Abstract

A precise estimate of the polarization induced by the surface in reflected radiation is crucial for remote sensing applications dedicated to monitoring the atmosphere. Here we present airborne observations acquired during a field campaign in the North of France over vegetated surfaces. Polarized reflectances were measured in four spectral bands in the range between 0.67 and 2.2μm and for scattering angles between 75° and 145°. Our results confirm that the polarization generated by the reflection of vege tated surfaces can be understood as being primarily a specular reflection process. It is not possible from our measurements to see any spectral dependence of the surface polarization in the given spectral channels. The surface polarization is well fitted by existing surface models which have two degrees of freedom that allow the magnitude and angular behavior of the surface-polarized reflectance to be adjusted.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419, 215-223 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. S. Fraser and Y. J. Kaufman, “The relative importance of aerosol scattering and absorption in remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-23, 625-633 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Popp, A. Hauser, N. Foppa, and S. Wunderle, “Remote sensing of aerosol optical depth over central Europe from MSG-SEVIRI data and accuracy assessment with ground-based AERONET measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S11(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. J. Kaufman and C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 1357-1381 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, L. A. Remer, E. F. Vermote, A. Chu, and B. N. Holben, “Operational remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol over land from EOS moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051-17067 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B.-C. Gao, R.-R. Li, and L. Flynn, “The MODIS 2.1 μm channel correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286-1298 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. J. Kaufman, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, J.-L. Widlowski, and M. M. Verstraete, “Relationship between surface reflectance in the visible and mid-IR used in MODIS aerosol algorithm--theory,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2116 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Waquet, P. Goloub, J.-L. Deuzé, J.-F. Léon, F. Auriol, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, and P. François, “Aerosol retrieval over land using a multiband polarimeter and comparison with path radiance method,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D11214 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, and M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487-499(1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, M. Herman, A. Podaire, and J. L. Roujean, “Analysis of the POLDER (POLarization and Directionnality of Earth's Reflectances) airborne instrument observations over land surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 137-154 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, and E. E. Russel, “An analysis of polarization: ground-based upward looking and aircraft/satellite-based downward looking measurements,” in Satellite Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere II (SPIE, 1998), pp. 103-114.
  20. G. Rondeaux and M. Herman, “Polarization of light reflected by crop canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 38, 63-75 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Nadal and F. M. Bréon, “Parametrisation of surface polarised reflectance derived from POLDER spaceborne measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1709-1718(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Waquet, J.-F. Léon, P. Goloub, J. Pelon, D. Tanré, and J.-L. Deuzé, “Maritime and dust aerosol retrieval from polarized and multispectral active and passive sensors,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10510 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Cairns, L. Travis, M. I. Mishchenko, and J. Chowdhary, “Aerosol retrievals over land surfaces: the advantages of polarization,” Proceedings of AMS Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N. M., January 2001.
  24. T. Elias, B. Cairns, and J. Chowdhary, “Surface optical properties measured by the airborne research scanning polarimeter during the CLAMS experiment,” Proc. SPIE 5235, 595-606(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, and E. E. Russel, “The research scanning polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 186-196 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J.-L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103, 27-42 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and R. Santer, “Fourier series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 483-494(1989).
    [CrossRef]
  30. O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. Lafrance, “Simplified model of the polarized light emerging from the atmosphere. Correction of the stratospheric aerosol impact on POLDER measurements” (in French), Ph.D. thesis (Université des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, France, 1997).
  32. K. Coulson, G. Bouricius, and E. Gray, “Optical reflection properties of natural surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 70, 4601-4611(1965).
    [CrossRef]
  33. V. C. Vanderbilt, L. Grant, L. L. Biehl, and B. F. Robinson, “Specular, diffuse, and polarized light scattered by two wheat canopies,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2408-2418 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. P. M. Saunders, “Shadowing on the ocean and the existence of the horizon,” J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4643-4649 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  35. O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over land surfaces: capabilities of multiple-viewing-angle intensity and polarization measurements,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3332-3344 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. J.-F. Léon, P. Chazette, and F. Dulac, “Retrieval and monitoring of aerosols optical thickness over an urban area using spaceborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6918-6926 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, and B. N. Khare, “Surface refractive index,” Icarus 19, 372-389 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  38. F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D01206.
  39. M. I. Mishchenko, M. I. B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161, doi: 10.1016/.jqsrt.2004.03030 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677-691 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

C. Popp, A. Hauser, N. Foppa, and S. Wunderle, “Remote sensing of aerosol optical depth over central Europe from MSG-SEVIRI data and accuracy assessment with ground-based AERONET measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S11(2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Waquet, P. Goloub, J.-L. Deuzé, J.-F. Léon, F. Auriol, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, and P. François, “Aerosol retrieval over land using a multiband polarimeter and comparison with path radiance method,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D11214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. de Almeida Castanho, R. Prinn, J. V. Martins, M. Herold, C. Ichoku, and L. T. Molina, “Analysis of visible/SWIR surface reflectances ratios for aerosol retrievals from satellite in Mexico City urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5467-5477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677-691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over land surfaces: capabilities of multiple-viewing-angle intensity and polarization measurements,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3332-3344 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103, 27-42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

F. Waquet, J.-F. Léon, P. Goloub, J. Pelon, D. Tanré, and J.-L. Deuzé, “Maritime and dust aerosol retrieval from polarized and multispectral active and passive sensors,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martin, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Diner, J. V. Martonchik, R. A. Kahn, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, D. L. Nelson, and B. N. Holben, “Using angular and spectral shape similarity constraints to improve MISR aerosol and surface retrievals over land,” Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 155-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Elias, B. Cairns, and J. Chowdhary, “Surface optical properties measured by the airborne research scanning polarimeter during the CLAMS experiment,” Proc. SPIE 5235, 595-606(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, M. I. B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161, doi: 10.1016/.jqsrt.2004.03030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. R. North, “Estimation of aerosol opacity and land surface bidirectional reflectance from ATSR-2 dual angle imagery: operational method and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419, 215-223 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Kaufman, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, J.-L. Widlowski, and M. M. Verstraete, “Relationship between surface reflectance in the visible and mid-IR used in MODIS aerosol algorithm--theory,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2116 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J.-L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673-20696(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Nadal and F. M. Bréon, “Parametrisation of surface polarised reflectance derived from POLDER spaceborne measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1709-1718(1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, and E. E. Russel, “The research scanning polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 186-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and T. Nakajima, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past present and future,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2229-2259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Léon, P. Chazette, and F. Dulac, “Retrieval and monitoring of aerosols optical thickness over an urban area using spaceborne and ground-based remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6918-6926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. P. Veefkind, G. de Leeuw, and P. A. Durkee, “Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using two-angle view satellite radiometry during TARFOX,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3135-3138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, L. A. Remer, E. F. Vermote, A. Chu, and B. N. Holben, “Operational remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol over land from EOS moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051-17067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. E. Wald, L. A. Remer, B.-C. Gao, R.-R. Li, and L. Flynn, “The MODIS 2.1 μm channel correlation with visible reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1286-1298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, and M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487-499(1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Flowerdew and J. D. Haigh, “An approximation to improve accuracy in the derivation of surface reflectances from multi-look satellite radiometers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1693-1696 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, M. Herman, A. Podaire, and J. L. Roujean, “Analysis of the POLDER (POLarization and Directionnality of Earth's Reflectances) airborne instrument observations over land surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 137-154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. Rondeaux and M. Herman, “Polarization of light reflected by crop canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 38, 63-75 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and R. Santer, “Fourier series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 483-494(1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

Y. J. Kaufman and C. Sendra, “Algorithm for automatic atmospheric corrections to visible and near-IR satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 1357-1381 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. S. Fraser and Y. J. Kaufman, “The relative importance of aerosol scattering and absorption in remote sensing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. GE-23, 625-633 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Vanderbilt, L. Grant, L. L. Biehl, and B. F. Robinson, “Specular, diffuse, and polarized light scattered by two wheat canopies,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2408-2418 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, and B. N. Khare, “Surface refractive index,” Icarus 19, 372-389 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967

P. M. Saunders, “Shadowing on the ocean and the existence of the horizon,” J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4643-4649 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965

K. Coulson, G. Bouricius, and E. Gray, “Optical reflection properties of natural surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 70, 4601-4611(1965).
[CrossRef]

Artaxo, P.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate change 2007: The Physical Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007).
[PubMed]

Auriol, F.

F. Waquet, P. Goloub, J.-L. Deuzé, J.-F. Léon, F. Auriol, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, and P. François, “Aerosol retrieval over land using a multiband polarimeter and comparison with path radiance method,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D11214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balois, J.-Y.

F. Waquet, P. Goloub, J.-L. Deuzé, J.-F. Léon, F. Auriol, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, and P. François, “Aerosol retrieval over land using a multiband polarimeter and comparison with path radiance method,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D11214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berntsen, T.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate change 2007: The Physical Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007).
[PubMed]

Betts, R.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate change 2007: The Physical Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007).
[PubMed]

Biehl, L. L.

Boucher, O.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419, 215-223 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouricius, G.

K. Coulson, G. Bouricius, and E. Gray, “Optical reflection properties of natural surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 70, 4601-4611(1965).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F. M.

F. Nadal and F. M. Bréon, “Parametrisation of surface polarised reflectance derived from POLDER spaceborne measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1709-1718(1999).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, and M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487-499(1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, P. Y. Deschamps, C. Devaux, M. Herman, A. Podaire, and J. L. Roujean, “Analysis of the POLDER (POLarization and Directionnality of Earth's Reflectances) airborne instrument observations over land surfaces,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 137-154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F.-M.

J.-L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burg, R.

M. I. Mishchenko, M. I. B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161, doi: 10.1016/.jqsrt.2004.03030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677-691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Elias, B. Cairns, and J. Chowdhary, “Surface optical properties measured by the airborne research scanning polarimeter during the CLAMS experiment,” Proc. SPIE 5235, 595-606(2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, and E. E. Russel, “The research scanning polarimeter: calibration and ground-based measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 186-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, L. Travis, M. I. Mishchenko, and J. Chowdhary, “Aerosol retrievals over land surfaces: the advantages of polarization,” Proceedings of AMS Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N. M., January 2001.

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, and E. E. Russel, “An analysis of polarization: ground-based upward looking and aircraft/satellite-based downward looking measurements,” in Satellite Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere II (SPIE, 1998), pp. 103-114.

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D01206.

Cairns, M. I. B.

M. I. Mishchenko, M. I. B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149-161, doi: 10.1016/.jqsrt.2004.03030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chazette, P.

Chowdhary, J.

T. Elias, B. Cairns, and J. Chowdhary, “Surface optical properties measured by the airborne research scanning polarimeter during the CLAMS experiment,” Proc. SPIE 5235, 595-606(2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D01206.

B. Cairns, L. Travis, M. I. Mishchenko, and J. Chowdhary, “Aerosol retrievals over land surfaces: the advantages of polarization,” Proceedings of AMS Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, N. M., January 2001.

Chu, A.

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G. Schaepman-Strub, M. E. Schaepman, T. H. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. V. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103, 27-42 (2006).
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L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. A. Chu, J. V. Martin, R.-R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. C. Levy, R. G. Kleidman, T. F. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. N. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 947-973 (2005).
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A. D. de Almeida Castanho, R. Prinn, J. V. Martins, M. Herold, C. Ichoku, and L. T. Molina, “Analysis of visible/SWIR surface reflectances ratios for aerosol retrievals from satellite in Mexico City urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5467-5477 (2007).
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M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, and T. Nakajima, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past present and future,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2229-2259 (1999).
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P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. M. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate change 2007: The Physical Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. (Cambridge University, 2007).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677-691 (2007).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 677-691 (2007).
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Y. J. Kaufman, N. Gobron, B. Pinty, J.-L. Widlowski, and M. M. Verstraete, “Relationship between surface reflectance in the visible and mid-IR used in MODIS aerosol algorithm--theory,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2116 (2002).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured polarized radiance at an altitude of 3.5 km . The transect corresponds to a distance of 10 km . The measurements were acquired in the principal plan and for a scattering angle of approximately 75 ° .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface-polarized reflectance estimated at 0.87, 0.67, and 1.6 μm , respectively, in red, blue, and dark green, as a function of the same quantity at 2.2 μm for a forward-viewing geometry and a nadir view (flight 18 February 2003, see Table 1). The observations at 0.67 and 1.6 μm were offset by 0.02 and 0.04, respectively, for the sake of clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Surface-polarized reflectance measured over closely cropped surfaces as a function of the scattering angle: mean values (squares) and associated standard deviations (bars). The different models are described in the text. (b) Surface-polarized reflectance measured over forest area as a function of the scattering angle: mean values (squares) and associated standard deviations (bars).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Characteristics of the Flights a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of the Linear Regression Performed in Fig. 2 a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Differences on the Retrieved Aerosol Parameters When Using the VB, FR, and NB Surface Models to Fit Polarized Reflectances Measurements Simulated with the FRS Surface Model

Equations (12)

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L = π I / E 0 ,
L p = π ( Q 2 + U 2 ) 1 / 2 / E 0 .
L p λ Meas ( z , θ s , θ v , φ r ) = L p λ Atm ( z , θ s , θ v , φ r ) + μ s . R p λ Surf ( θ s , θ v , φ r ) . T λ ( θ s ) . T λ ( z , θ v ) ,
T λ ( θ s ) = exp [ ( ψ δ o , λ m + ς δ o , λ a μ s ) ] ,
T λ ( z , θ v ) = exp [ ( ψ δ λ m ( z ) + ς δ λ a ( z ) μ v ) ] ,
δ λ x ( z ) = δ o , λ x ( 1 exp ( z / H x ) ) .
ς = 0.3658 + 0.1023 α * + 0.0080 α * 2 ,
R p surf ( θ s , θ v , φ r ) = F p ( γ ) 4 ( μ s + μ v ) ,
R p surf ( θ s , θ v , φ r ) = F p ( γ ) 4 μ s . μ v .
S ( θ ) = 2 1 + erf ( ν ) + ( ν π ) 1 exp ( ν 2 ) ,
ν = ( σ 2 ) 1 tan ( θ ) ,
R p surf ( θ s , θ v , φ r ) = α [ 1 exp ( β F p ( γ ) μ s + μ v ) ] ,

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