Abstract

We analyze the potential of measuring low-altitude optically thin clouds with a Raman-elastic lidar in the daytime. Optical depths of low clouds are derived by two separate methods from nitrogen Raman and elastic-scattering returns. By correcting for aerosol influences with the combined Raman–elastic returns, Mie retrievals of low-cloud optical depth can be dramatically improved and show good agreement with the direct Raman retrievals. Furthermore, a lidar ratio profile is mapped out and shown to be consistent with realistic water phase cloud models. The variability of lidar ratios allows us to explore the distribution of small droplets near the cloud perimeter.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007 (3)

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Morille, M. Haeffelin, P. Drobinski, and J. Pelon, “STRAT: an automated algorithm to retrieve the vertical structure of the atmosphere from single channel lidar data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 761-775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

B. Cadet, V. Giraud, M. Haeffelin, P. Keckhut, A. Rechou, and S. Baldy, “Improved retrievals of the optical properties of cirrus clouds by a combination of lidar methods,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1726-1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Kaufman, I. Koren, L. A. Remer, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. Rudich, “The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 11207-11212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

E. J. O'Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 777-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Bretherton, T. Uttal, C. W. Fairall, S. Yuter, R. Weller, D. Baumgardner, K. Comstock, R. Wood, and G. Raga, “The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 967-977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. E. Schwartz, Harshvardhan, and C. M. Benkovitz, “Influence of anthropogenic aerosol on cloud optical depth and albedo shown by satellite measurements and chemical transport modeling,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 1784-1789(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. J. Davis, N. Gamageb, C. R. Hagelbergc, C. Kiemled, D. H. Lenschowe, and P. P. Sullivane, “An objective method for deriving atmospheric structure from airborne lidar observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1455-1468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

W. L. Eberhard, “CO2 lidar technique for observing characteristic drop size in water cloud,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31 (1), 56 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chýlek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy Jr., “Backscatter and extinction in water cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787-6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Ansmann, A.

Austin, R. T.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Avramov, A.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bahrmann, C. P.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baldy, S.

Barnard, J. C.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baum, B. A.

B. A. Baum and S. Platnick, “Introduction to MODIS cloud products,” in Earth Science Satellite Remote Sensing, Vol. 1: Science and Instruments, J. J. Qu, W. Gao, M. Kafatos, R. E. Murphy, and V. Salomonson, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2006), pp 74-91.
[CrossRef]

Baumgardner, D.

C. S. Bretherton, T. Uttal, C. W. Fairall, S. Yuter, R. Weller, D. Baumgardner, K. Comstock, R. Wood, and G. Raga, “The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 967-977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benkovitz, C. M.

S. E. Schwartz, Harshvardhan, and C. M. Benkovitz, “Influence of anthropogenic aerosol on cloud optical depth and albedo shown by satellite measurements and chemical transport modeling,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 1784-1789(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bretherton, C. S.

C. S. Bretherton, T. Uttal, C. W. Fairall, S. Yuter, R. Weller, D. Baumgardner, K. Comstock, R. Wood, and G. Raga, “The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 967-977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cadet, B.

Cadirola, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cady-Pereira, K.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, J. C.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chýlek, P.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chýlek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy Jr., “Backscatter and extinction in water cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787-6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Comstock, K.

C. S. Bretherton, T. Uttal, C. W. Fairall, S. Yuter, R. Weller, D. Baumgardner, K. Comstock, R. Wood, and G. Raga, “The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 967-977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, J. S.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. J.

K. J. Davis, N. Gamageb, C. R. Hagelbergc, C. Kiemled, D. H. Lenschowe, and P. P. Sullivane, “An objective method for deriving atmospheric structure from airborne lidar observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1455-1468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

DeMott, P. J.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Demoz, B.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Drobinski, P.

Y. Morille, M. Haeffelin, P. Drobinski, and J. Pelon, “STRAT: an automated algorithm to retrieve the vertical structure of the atmosphere from single channel lidar data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 761-775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, W. L.

W. L. Eberhard, “CO2 lidar technique for observing characteristic drop size in water cloud,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31 (1), 56 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Eloranta, “A practical model for the calculation of multiply scattered lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2464-2472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, and R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663-19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fairall, C. W.

C. S. Bretherton, T. Uttal, C. W. Fairall, S. Yuter, R. Weller, D. Baumgardner, K. Comstock, R. Wood, and G. Raga, “The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 967-977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

Ferrare, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, and R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663-19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, C.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gamageb, N.

K. J. Davis, N. Gamageb, C. R. Hagelbergc, C. Kiemled, D. H. Lenschowe, and P. P. Sullivane, “An objective method for deriving atmospheric structure from airborne lidar observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1455-1468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giraud, V.

Grandy, W. T.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chýlek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy Jr., “Backscatter and extinction in water cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787-6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, S.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gutman, S. I.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haeffelin, M.

Y. Morille, M. Haeffelin, P. Drobinski, and J. Pelon, “STRAT: an automated algorithm to retrieve the vertical structure of the atmosphere from single channel lidar data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 761-775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Cadet, V. Giraud, M. Haeffelin, P. Keckhut, A. Rechou, and S. Baldy, “Improved retrievals of the optical properties of cirrus clouds by a combination of lidar methods,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1726-1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagelbergc, C. R.

K. J. Davis, N. Gamageb, C. R. Hagelbergc, C. Kiemled, D. H. Lenschowe, and P. P. Sullivane, “An objective method for deriving atmospheric structure from airborne lidar observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1455-1468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ham, C.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chýlek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy Jr., “Backscatter and extinction in water cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787-6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. Y.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harshvardhan,

S. E. Schwartz, Harshvardhan, and C. M. Benkovitz, “Influence of anthropogenic aerosol on cloud optical depth and albedo shown by satellite measurements and chemical transport modeling,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 1784-1789(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heymsfield, A. J.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hogan, R. J.

R. J. Hogan, “Fast approximate calculation of multiply scattered lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5984-5992 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. O'Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 777-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holz, R.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Illingworth, A. J.

E. J. O'Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 777-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivey, M. D.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jedlovec, G. J.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, S. G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chýlek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy Jr., “Backscatter and extinction in water cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787-6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, I. Koren, L. A. Remer, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. Rudich, “The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 11207-11212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keckhut, P.

Khaiyer, M. M.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiemled, C.

K. J. Davis, N. Gamageb, C. R. Hagelbergc, C. Kiemled, D. H. Lenschowe, and P. P. Sullivane, “An objective method for deriving atmospheric structure from airborne lidar observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1455-1468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

Kok, G. L.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koren, I.

Y. J. Kaufman, I. Koren, L. A. Remer, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. Rudich, “The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 11207-11212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leifer, R.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, and R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663-19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lenschowe, D. H.

K. J. Davis, N. Gamageb, C. R. Hagelbergc, C. Kiemled, D. H. Lenschowe, and P. P. Sullivane, “An objective method for deriving atmospheric structure from airborne lidar observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1455-1468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liljegren, J.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Long, C.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marshak, A.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mather, J. H.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matrosov, S. Y.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McFarlane, S. A.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McFarquhar, G. M.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, S. H.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, and R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663-19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, W.

Miller, M.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Min, Q.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minnis, P.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morille, Y.

Y. Morille, M. Haeffelin, P. Drobinski, and J. Pelon, “STRAT: an automated algorithm to retrieve the vertical structure of the atmosphere from single channel lidar data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 761-775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O'Connor, E. J.

E. J. O'Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 777-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O'Hirok, W.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

Y. Morille, M. Haeffelin, P. Drobinski, and J. Pelon, “STRAT: an automated algorithm to retrieve the vertical structure of the atmosphere from single channel lidar data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 761-775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chýlek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy Jr., “Backscatter and extinction in water cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787-6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Platnick, S.

B. A. Baum and S. Platnick, “Introduction to MODIS cloud products,” in Earth Science Satellite Remote Sensing, Vol. 1: Science and Instruments, J. J. Qu, W. Gao, M. Kafatos, R. E. Murphy, and V. Salomonson, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2006), pp 74-91.
[CrossRef]

Poellot, M. R.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prenni, A. J.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raga, G.

C. S. Bretherton, T. Uttal, C. W. Fairall, S. Yuter, R. Weller, D. Baumgardner, K. Comstock, R. Wood, and G. Raga, “The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 967-977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rechou, A.

Remer, L. A.

Y. J. Kaufman, I. Koren, L. A. Remer, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. Rudich, “The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 11207-11212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, S. J.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riebesell, M.

Rosenfeld, D.

Y. J. Kaufman, I. Koren, L. A. Remer, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. Rudich, “The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 11207-11212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudich, Y.

Y. J. Kaufman, I. Koren, L. A. Remer, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. Rudich, “The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 11207-11212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sassen, K.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, R.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, S. E.

S. E. Schwartz, Harshvardhan, and C. M. Benkovitz, “Influence of anthropogenic aerosol on cloud optical depth and albedo shown by satellite measurements and chemical transport modeling,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 1784-1789(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwemmer, G. K.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shupe, M.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spangenberg, D.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Starr, D. O'C

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sullivane, P. P.

K. J. Davis, N. Gamageb, C. R. Hagelbergc, C. Kiemled, D. H. Lenschowe, and P. P. Sullivane, “An objective method for deriving atmospheric structure from airborne lidar observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1455-1468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D. C.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tooman, T. P.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D. D.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uttal, T.

C. S. Bretherton, T. Uttal, C. W. Fairall, S. Yuter, R. Weller, D. Baumgardner, K. Comstock, R. Wood, and G. Raga, “The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 967-977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verlinde, J.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vogelmann, A. M.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

Wang, Z.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Weller, R.

C. S. Bretherton, T. Uttal, C. W. Fairall, S. Yuter, R. Weller, D. Baumgardner, K. Comstock, R. Wood, and G. Raga, “The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 967-977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, and R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663-19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W.

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R.

C. S. Bretherton, T. Uttal, C. W. Fairall, S. Yuter, R. Weller, D. Baumgardner, K. Comstock, R. Wood, and G. Raga, “The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 967-977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yannuzzi, V. T.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Young, S. A.

Yuter, S.

C. S. Bretherton, T. Uttal, C. W. Fairall, S. Yuter, R. Weller, D. Baumgardner, K. Comstock, R. Wood, and G. Raga, “The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 967-977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zak, B. D.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (3)

C. S. Bretherton, T. Uttal, C. W. Fairall, S. Yuter, R. Weller, D. Baumgardner, K. Comstock, R. Wood, and G. Raga, “The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85, 967-977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield, “The mixed-phase arctic cloud experiment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 205-221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin,J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J. C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, W. O'Hirok, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe, “Optically thin liquid water clouds: their importance and our challenge,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 177-190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

W. L. Eberhard, “CO2 lidar technique for observing characteristic drop size in water cloud,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31 (1), 56 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (3)

Y. Morille, M. Haeffelin, P. Drobinski, and J. Pelon, “STRAT: an automated algorithm to retrieve the vertical structure of the atmosphere from single channel lidar data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 761-775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Davis, N. Gamageb, C. R. Hagelbergc, C. Kiemled, D. H. Lenschowe, and P. P. Sullivane, “An objective method for deriving atmospheric structure from airborne lidar observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1455-1468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. J. O'Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 777-778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chýlek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy Jr., “Backscatter and extinction in water cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787-6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O'C Starr, E. W. Eloranta, D. Tobin, W. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, and F. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of Hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211-5225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, and R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663-19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (2)

Y. J. Kaufman, I. Koren, L. A. Remer, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. Rudich, “The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 11207-11212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Schwartz, Harshvardhan, and C. M. Benkovitz, “Influence of anthropogenic aerosol on cloud optical depth and albedo shown by satellite measurements and chemical transport modeling,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 1784-1789(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. A. Baum and S. Platnick, “Introduction to MODIS cloud products,” in Earth Science Satellite Remote Sensing, Vol. 1: Science and Instruments, J. J. Qu, W. Gao, M. Kafatos, R. E. Murphy, and V. Salomonson, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2006), pp 74-91.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the Raman–Mie lidar receiver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cloud backscatter, extinction coefficient, and (b) their ratio at 355 nm on 15 March 2006.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Elastic- and N 2 Raman-scattering signals and (b) covariance of wavelet transform on 6 April 2006.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Elastic- and N 2 Raman-scattering signals and (b) comparison of cloud optical depth retrieval on 16 June 2006. Raman, Raman retrieval; Mie-uncorr., Mie retrieval without aerosol correction; Mie-cor, Mie retrieval with aerosol correction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of cloud optical depth retrievals. Mie-uncor, Mie retrieval without aerosol correction; Mie-cor-1, Mie retrieval with aerosol correction from only the elastic returns; Mie-cor-2, Mie retrieval with aerosol correction from the combined Raman-elastic return.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a)  N 2 Raman- and elastic-scattering signal penetration potential for relatively high COD illustrating the degradation of the Raman signal within the cloud and (b) the resultant COD comparison.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Log range-square corrected elastic returns, (b) Raman- and Mie-retrieved cloud optical depths, (c) the correlation, and (d) the average and standard deviation of lidar ratios in clouds on 15 March 2006.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Correlation and (b) absolute differences among Raman- and Mie-retrieved cloud optical depths.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Cloud backscatter, extinction, and extinction-to-backscatter ratio on 15 March 2006, (b) lidar ratio versus particle effective diameter, and (c) histogram of backscatter coefficients of aerosol and cloud on 15 March 2006.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Specifications of Raman–Mie Lidar System at City College of New York

Tables Icon

Table 2 Percentage of Multiple-Scattering Influences on Raman-Retrieved Cloud Optical Depth

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α p ( λ 0 , z ) = 1 1 + ( λ N λ 0 ) v { d d z [ ln N ( z ) P ( λ N , z ) z 2 ] α m ( λ 0 , z ) [ 1 + ( λ N λ 0 ) 4 ] } ,
τ C = z b z t α c ( z ) d z .
R ( λ 0 , z ) = β p ( λ 0 , z ) + β m ( λ 0 , z ) β m ( λ 0 , z ) = P ( λ 0 , z ) P ( λ N , z ) R ( λ o , z ref ) P ( λ N 2 , z ref ) P ( λ 0 , z ref ) exp { z z ref [ α p ( λ 0 , z ) + α m ( λ 0 , z ) ] d z } exp { z z ref [ α p ( λ N , z ) + α m ( λ N , z ) ] d z } ,
β p ( λ 0 , z ) = [ R ( λ 0 , z ) 1 ] β m ( λ 0 , z )
P m ( λ 0 , z ) = β m ( λ 0 , z ) × T m 2 ( λ 0 , z ) / z 2 .
m bot = C T a 2 ( z 0 , z 1 ) R ¯ bot ( z 1 , z 2 ) , m top = C T a 2 ( z 0 , z 1 ) R ¯ top ( z 3 , z 4 ) T c 2 ,
τ C = [ log ( m bot m top ) log ( R ¯ b o t R ¯ t o p ) ] / 2 ,
δ τ C = 1 2 ( δ m bot m bot ) 2 + ( δ m top m top ) 2 + ( δ R ¯ bot R ¯ bot ) 2 + ( δ R ¯ top R top ¯ ) 2 ,
W ( a , b ) = z 0 z [ P ( z ) h ( z b a ) ] d z ,

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