounds using fusion of near simultaneous spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Naval Research Lab Tech. Note ADA392956 (Naval Research Laboratory, 2000).

S. Guimond and D. Elmore, “Designing effective crystal waveplates requires understanding the engineering tradeoffs,” oemagazine (May 2004).

G. Ghosh, Handbook of Thermo-Optic Coefficients of Optical Materials with Applications (Academic, 1998).

ArcOptix, “Radial polarization converter,” http://www.arcoptix.com/radial_polarization_converter.htm.

F. Snik, “Astronomical applications for “radial polarimetry”,” in Astronomical Polarimetry 2008: Science from Small to Large Telescopes, P. Bastien and N. Manset, eds., ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2009).

C. U. Keller, “Instrumentation for astrophysical spectropolarimetry,” in Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, J. Trujillo-Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, and F. Sanchez, eds. (Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 303-354

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