Abstract

High detection selectivity is extremely important for gas analyzers in order to correctly identify the measured compound. Therefore, laser-based systems require a high optical resolution, which primarily depends on the spectral linewidth of the radiation source. This study examines the effective linewidth (chirp) of a pulsed distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade laser (QCL) in a photoacoustic (PA) gas detection system. The influence of the QCL operating parameters pulse duration and pulse current as well as the impact of the modulation technique are investigated. Effective QCL linewidths for pulse gate modulation, pulse frequency modulation, and chopper modulation are compared. The investigations are performed by measuring the PA spectra of nitrogen monoxide absorption lines. The results prove the strong influence of pulse duration and pulse current. They also demonstrate that the modulation technique has a considerable influence and, consequently, affects the detection selectivity of the PA analyzer. The aim of this research is to determine optimum operational parameters for high resolution PA spectroscopy.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, D. Courtois, and V. Zeninari, “ Comparison of a quantum cascade laser used in both cw and pulsed modes. Application to the study of SO2 lines around 9 μm, ” Appl. Phys. B 90, 177-186 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670-2672(1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, D. Courtois, and V. Zeninari, “ Comparison of a quantum cascade laser used in both cw and pulsed modes. Application to the study of SO2 lines around 9 μm, ” Appl. Phys. B 90, 177-186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Filho, M. G. da Silva, M. S. Sthel, D. U. Schramm, H. Vargas, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Ammonia detection by using quantum-cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4966-4971 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

M. G. da Silva, H. Vargas, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Photoacoustic detection of ozone using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 677-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Jiménez, M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, F. Jeanneret, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, and H. van den Bergh, “Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 μm pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 249-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and A. Lambrecht, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3158-3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, Á. Mohácsi, G. Szabó, and Zs. Bor, “Diode laser based photoacoustic humidity sensors,” Sens. Actuators B. 91, 219-226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343-350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, J.-P. Pellaux, E. Studemann, and D. Rosset, “Gas detection with quantum cascade lasers: an adapted photoacoustic sensor based on Helmholtz resonance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2458-2461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, S. Wehe, and M. G. Allen, “Thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade-laser-based sensor for the continuous monitoring of ambient atmospheric carbon monoxide,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1169-1173 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937-1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, M. Nägele, and M. W. Sigrist, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy with quantum cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 887-889 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670-2672(1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aellen, T.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

Auwera, J. Vander

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, J.-P. Pellaux, E. Studemann, and D. Rosset, “Gas detection with quantum cascade lasers: an adapted photoacoustic sensor based on Helmholtz resonance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2458-2461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Jiménez, M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, F. Jeanneret, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, and H. van den Bergh, “Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 μm pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 249-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, M. Nägele, and M. W. Sigrist, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy with quantum cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 887-889 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, T.

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and A. Lambrecht, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554(2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3158-3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blaser, S.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Zs.

Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, Á. Mohácsi, G. Szabó, and Zs. Bor, “Diode laser based photoacoustic humidity sensors,” Sens. Actuators B. 91, 219-226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bozóki, Z.

Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, Á. Mohácsi, G. Szabó, and Zs. Bor, “Diode laser based photoacoustic humidity sensors,” Sens. Actuators B. 91, 219-226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937-1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braun, M.

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and A. Lambrecht, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554(2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3158-3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calpini, B.

R. Jiménez, M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, F. Jeanneret, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, and H. van den Bergh, “Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 μm pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 249-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Courtois, D.

B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, D. Courtois, and V. Zeninari, “ Comparison of a quantum cascade laser used in both cw and pulsed modes. Application to the study of SO2 lines around 9 μm, ” Appl. Phys. B 90, 177-186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, M. G.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Jiménez, M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, F. Jeanneret, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, and H. van den Bergh, “Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 μm pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 249-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, M. Nägele, and M. W. Sigrist, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy with quantum cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 887-889 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670-2672(1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filho, M. B.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grouiez, B.

B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, D. Courtois, and V. Zeninari, “ Comparison of a quantum cascade laser used in both cw and pulsed modes. Application to the study of SO2 lines around 9 μm, ” Appl. Phys. B 90, 177-186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harren, F. J. M.

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartwig, S.

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and A. Lambrecht, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554(2004).
[CrossRef]

Herndon, S. C.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

M. B. Filho, M. G. da Silva, M. S. Sthel, D. U. Schramm, H. Vargas, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Ammonia detection by using quantum-cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4966-4971 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. da Silva, H. Vargas, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Photoacoustic detection of ozone using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 677-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937-1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

R. Jiménez, M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, F. Jeanneret, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, and H. van den Bergh, “Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 μm pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 249-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, M. Nägele, and M. W. Sigrist, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy with quantum cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 887-889 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

Hvozdara, L.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeanneret, F.

R. Jiménez, M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, F. Jeanneret, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, and H. van den Bergh, “Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 μm pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 249-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez, R.

R. Jiménez, M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, F. Jeanneret, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, and H. van den Bergh, “Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 μm pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 249-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joly, L.

B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, D. Courtois, and V. Zeninari, “ Comparison of a quantum cascade laser used in both cw and pulsed modes. Application to the study of SO2 lines around 9 μm, ” Appl. Phys. B 90, 177-186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

Kosterev, A. A.

Lambrecht, A.

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and A. Lambrecht, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554(2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3158-3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343-350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miklós, A.

M. B. Filho, M. G. da Silva, M. S. Sthel, D. U. Schramm, H. Vargas, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Ammonia detection by using quantum-cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4966-4971 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. da Silva, H. Vargas, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Photoacoustic detection of ozone using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 677-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937-1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mohácsi, Á.

Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, Á. Mohácsi, G. Szabó, and Zs. Bor, “Diode laser based photoacoustic humidity sensors,” Sens. Actuators B. 91, 219-226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muller, A.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nägele, M.

Nelson, D. D.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343-350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oomens, J.

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paldus, B. A.

Parker, D. H.

Parvitte, B.

B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, D. Courtois, and V. Zeninari, “ Comparison of a quantum cascade laser used in both cw and pulsed modes. Application to the study of SO2 lines around 9 μm, ” Appl. Phys. B 90, 177-186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pellaux, J.-P.

S. Barbieri, J.-P. Pellaux, E. Studemann, and D. Rosset, “Gas detection with quantum cascade lasers: an adapted photoacoustic sensor based on Helmholtz resonance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2458-2461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosset, D.

S. Barbieri, J.-P. Pellaux, E. Studemann, and D. Rosset, “Gas detection with quantum cascade lasers: an adapted photoacoustic sensor based on Helmholtz resonance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2458-2461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schramm, D. U.

Shorter, J. H.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343-350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M. W.

Simeonov, V.

R. Jiménez, M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, F. Jeanneret, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, and H. van den Bergh, “Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 μm pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 249-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670-2672(1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spence, T. G.

Sthel, M. S.

Studemann, E.

S. Barbieri, J.-P. Pellaux, E. Studemann, and D. Rosset, “Gas detection with quantum cascade lasers: an adapted photoacoustic sensor based on Helmholtz resonance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2458-2461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Szabó, G.

Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, Á. Mohácsi, G. Szabó, and Zs. Bor, “Diode laser based photoacoustic humidity sensors,” Sens. Actuators B. 91, 219-226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Szakáll, M.

Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, Á. Mohácsi, G. Szabó, and Zs. Bor, “Diode laser based photoacoustic humidity sensors,” Sens. Actuators B. 91, 219-226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taslakov, M.

R. Jiménez, M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, F. Jeanneret, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, and H. van den Bergh, “Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 μm pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 249-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van den Bergh, H.

R. Jiménez, M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, F. Jeanneret, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, and H. van den Bergh, “Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 μm pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 249-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vargas, H.

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wehe, S.

Weidmann, D.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343-350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

Zeninari, V.

B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, D. Courtois, and V. Zeninari, “ Comparison of a quantum cascade laser used in both cw and pulsed modes. Application to the study of SO2 lines around 9 μm, ” Appl. Phys. B 90, 177-186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys B (1)

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys B 85, 235-241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (5)

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343-350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Jiménez, M. Taslakov, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, F. Jeanneret, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, and H. van den Bergh, “Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 μm pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 249-256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. G. da Silva, H. Vargas, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Photoacoustic detection of ozone using a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 677-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, “Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Grouiez, B. Parvitte, L. Joly, D. Courtois, and V. Zeninari, “ Comparison of a quantum cascade laser used in both cw and pulsed modes. Application to the study of SO2 lines around 9 μm, ” Appl. Phys. B 90, 177-186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670-2672(1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Beyer, M. Braun, and A. Lambrecht, “Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3158-3160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Beyer, M. Braun, S. Hartwig, and A. Lambrecht, “Linewidth measurement of free-running, pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4551-4554(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner,, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. Barbieri, J.-P. Pellaux, E. Studemann, and D. Rosset, “Gas detection with quantum cascade lasers: an adapted photoacoustic sensor based on Helmholtz resonance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2458-2461 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937-1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers,” Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B. (1)

Z. Bozóki, M. Szakáll, Á. Mohácsi, G. Szabó, and Zs. Bor, “Diode laser based photoacoustic humidity sensors,” Sens. Actuators B. 91, 219-226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission wavelength as a function of operational temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average emission power of the QCL as a function of operational temperature for 11.2 ns , 500 kHz , and 2.1 A.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for PA spectroscopy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Pulse gate modulation and (b) pulse frequency modulation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effective emission profile of the QCL.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

NO absorption spectrum according to HITRAN, measured PA spectrum, and convolution of NO spectrum and effective laser profile.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Exemplary PA spectra for five different pulse lengths with 2.1 A peak current. (b) Calculated laser linewidth as a function of pulse length for nine pulse lengths.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) PA spectra for different pulse peak currents with 11.2 ns pulse length. (b) Calculated laser linewidth as a function of laser peak current.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) PA spectra for different modulation techniques for 11.2 ns pulse length. (b) Calculated laser linewidth as function of pulse length for three differen modulation techniques.

Equations (3)

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S = α · P 0 · C CELL .
Δ ν = 0.035 nm ns · Δ t ,
Δ ν = 0.325 nm A · I peak .

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