Abstract

We demonstrate the successful fabrication of large format (approximately 50 mm × 50 mm) gratings in monolithic silicon for use as high-efficiency grisms at infrared wavelengths. The substrates for the grisms were thick (8-16 mm) disks of precisely oriented single-crystal silicon (refractive index, n ~ 3.42). We used microlithography and chemical wet etching techniques to produce the diffraction gratings on one side of these substrates. These techniques permitted the manufacture of coarse grooves (as few as 7 grooves/mm) with precise control of the blaze angle and groove profile and resulted in excellent groove surface quality. Profilometric measurements of the groove structure of the gratings confirm that the physical dimensions of the final devices closely match their design values. Optical performance of these devices exceeds the specifications required for diffraction-limited performance (RMS wave surface error <λ/20) in the near- and mid-infrared (1-40 μm). Peak diffraction efficiencies measured in the reflection range from 70-95% of the theoretical maximum. Tests of our grisms in the near infrared indicate transmission efficiencies of 30-48% uncorrected for Fresnel losses and confirm excellent performance. In infrared wavelength regions where silicon transmits well, the blaze control and high index permit high-resolution, high-order dispersion in a compact space. The first application of these grisms is to provide FORCAST, a mid-infrared camera on NASA's airborne observatory, with a moderate resolution (R=100-1000) spectroscopic capability.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

C. P. Deen, L. Keller, K. A. Ennico, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, J. D. Adams, N. Chitrakar, T. P. Greene, D. J. Mar, and T. Herter, “A silicon and KRS-5 grism suite for FORCAST on SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70142C (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

P. J. Kuzmenko, “Prospects for machined immersion gratings in the near infrared and visible,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733S(2006).

K. A. Ennico, L. D. Keller, D. J. Mar, T. L. Herter, D. T. Jaffe, J. D. Adams, and T. P. Greene, “Grism performance for mid-IR (5-40 micron) spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691Q(2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Mar, J. P. Marsh, D. T. Jaffe, L. D. Keller, and K. A. Ennico, “Performance of large chemically etched silicon grisms for infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62695R(2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. McDavitt, J. Ge, S. Miller, and J. Wang, “Silicon immersion gratings for very high resolution infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5494, 536-544 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

2003 (8)

C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, M. Shiskov, and G. J. Tearney, “A grism-based probe for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 11, 120-124 (2003).

L. K. Deutsch, J. L. Hora, J. D. Adams, and M. Kassis, “MIRSI: a mid-infrared spectrometer and imager,” Proc. SPIE 4841, 106-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Davies, C. J. Evans, S. R. Patterson, R. Vohra, and B. C. Bergner, “Application of precision diamond machining to the manufacture of micro-photonics components,” Proc. SPIE 5183, 94-106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vitali, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and D. Lorenzetti, “Fabrication of silicon grisms,” Proc. SPIE 4842, 274-281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Ershov, J. P. Marsh, K. N. Allers, and D. T. Jaffe, “Infrared grisms using anisotropic etching of silicon to produce a highly asymmetric groove profile,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 805-812 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, D. L. McDavitt, S. Miller, J. L. Bernecker, A. Chakraborty, and J. Wang, “Breakthroughs in silicon grism and immersion grating technology at Penn State,” Proc SPIE 4841, 1006-1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Marsh, O. A. Ershov, and D. T. Jaffe, “Silicon grisms and immersion gratings produced by anisotropic etching: testing and analysis,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 797-804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Keller, T. L. Herter, G. J. Stacey, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, B. Pirger, and T. Nikola, “FORCAST: the faint object infrared camera for the SOFIA telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4857, 29-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

O. A. Ershov, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, and L. D. Keller, “Production of high-order micromachined silicon echelles on optically flat substrates,” Proc. SPIE 4440, 301-308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhao, J. Qiao, X. Deng, J. Zou, B. Guo, R. Collins, V. Villavicencio, K. K. Chang, J. W. Horwitz, B. Morey, and R. T. Chen, “Reliable grating-based wavelength division (de)multiplexers for optical networks,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1204-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

N. Kobayashi, A. T. Tokunaga, H. Terada, M. Goto, M. Weber, R. Potter, P. M. Onaka, G. K. Ching, T. T. Young, K. Fletcher, D. Neil, L. Robertson, D. Cook, M. Imanishi, and D. W. Warren, “IRCS: infrared camera and spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1056-1066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Keller, D. T. Jaffe, O. A. Ershov, T. Benedict, and U. U. Graf, “Fabrication and testing of chemically micromachined silicon echelle gratings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1094-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Vitali, E. Cianci, D. Lorenzetti, V. Foglietti, A. Notargiacomo, E. Giovine, and E. Oliva, “Silicon grisms for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1383-1394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Keller, T. L. Herter, G. J. Stacey, G. E. Gull, B. Pirger, J. Schoenwald, H. Bowmann, and T. Nikola, “FORCAST: a facility 5-40 micron camera for SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 86-97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. D. Ownby and J. E. Peters, “Thermal analysis of the far infrared transmission of silicon and germanium,” J. Min. Met. B. 35, 225-241 (1999).

J. E. Peters and P. D. Ownby, “Far infrared transmission of diamond structure semiconductor single crystals--silicon and germanium,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1924-1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (9)

J. E. Peters, P. D. Ownby, C. R. Poznich, and J. C. Richter, “Far infrared absorption of Czochralski germanium and silicon,” Proc. SPIE 3424, 98-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H.-G. Reimann, U. Weinert, and S. Wagner, “TIMMI2: a new MIR multimode instrument for ESO,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 865-876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Kaeufl, K. Kuehl, and S. Vogel, “Grisms from germanium/silicon for astronomical instruments,” Proc SPIE 3354, 151-158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1152-1154(1998).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Jaffe, L. D. Keller, and O. A. Ershov, “Micromachined silicon diffraction gratings for infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 201-212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, “Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 866-876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Rayner, “Evaluation of a solid KRS-5 grism for infrared astronomy,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 289-294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Ebizuka, M. Iye, T. Sasaki, and M. Wakaki, “Development of high dispersion grisms and immersion gratings for spectrographs of Subaru Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 409-416(1998).

P. J. Kuzmenko and D. R. Ciarlo, “Improving the optical performance of etched silicon gratings,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 357-367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. Merveille, “Surface quality of {111} side-walls in KOH-etched cavities,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 60, 244-248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kane and J. Squier, “Grism-pair stretcher-compressor system for simultaneous second- and third-order dispersion compensation in chirped pulse amplification,” J. Opt. Sci. Am. B 14, 661-665 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. S. Tan, M. L. Reed, H. Han, and R. Boudreau, “Mechanisms of etch hillock formation,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 5, 66-72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

G. Nanz and L. E. Camilletti, “Modeling of chemical-mechanical polishing: a review,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 8, 382-389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Campbell, K. Cooper, L. Dixon, R. Earwaker, S. N. Port, and D. J. Schiffrin, “Inhibition of pyramid formation in the etching of Si p(100) in aqueous potassium hydroxide-isopropanol,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 209-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Erickson and J. A. Davidson, “SOFIA: the future of airborne astronomy,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 73, 707-773(1995).

T. A. Kwa, P. J. French, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, P. M. Sarro, L. Hellemans, and J. Snauwaert, “Anisotropically etched silicon mirrors for optical sensor applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, 1226-1233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

K. Matthews and B. T. Soifer, “The near infrared camera on the W. M. Keck telescope,” Exp. Astron. 3, 77-84 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Kuzmenko, D. R. Ciarlo, and C. G. Stevens, “Fabrication and testing of a silicon immersion grating for infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 2266, 566-577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. U. Graf, D. T. Jaffe, E. J. Kim, J. H. Lacy, H. Ling, J. T. Moore, and G. Rebeiz, “Fabrication and evaluation of an etched infrared diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 33, 96-102 (1994).

K. H. Hinkle, R. Drake, and T. A. Elis, “Cryogenic single-crystal silicon optics,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 516-524 (1994).

1993 (2)

G. Wiedemann and D. E. Jennings, “Immersion grating for infrared astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1176-1178 (1993).

P. Tournois, “New diffraction grating pair with very linear dispersion for laser pulse compression,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1414-1415 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Moore, H. Ling, U. U. Graf, and D. T. Jaffe, “A boundary integral approach to the scattering from periodic gratings,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 5, 480-483 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

H. Seidel, L. Csepregi, A. Heuberger, and H. Baumgartel, “Anisotropic etching of crystalline silicon in alkaline solutions--part I. Orientation dependence and behavior of passivation layers,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 3612-3626 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

F. M. Livingston, S. Messoloras, R. C. Newman, B. C. Pike, R. J. Stewart, M. J. Binns, W. P. Brown, and J. G. Wilkes, “An infrared and neutron scattering analysis of the precipitation of oxygen in dislocation-free silicon,” J. Phys. C 17, 6253-6276 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. K. Schroder, R. N. Thomas, and J. C. Swartz, “Free carrier absorption in silicon,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 13, 180-187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Honijk, M. Mandel, and M. N. Afsar, “A new method for the determination of complex refractive index spectra of transparent solids in the far-infrared spectral region: results of pure silicon and crystal quartz,” J. Phys. D 10, 509-517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W. T. Tsang and S. Wang, “Preferentially etched diffraction gratings in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2163-2166 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1963 (1)

E. F. Carpenter, “Nebular spectrograph of a new type,” Astron. J. 68, 275 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

G. G. MacFarlane, T. P. McLean, J. E. Quarrington, and V. Roberts, “Fine structure in the absorption-edge spectrum of Si,” Phys. Rev. 111, 1245-1254 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (2)

H. J. Hrostowski and R. H. Kaiser, “Infrared absorption of oxygen in silicon,” Phys. Rev. 107, 966-972 (1957).
[CrossRef]

W. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared absorption in n-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. 108, 268 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

W. Kaiser, P. H. Keck, and C. F. Lange, “Infrared absorption and oxygen content in silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 101, 1264-1268 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

W. C. Dash and R. Newman, “Intrinsic optical absorption in single-crystal germanium and silicon at 77 K and 300 K,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1151-1155 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

R. J. Collins and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared lattice absorption bands in germanium, silicon, and diamond,” Phys. Rev. 93, 674-678 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

R. C. Lord, “Far infrared transmission of silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 85, 140-141 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

H. Y. Fan and M. Becker, “Infra-red absorption of silicon,” Phys. Rev. 78, 178 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J. D.

C. P. Deen, L. Keller, K. A. Ennico, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, J. D. Adams, N. Chitrakar, T. P. Greene, D. J. Mar, and T. Herter, “A silicon and KRS-5 grism suite for FORCAST on SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70142C (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Ennico, L. D. Keller, D. J. Mar, T. L. Herter, D. T. Jaffe, J. D. Adams, and T. P. Greene, “Grism performance for mid-IR (5-40 micron) spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691Q(2006).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Deutsch, J. L. Hora, J. D. Adams, and M. Kassis, “MIRSI: a mid-infrared spectrometer and imager,” Proc. SPIE 4841, 106-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Afsar, M. N.

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Honijk, M. Mandel, and M. N. Afsar, “A new method for the determination of complex refractive index spectra of transparent solids in the far-infrared spectral region: results of pure silicon and crystal quartz,” J. Phys. D 10, 509-517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Allers, K. N.

O. A. Ershov, J. P. Marsh, K. N. Allers, and D. T. Jaffe, “Infrared grisms using anisotropic etching of silicon to produce a highly asymmetric groove profile,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 805-812 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arns, J. A.

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, “Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 866-876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Authier, M.

P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

Barden, S. C.

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, “Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 866-876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baumgartel, H.

H. Seidel, L. Csepregi, A. Heuberger, and H. Baumgartel, “Anisotropic etching of crystalline silicon in alkaline solutions--part I. Orientation dependence and behavior of passivation layers,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 3612-3626 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.

H. Y. Fan and M. Becker, “Infra-red absorption of silicon,” Phys. Rev. 78, 178 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Belorgey, J.

P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

Benedict, T.

Bergner, B. C.

M. A. Davies, C. J. Evans, S. R. Patterson, R. Vohra, and B. C. Bergner, “Application of precision diamond machining to the manufacture of micro-photonics components,” Proc. SPIE 5183, 94-106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bernecker, J. L.

J. Ge, D. L. McDavitt, S. Miller, J. L. Bernecker, A. Chakraborty, and J. Wang, “Breakthroughs in silicon grism and immersion grating technology at Penn State,” Proc SPIE 4841, 1006-1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Binns, M. J.

F. M. Livingston, S. Messoloras, R. C. Newman, B. C. Pike, R. J. Stewart, M. J. Binns, W. P. Brown, and J. G. Wilkes, “An infrared and neutron scattering analysis of the precipitation of oxygen in dislocation-free silicon,” J. Phys. C 17, 6253-6276 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge University, 1980).

Boudreau, R.

S. S. Tan, M. L. Reed, H. Han, and R. Boudreau, “Mechanisms of etch hillock formation,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 5, 66-72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Bowmann, H.

L. D. Keller, T. L. Herter, G. J. Stacey, G. E. Gull, B. Pirger, J. Schoenwald, H. Bowmann, and T. Nikola, “FORCAST: a facility 5-40 micron camera for SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 86-97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. P.

F. M. Livingston, S. Messoloras, R. C. Newman, B. C. Pike, R. J. Stewart, M. J. Binns, W. P. Brown, and J. G. Wilkes, “An infrared and neutron scattering analysis of the precipitation of oxygen in dislocation-free silicon,” J. Phys. C 17, 6253-6276 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Camilletti, L. E.

G. Nanz and L. E. Camilletti, “Modeling of chemical-mechanical polishing: a review,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 8, 382-389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S. A.

S. A. Campbell, K. Cooper, L. Dixon, R. Earwaker, S. N. Port, and D. J. Schiffrin, “Inhibition of pyramid formation in the etching of Si p(100) in aqueous potassium hydroxide-isopropanol,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 209-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, E. F.

E. F. Carpenter, “Nebular spectrograph of a new type,” Astron. J. 68, 275 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

J. Ge, D. L. McDavitt, S. Miller, J. L. Bernecker, A. Chakraborty, and J. Wang, “Breakthroughs in silicon grism and immersion grating technology at Penn State,” Proc SPIE 4841, 1006-1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. K.

F. Zhao, J. Qiao, X. Deng, J. Zou, B. Guo, R. Collins, V. Villavicencio, K. K. Chang, J. W. Horwitz, B. Morey, and R. T. Chen, “Reliable grating-based wavelength division (de)multiplexers for optical networks,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1204-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

F. Zhao, J. Qiao, X. Deng, J. Zou, B. Guo, R. Collins, V. Villavicencio, K. K. Chang, J. W. Horwitz, B. Morey, and R. T. Chen, “Reliable grating-based wavelength division (de)multiplexers for optical networks,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1204-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ching, G. K.

N. Kobayashi, A. T. Tokunaga, H. Terada, M. Goto, M. Weber, R. Potter, P. M. Onaka, G. K. Ching, T. T. Young, K. Fletcher, D. Neil, L. Robertson, D. Cook, M. Imanishi, and D. W. Warren, “IRCS: infrared camera and spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1056-1066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chitrakar, N.

C. P. Deen, L. Keller, K. A. Ennico, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, J. D. Adams, N. Chitrakar, T. P. Greene, D. J. Mar, and T. Herter, “A silicon and KRS-5 grism suite for FORCAST on SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70142C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cianci, E.

F. Vitali, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and D. Lorenzetti, “Fabrication of silicon grisms,” Proc. SPIE 4842, 274-281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vitali, E. Cianci, D. Lorenzetti, V. Foglietti, A. Notargiacomo, E. Giovine, and E. Oliva, “Silicon grisms for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1383-1394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ciarlo, D. R.

P. J. Kuzmenko and D. R. Ciarlo, “Improving the optical performance of etched silicon gratings,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 357-367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Kuzmenko, D. R. Ciarlo, and C. G. Stevens, “Fabrication and testing of a silicon immersion grating for infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 2266, 566-577 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Claret, A.

P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

Colburn, W. S.

S. C. Barden, J. A. Arns, and W. S. Colburn, “Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 866-876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R.

F. Zhao, J. Qiao, X. Deng, J. Zou, B. Guo, R. Collins, V. Villavicencio, K. K. Chang, J. W. Horwitz, B. Morey, and R. T. Chen, “Reliable grating-based wavelength division (de)multiplexers for optical networks,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1204-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. J.

R. J. Collins and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared lattice absorption bands in germanium, silicon, and diamond,” Phys. Rev. 93, 674-678 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D.

N. Kobayashi, A. T. Tokunaga, H. Terada, M. Goto, M. Weber, R. Potter, P. M. Onaka, G. K. Ching, T. T. Young, K. Fletcher, D. Neil, L. Robertson, D. Cook, M. Imanishi, and D. W. Warren, “IRCS: infrared camera and spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1056-1066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K.

S. A. Campbell, K. Cooper, L. Dixon, R. Earwaker, S. N. Port, and D. J. Schiffrin, “Inhibition of pyramid formation in the etching of Si p(100) in aqueous potassium hydroxide-isopropanol,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 209-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Csepregi, L.

H. Seidel, L. Csepregi, A. Heuberger, and H. Baumgartel, “Anisotropic etching of crystalline silicon in alkaline solutions--part I. Orientation dependence and behavior of passivation layers,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 3612-3626 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dash, W. C.

W. C. Dash and R. Newman, “Intrinsic optical absorption in single-crystal germanium and silicon at 77 K and 300 K,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1151-1155 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, J. A.

E. F. Erickson and J. A. Davidson, “SOFIA: the future of airborne astronomy,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 73, 707-773(1995).

Davies, M. A.

M. A. Davies, C. J. Evans, S. R. Patterson, R. Vohra, and B. C. Bergner, “Application of precision diamond machining to the manufacture of micro-photonics components,” Proc. SPIE 5183, 94-106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deen, C. P.

C. P. Deen, L. Keller, K. A. Ennico, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, J. D. Adams, N. Chitrakar, T. P. Greene, D. J. Mar, and T. Herter, “A silicon and KRS-5 grism suite for FORCAST on SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70142C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deng, X.

F. Zhao, J. Qiao, X. Deng, J. Zou, B. Guo, R. Collins, V. Villavicencio, K. K. Chang, J. W. Horwitz, B. Morey, and R. T. Chen, “Reliable grating-based wavelength division (de)multiplexers for optical networks,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1204-1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, L. K.

L. K. Deutsch, J. L. Hora, J. D. Adams, and M. Kassis, “MIRSI: a mid-infrared spectrometer and imager,” Proc. SPIE 4841, 106-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, L.

S. A. Campbell, K. Cooper, L. Dixon, R. Earwaker, S. N. Port, and D. J. Schiffrin, “Inhibition of pyramid formation in the etching of Si p(100) in aqueous potassium hydroxide-isopropanol,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 209-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Doucet, C.

P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

Drake, R.

K. H. Hinkle, R. Drake, and T. A. Elis, “Cryogenic single-crystal silicon optics,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 516-524 (1994).

Dubreuil, D.

P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

Durand, G.

P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

Earwaker, R.

S. A. Campbell, K. Cooper, L. Dixon, R. Earwaker, S. N. Port, and D. J. Schiffrin, “Inhibition of pyramid formation in the etching of Si p(100) in aqueous potassium hydroxide-isopropanol,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 209-218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ebizuka, N.

N. Ebizuka, M. Iye, T. Sasaki, and M. Wakaki, “Development of high dispersion grisms and immersion gratings for spectrographs of Subaru Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3355, 409-416(1998).

Elis, T. A.

K. H. Hinkle, R. Drake, and T. A. Elis, “Cryogenic single-crystal silicon optics,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 516-524 (1994).

Elswijk, G. E.

P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

Ennico, K. A.

C. P. Deen, L. Keller, K. A. Ennico, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, J. D. Adams, N. Chitrakar, T. P. Greene, D. J. Mar, and T. Herter, “A silicon and KRS-5 grism suite for FORCAST on SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70142C (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Ennico, L. D. Keller, D. J. Mar, T. L. Herter, D. T. Jaffe, J. D. Adams, and T. P. Greene, “Grism performance for mid-IR (5-40 micron) spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691Q(2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Mar, J. P. Marsh, D. T. Jaffe, L. D. Keller, and K. A. Ennico, “Performance of large chemically etched silicon grisms for infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62695R(2006).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, E. F.

E. F. Erickson and J. A. Davidson, “SOFIA: the future of airborne astronomy,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 73, 707-773(1995).

Ershov, O. A.

J. P. Marsh, O. A. Ershov, and D. T. Jaffe, “Silicon grisms and immersion gratings produced by anisotropic etching: testing and analysis,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 797-804 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Ershov, J. P. Marsh, K. N. Allers, and D. T. Jaffe, “Infrared grisms using anisotropic etching of silicon to produce a highly asymmetric groove profile,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 805-812 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Ershov, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, and L. D. Keller, “Production of high-order micromachined silicon echelles on optically flat substrates,” Proc. SPIE 4440, 301-308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Keller, D. T. Jaffe, O. A. Ershov, T. Benedict, and U. U. Graf, “Fabrication and testing of chemically micromachined silicon echelle gratings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1094-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Jaffe, L. D. Keller, and O. A. Ershov, “Micromachined silicon diffraction gratings for infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 201-212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. J.

M. A. Davies, C. J. Evans, S. R. Patterson, R. Vohra, and B. C. Bergner, “Application of precision diamond machining to the manufacture of micro-photonics components,” Proc. SPIE 5183, 94-106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H. Y.

W. Spitzer and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared absorption in n-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. 108, 268 (1957).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Collins and H. Y. Fan, “Infrared lattice absorption bands in germanium, silicon, and diamond,” Phys. Rev. 93, 674-678 (1954).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fan and M. Becker, “Infra-red absorption of silicon,” Phys. Rev. 78, 178 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, K.

N. Kobayashi, A. T. Tokunaga, H. Terada, M. Goto, M. Weber, R. Potter, P. M. Onaka, G. K. Ching, T. T. Young, K. Fletcher, D. Neil, L. Robertson, D. Cook, M. Imanishi, and D. W. Warren, “IRCS: infrared camera and spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1056-1066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foglietti, V.

F. Vitali, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, and D. Lorenzetti, “Fabrication of silicon grisms,” Proc. SPIE 4842, 274-281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vitali, E. Cianci, D. Lorenzetti, V. Foglietti, A. Notargiacomo, E. Giovine, and E. Oliva, “Silicon grisms for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1383-1394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

French, P. J.

T. A. Kwa, P. J. French, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, P. M. Sarro, L. Hellemans, and J. Snauwaert, “Anisotropically etched silicon mirrors for optical sensor applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, 1226-1233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Freudling, W.

W. Freudling, “The NICMOS grism mode,” in The 1997 HST Calibration Workshop with a New Generation of Instruments, S. Casertano, R. Jedrzejewski, C. D. Keyes, and M. Stevens, eds. (Space Telescope Science Institute, 1997), pp. 207-216.

Frey, B. J.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ge, J.

D. McDavitt, J. Ge, S. Miller, and J. Wang, “Silicon immersion gratings for very high resolution infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5494, 536-544 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, D. L. McDavitt, S. Miller, J. L. Bernecker, A. Chakraborty, and J. Wang, “Breakthroughs in silicon grism and immersion grating technology at Penn State,” Proc SPIE 4841, 1006-1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giovine, E.

F. Vitali, E. Cianci, D. Lorenzetti, V. Foglietti, A. Notargiacomo, E. Giovine, and E. Oliva, “Silicon grisms for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1383-1394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giradot, P.

P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

Goto, M.

N. Kobayashi, A. T. Tokunaga, H. Terada, M. Goto, M. Weber, R. Potter, P. M. Onaka, G. K. Ching, T. T. Young, K. Fletcher, D. Neil, L. Robertson, D. Cook, M. Imanishi, and D. W. Warren, “IRCS: infrared camera and spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1056-1066 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Graf, U. U.

Greene, T. P.

C. P. Deen, L. Keller, K. A. Ennico, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, J. D. Adams, N. Chitrakar, T. P. Greene, D. J. Mar, and T. Herter, “A silicon and KRS-5 grism suite for FORCAST on SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70142C (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Ennico, L. D. Keller, D. J. Mar, T. L. Herter, D. T. Jaffe, J. D. Adams, and T. P. Greene, “Grism performance for mid-IR (5-40 micron) spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691Q(2006).
[CrossRef]

Gull, G. E.

L. D. Keller, T. L. Herter, G. J. Stacey, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, B. Pirger, and T. Nikola, “FORCAST: the faint object infrared camera for the SOFIA telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4857, 29-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Keller, T. L. Herter, G. J. Stacey, G. E. Gull, B. Pirger, J. Schoenwald, H. Bowmann, and T. Nikola, “FORCAST: a facility 5-40 micron camera for SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 86-97 (2000).
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K. A. Ennico, L. D. Keller, D. J. Mar, T. L. Herter, D. T. Jaffe, J. D. Adams, and T. P. Greene, “Grism performance for mid-IR (5-40 micron) spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691Q(2006).
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W. F. Passchier, D. D. Honijk, M. Mandel, and M. N. Afsar, “A new method for the determination of complex refractive index spectra of transparent solids in the far-infrared spectral region: results of pure silicon and crystal quartz,” J. Phys. D 10, 509-517 (1977).
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F. Zhao, J. Qiao, X. Deng, J. Zou, B. Guo, R. Collins, V. Villavicencio, K. K. Chang, J. W. Horwitz, B. Morey, and R. T. Chen, “Reliable grating-based wavelength division (de)multiplexers for optical networks,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1204-1211 (2001).
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C. P. Deen, L. Keller, K. A. Ennico, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, J. D. Adams, N. Chitrakar, T. P. Greene, D. J. Mar, and T. Herter, “A silicon and KRS-5 grism suite for FORCAST on SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70142C (2008).
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H. J. Hrostowski and R. H. Kaiser, “Infrared absorption of oxygen in silicon,” Phys. Rev. 107, 966-972 (1957).
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W. Kaiser, P. H. Keck, and C. F. Lange, “Infrared absorption and oxygen content in silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 101, 1264-1268 (1956).
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P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

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C. P. Deen, L. Keller, K. A. Ennico, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, J. D. Adams, N. Chitrakar, T. P. Greene, D. J. Mar, and T. Herter, “A silicon and KRS-5 grism suite for FORCAST on SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70142C (2008).
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K. A. Ennico, L. D. Keller, D. J. Mar, T. L. Herter, D. T. Jaffe, J. D. Adams, and T. P. Greene, “Grism performance for mid-IR (5-40 micron) spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691Q(2006).
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H. U. Kaeufl, K. Kuehl, and S. Vogel, “Grisms from germanium/silicon for astronomical instruments,” Proc SPIE 3354, 151-158 (1998).
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T. A. Kwa, P. J. French, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, P. M. Sarro, L. Hellemans, and J. Snauwaert, “Anisotropically etched silicon mirrors for optical sensor applications,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, 1226-1233 (1995).
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Lagage, P. O.

P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

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W. Kaiser, P. H. Keck, and C. F. Lange, “Infrared absorption and oxygen content in silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 101, 1264-1268 (1956).
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B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
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U. U. Graf, D. T. Jaffe, E. J. Kim, J. H. Lacy, H. Ling, J. T. Moore, and G. Rebeiz, “Fabrication and evaluation of an etched infrared diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 33, 96-102 (1994).

J. Moore, H. Ling, U. U. Graf, and D. T. Jaffe, “A boundary integral approach to the scattering from periodic gratings,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 5, 480-483 (1992).
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F. M. Livingston, S. Messoloras, R. C. Newman, B. C. Pike, R. J. Stewart, M. J. Binns, W. P. Brown, and J. G. Wilkes, “An infrared and neutron scattering analysis of the precipitation of oxygen in dislocation-free silicon,” J. Phys. C 17, 6253-6276 (1984).
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F. Vitali, E. Cianci, D. Lorenzetti, V. Foglietti, A. Notargiacomo, E. Giovine, and E. Oliva, “Silicon grisms for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1383-1394 (2000).
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P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

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P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

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B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
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W. F. Passchier, D. D. Honijk, M. Mandel, and M. N. Afsar, “A new method for the determination of complex refractive index spectra of transparent solids in the far-infrared spectral region: results of pure silicon and crystal quartz,” J. Phys. D 10, 509-517 (1977).
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C. P. Deen, L. Keller, K. A. Ennico, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, J. D. Adams, N. Chitrakar, T. P. Greene, D. J. Mar, and T. Herter, “A silicon and KRS-5 grism suite for FORCAST on SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70142C (2008).
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J. P. Marsh, D. J. Mar, and D. T. Jaffe, “Production and evaluation of silicon immersion gratings for infrared astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3400-3416 (2007).
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K. A. Ennico, L. D. Keller, D. J. Mar, T. L. Herter, D. T. Jaffe, J. D. Adams, and T. P. Greene, “Grism performance for mid-IR (5-40 micron) spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62691Q(2006).
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D. J. Mar, J. P. Marsh, D. T. Jaffe, L. D. Keller, and K. A. Ennico, “Performance of large chemically etched silicon grisms for infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62695R(2006).
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P. O. Lagage, J. W. Pel, M. Authier, J. Belorgey, A. Claret, C. Doucet, D. Dubreuil, G. Durand, G. E. Elswijk, P. Giradot, H. U. Käufl, G. Kroes, M. Lortholary, Y. Lussignol, M. Marchesi, E. Pantin, R. Peletier, J.-F. Pirard, J. Pragt, Y. Rio, T. Schoenmaker, R. Siebenmorgen, A. Silber, A. Smette, M. Sterzik, and C. Veyssiere, “Successful commissioning of VISIR: the mid-infrared VLT instrument,” The Messenger 117, 12-16 (2004).

Marsh, J. P.

C. P. Deen, L. Keller, K. A. Ennico, D. T. Jaffe, J. P. Marsh, J. D. Adams, N. Chitrakar, T. P. Greene, D. J. Mar, and T. Herter, “A silicon and KRS-5 grism suite for FORCAST on SOFIA,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70142C (2008).
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D. McDavitt, J. Ge, S. Miller, and J. Wang, “Silicon immersion gratings for very high resolution infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5494, 536-544 (2004).
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J. Ge, D. L. McDavitt, S. Miller, J. L. Bernecker, A. Chakraborty, and J. Wang, “Breakthroughs in silicon grism and immersion grating technology at Penn State,” Proc SPIE 4841, 1006-1015 (2003).
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J. Moore, H. Ling, U. U. Graf, and D. T. Jaffe, “A boundary integral approach to the scattering from periodic gratings,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 5, 480-483 (1992).
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F. Zhao, J. Qiao, X. Deng, J. Zou, B. Guo, R. Collins, V. Villavicencio, K. K. Chang, J. W. Horwitz, B. Morey, and R. T. Chen, “Reliable grating-based wavelength division (de)multiplexers for optical networks,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1204-1211 (2001).
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L. D. Keller, T. L. Herter, G. J. Stacey, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, B. Pirger, and T. Nikola, “FORCAST: the faint object infrared camera for the SOFIA telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4857, 29-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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F. Vitali, E. Cianci, D. Lorenzetti, V. Foglietti, A. Notargiacomo, E. Giovine, and E. Oliva, “Silicon grisms for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1383-1394 (2000).
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F. Vitali, E. Cianci, D. Lorenzetti, V. Foglietti, A. Notargiacomo, E. Giovine, and E. Oliva, “Silicon grisms for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near infrared,” Proc. SPIE 4008, 1383-1394 (2000).
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