Abstract

High-contrast coherent population trapping signals were observed on the Cs D1 line by use of a bichromatic linear polarized light (linlin field). A maximum absorption contrast of about 10% was obtained. This was nearly twice as high as that measured with the standard configuration of bichromatic circularly polarized light (σσ field). The results are compared with density matrix calculations of 4 and 5 level systems.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapors,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. B 36, 5-20 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 257-354.
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Knappe, “MEMS atomic clocks,” in Comprehensive Microsystems 3-Volume Set, Y. Gianchandani, O. Tabata, and H. Zappe, eds. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 571-612.
  5. N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, “All-optical microwave frequency standard: a proposal,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640-649 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 421-442 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Stahler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, “Coherent population trapping resonances in thermal 85Rb vapor: D1 versus D2 line excitation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1472-1474 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, and W. Riley, “The chip-scale atomic clock--recent development progress,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 467-478.
  9. Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+σ optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495-499 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. Shah, S. Knappe, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, “High-contrast coherent population trapping resonances using four-wave mixing in 87Rb,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1244-1246 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398-403 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Kazakov, B. Matisov, I. Mazets, G. Mileti, and J. Delporte, “Pseudoresonance mechanism of all-optical frequency-standard operation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063408 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Line-shape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 53-59 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: effect of optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 065801 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Renzoni and E. Arimondo, “Population-loss-induced narrowing of dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4717-4722(1998).
    [CrossRef]

2007

2005

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398-403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Kazakov, B. Matisov, I. Mazets, G. Mileti, and J. Delporte, “Pseudoresonance mechanism of all-optical frequency-standard operation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 421-442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+σ optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: effect of optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Line-shape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 53-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

F. Renzoni and E. Arimondo, “Population-loss-induced narrowing of dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4717-4722(1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, “All-optical microwave frequency standard: a proposal,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640-649 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapors,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. B 36, 5-20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Alzetta, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapors,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. B 36, 5-20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

F. Renzoni and E. Arimondo, “Population-loss-induced narrowing of dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4717-4722(1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 257-354.
[CrossRef]

Breton, M.

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, “All-optical microwave frequency standard: a proposal,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640-649 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cyr, N.

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, “All-optical microwave frequency standard: a proposal,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640-649 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Clercq, E.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, M.

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: effect of optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delporte, J.

G. Kazakov, B. Matisov, I. Mazets, G. Mileti, and J. Delporte, “Pseudoresonance mechanism of all-optical frequency-standard operation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dimarcq, N.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emmons, D.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, and W. Riley, “The chip-scale atomic clock--recent development progress,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 467-478.

English, T.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, and W. Riley, “The chip-scale atomic clock--recent development progress,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 467-478.

Godone, A.

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Line-shape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 53-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gozzini, A.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapors,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. B 36, 5-20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Guerandel, S.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Happer, W.

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

V. Shah, S. Knappe, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, “High-contrast coherent population trapping resonances using four-wave mixing in 87Rb,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1244-1246 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+σ optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, “Coherent population trapping resonances in thermal 85Rb vapor: D1 versus D2 line excitation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1472-1474 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holleville, D.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janssen, D.

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: effect of optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jau, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kargapoltsev, S. V.

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+σ optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kazakov, G.

G. Kazakov, B. Matisov, I. Mazets, G. Mileti, and J. Delporte, “Pseudoresonance mechanism of all-optical frequency-standard operation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

V. Shah, S. Knappe, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, “High-contrast coherent population trapping resonances using four-wave mixing in 87Rb,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1244-1246 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+σ optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, “Coherent population trapping resonances in thermal 85Rb vapor: D1 versus D2 line excitation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1472-1474 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, S.

V. Shah, S. Knappe, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, “High-contrast coherent population trapping resonances using four-wave mixing in 87Rb,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1244-1246 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, “Coherent population trapping resonances in thermal 85Rb vapor: D1 versus D2 line excitation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1472-1474 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, “MEMS atomic clocks,” in Comprehensive Microsystems 3-Volume Set, Y. Gianchandani, O. Tabata, and H. Zappe, eds. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 571-612.

Kuzma, N. N.

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, F.

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Line-shape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 53-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levine, M. W.

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: effect of optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liew, L.-A.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lutwak, R.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, and W. Riley, “The chip-scale atomic clock--recent development progress,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 467-478.

Matisov, B.

G. Kazakov, B. Matisov, I. Mazets, G. Mileti, and J. Delporte, “Pseudoresonance mechanism of all-optical frequency-standard operation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazets, I.

G. Kazakov, B. Matisov, I. Mazets, G. Mileti, and J. Delporte, “Pseudoresonance mechanism of all-optical frequency-standard operation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Micalizio, S.

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Line-shape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 53-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mileti, G.

G. Kazakov, B. Matisov, I. Mazets, G. Mileti, and J. Delporte, “Pseudoresonance mechanism of all-optical frequency-standard operation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miron, E.

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Modugno, G.

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Line-shape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 53-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moi, L.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapors,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. B 36, 5-20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orriols, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapors,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. B 36, 5-20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Post, A. B.

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renzoni, F.

F. Renzoni and E. Arimondo, “Population-loss-induced narrowing of dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4717-4722(1998).
[CrossRef]

Riley, W.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, and W. Riley, “The chip-scale atomic clock--recent development progress,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 467-478.

Schwindt, P. D. D.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

V. Shah, S. Knappe, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, “High-contrast coherent population trapping resonances using four-wave mixing in 87Rb,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1244-1246 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stahler, M.

Taichenachev, A.

Taichenachev, A. V.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398-403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+σ optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tetu, M.

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, “All-optical microwave frequency standard: a proposal,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640-649 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 421-442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: effect of optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Line-shape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 53-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Velichansky, V. L.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398-403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+σ optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wynands, R.

Yudin, V.

Yudin, V. I.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398-403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+σ optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zanon, T.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zibrov, S. A.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398-403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 421-442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L.-A. Liew, and J. Moreland, “A microfabricated atomic clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

F. Levi, A. Godone, J. Vanier, S. Micalizio, and G. Modugno, “Line-shape of dark line and maser emission profile in CPT,” Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 53-59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, “All-optical microwave frequency standard: a proposal,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640-649 (1993).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett. 82, 398-403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, “High-contrast dark resonance in σ+σ optical field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 495-499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. B

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of r.f. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapors,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. B 36, 5-20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, “Contrast and linewidth of the coherent population trapping transmission hyperfine resonance line in 87Rb: effect of optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Renzoni and E. Arimondo, “Population-loss-induced narrowing of dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4717-4722(1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Kazakov, B. Matisov, I. Mazets, G. Mileti, and J. Delporte, “Pseudoresonance mechanism of all-optical frequency-standard operation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, T. English, and W. Riley, “The chip-scale atomic clock--recent development progress,” in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004), pp. 467-478.

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 257-354.
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, “MEMS atomic clocks,” in Comprehensive Microsystems 3-Volume Set, Y. Gianchandani, O. Tabata, and H. Zappe, eds. (Elsevier, 2007), pp. 571-612.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Excitation scheme with a lin lin field on the D 1 line of (a)  Rb 87 and (b) Cs. (a) CPT resonances in Rb 87 involve two pairs of ground-state hyperfine sublevels with | F = 1 , m F = 1 , | F = 2 , m F = 1 (solid lines) and | F = 1 , m F = 1 , | F = 2 , m F = 1 (dashed lines) coupled with the common excited states | F = 1 , m F = 0 . (b) CPT resonances in Cs involve two pairs of ground-state hyperfine sublevels with | F = 3 , m F = 1 , | F = 4 , m F = 1 (solid lines) and | F = 3 , m F = 1 , | F = 4 , m F = 1 (dashed lines) coupled with the common excited states | F = 3 , m F = 0 . Additional single-photon resonances are possible in the case of Cs, indicated by the alternate long and short dashed lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental arrangement used to observe the CPT phenomenon on the D 1 line of Cs atoms. ECDL, extended cavity diode laser; EOM, electro-optic modulator; PD, photo-detector. (b) CPT resonance absorption contrast with a total laser power of 2.1 mW : (i)  lin lin excitation through a common excited state | F = 3 , (ii)  lin lin excitation through a common excited state | F = 4 , (iii)  σ σ excitation through a common excited state | F = 3 , (iv)  σ σ excitation through a common excited state | F = 4 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CPT (a) resonance amplitude, (b) absorption contrast, and (c) full width at half-maximum (FWHM): (i)  lin lin excitation through a common excited state | F = 3 (solid triangles), (ii)  lin lin excitation through a common excited state | F = 4 (open triangles), (iii)  σ σ excitation through a common excited state | F = 3 (solid circles), (iv)  σ σ excitation through a common excited state | F = 4 (open circles).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy level diagrams used for modeling: (a) the 4-level system was used for the σ σ excitation scheme, where the | F = 4 , m F = 4 serves as a “trap” state; (b) the 5-level system was used for the lin lin excitation scheme.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical results from the numerical density matrix calculations: (a) resonance amplitude and (b) resonance linewidth as a function of laser intensity: lin lin excitation through a common excited states | F = 3 (solid triangles) and | F = 4 (open triangles). The amplitudes for the σ σ excitation through a common excited states | F = 3 (solid circles) and | F = 4 (open circles) are scaled by a factor of 10 for better visibility.

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