Abstract

New all-optical not and nor logic gates based on a single ultracompact photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) have been proposed. The PCRR was formed by removing the line defect along the ΓM direction instead of the conventional ΓX direction in a square-pattern cylindrical silicon-rod photonic crystal structure. The behavior of the proposed logic gates is qualitatively analyzed with the theory of beam interference and then numerically investigated by use of the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. No nonlinear material is required with less than a 2.2μm effective ring radius. The wavelengths of the input signal and the probe signal are the same. This new device can potentially be used in on-chip photonic logic-integrated circuits.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “All-optical and gate at 10 Gbit/s based on cascaded single-port-coupled SOAs,” Opt. Express 12, 361-366 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P. T. Ho, “Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Notomi, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and M. Morita, “Nonlinear and adiabatic control of high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 15, 17458-17481 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and B. J. Li, “Optical switches and logic gates based on self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 9287-9292 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Y. Lee, J. M. Lin, Y. C. Yang, Y. B. Yang, J. S. Wu, Y. J. Lin, and W. Y. Lee, “The designs of xor logic gates based on photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7315, 71353Y (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Tokushima, H. Yamada, and Y. Arakawa, “1.5 μm-wavelength light guiding in waveguides in square-lattice-of-rod photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4298-4300 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J. B. Lee, “Negative refraction in a Si-polymer photonic crystal membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. S. G. Johnson, “http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Meep.”

2009

2008

K. Y. Lee, J. M. Lin, Y. C. Yang, Y. B. Yang, J. S. Wu, Y. J. Lin, and W. Y. Lee, “The designs of xor logic gates based on photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7315, 71353Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ma, “Characteristics of ultra-compact polymer modulators based on silicon photonic crystal ring resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 023507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Azuma, “Quantum computation with Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals,” J. Phys. D 41, 025102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, W. Huang, and B. Li, “Fabry--Pérot microcavities with controllable resonant wavelengths in periodic dielectric waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

W. Chiu, T. Huang, Y. Wu, Y. Chan, C. Hou, H. T. Chien, and C. Chen, “A photonic crystal ring resonator formed by SOI nano-rods,” Opt. Express 15, 15500-15506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, S. Mitsugi, and M. Morita, “Nonlinear and adiabatic control of high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 15, 17458-17481 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and B. J. Li, “Optical switches and logic gates based on self-collimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 9287-9292 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Sun, and Q. Sun, “Proposal for all-optical switchable or/xor logic gates using sum-frequency generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 541-543 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. d. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, K. D. A. Saboia, A. F. G. F. Filho, G. F. Guimarães, J. R. R. Sousa, H. H. B. Rocha, and A. S. B. Sombra, “Logic gates based in two- and three-modes nonlinear optical fiber couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1191-1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, S. Yang, S. V. Nair, and H. E. Ruda, “Nanowire-array-based photonics crystal cavity by finite-difference time-domain calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, and R. A. Soref, “Optical add-drop filters based on photonic crystal ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15, 1823-1831 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

Z. J. Li, Z. W. Chen, and B. J. Li, “Optical pulse controlled all-optical logic gates in SiGe/Si multimode interference,” Opt. Express 13, 1033-1038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J. B. Lee, “Negative refraction in a Si-polymer photonic crystal membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Assefa, P. T. Rakich, P. Bienstman, S. G. Johnson, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Guiding 1.5 μm light in photonic crystals based on dielectric rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6110-6112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Tokushima, H. Yamada, and Y. Arakawa, “1.5 μm-wavelength light guiding in waveguides in square-lattice-of-rod photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4298-4300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “All-optical and gate at 10 Gbit/s based on cascaded single-port-coupled SOAs,” Opt. Express 12, 361-366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P. T. Ho, “Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P. T. Ho, “Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andalib, P.

Arakawa, Y.

M. Tokushima, H. Yamada, and Y. Arakawa, “1.5 μm-wavelength light guiding in waveguides in square-lattice-of-rod photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4298-4300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, P. T. Rakich, P. Bienstman, S. G. Johnson, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Guiding 1.5 μm light in photonic crystals based on dielectric rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6110-6112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Azuma, H.

H. Azuma, “Quantum computation with Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals,” J. Phys. D 41, 025102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

S. Assefa, P. T. Rakich, P. Bienstman, S. G. Johnson, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Guiding 1.5 μm light in photonic crystals based on dielectric rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6110-6112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

R. B. Wehrspohn, H. S. kitzerow, and K. Busch, Nanophotonic Materials:Photonic Crystals, Plasmonics, and Metamaterials (Wiley-VCH, 2008), pp. 77-96.

Chan, Y.

Chen, C.

Chen, Z. W.

Chien, H. T.

Chiu, W.

Ferreira, A. C.

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. d. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, K. D. A. Saboia, A. F. G. F. Filho, G. F. Guimarães, J. R. R. Sousa, H. H. B. Rocha, and A. S. B. Sombra, “Logic gates based in two- and three-modes nonlinear optical fiber couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1191-1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Filho, A. F. G. F.

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. d. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, K. D. A. Saboia, A. F. G. F. Filho, G. F. Guimarães, J. R. R. Sousa, H. H. B. Rocha, and A. S. B. Sombra, “Logic gates based in two- and three-modes nonlinear optical fiber couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1191-1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fraga, W. B. d.

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. d. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, K. D. A. Saboia, A. F. G. F. Filho, G. F. Guimarães, J. R. R. Sousa, H. H. B. Rocha, and A. S. B. Sombra, “Logic gates based in two- and three-modes nonlinear optical fiber couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1191-1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Granpayeh, N.

Grover, R.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P. T. Ho, “Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guimarães, G. F.

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. d. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, K. D. A. Saboia, A. F. G. F. Filho, G. F. Guimarães, J. R. R. Sousa, H. H. B. Rocha, and A. S. B. Sombra, “Logic gates based in two- and three-modes nonlinear optical fiber couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1191-1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. T.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P. T. Ho, “Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hou, C.

Huang, D.

Huang, T.

Huang, W.

Y. Zhang, W. Huang, and B. Li, “Fabry--Pérot microcavities with controllable resonant wavelengths in periodic dielectric waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T. A.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P. T. Ho, “Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

S. Assefa, P. T. Rakich, P. Bienstman, S. G. Johnson, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Guiding 1.5 μm light in photonic crystals based on dielectric rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6110-6112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Isfahani, B. M.

Javan, A. R. M.

Ji, J. R.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Assefa, P. T. Rakich, P. Bienstman, S. G. Johnson, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Guiding 1.5 μm light in photonic crystals based on dielectric rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6110-6112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, F. G.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P. T. Ho, “Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

S. Assefa, P. T. Rakich, P. Bienstman, S. G. Johnson, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Guiding 1.5 μm light in photonic crystals based on dielectric rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6110-6112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, “http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Meep.”

kitzerow, H. S.

R. B. Wehrspohn, H. S. kitzerow, and K. Busch, Nanophotonic Materials:Photonic Crystals, Plasmonics, and Metamaterials (Wiley-VCH, 2008), pp. 77-96.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

S. Assefa, P. T. Rakich, P. Bienstman, S. G. Johnson, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Guiding 1.5 μm light in photonic crystals based on dielectric rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6110-6112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

Lee, J. B.

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J. B. Lee, “Negative refraction in a Si-polymer photonic crystal membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. Y.

K. Y. Lee, J. M. Lin, Y. C. Yang, Y. B. Yang, J. S. Wu, Y. J. Lin, and W. Y. Lee, “The designs of xor logic gates based on photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7315, 71353Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. Y.

K. Y. Lee, J. M. Lin, Y. C. Yang, Y. B. Yang, J. S. Wu, Y. J. Lin, and W. Y. Lee, “The designs of xor logic gates based on photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7315, 71353Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Y. Zhang, W. Huang, and B. Li, “Fabry--Pérot microcavities with controllable resonant wavelengths in periodic dielectric waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. J.

Li, Z. J.

Lin, J. M.

K. Y. Lee, J. M. Lin, Y. C. Yang, Y. B. Yang, J. S. Wu, Y. J. Lin, and W. Y. Lee, “The designs of xor logic gates based on photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7315, 71353Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. J.

K. Y. Lee, J. M. Lin, Y. C. Yang, Y. B. Yang, J. S. Wu, Y. J. Lin, and W. Y. Lee, “The designs of xor logic gates based on photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7315, 71353Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

Ma, Z.

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ma, “Characteristics of ultra-compact polymer modulators based on silicon photonic crystal ring resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 023507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Menezes, J. W. M.

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. d. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, K. D. A. Saboia, A. F. G. F. Filho, G. F. Guimarães, J. R. R. Sousa, H. H. B. Rocha, and A. S. B. Sombra, “Logic gates based in two- and three-modes nonlinear optical fiber couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1191-1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

Morita, M.

Nair, S. V.

T. Xu, S. Yang, S. V. Nair, and H. E. Ruda, “Nanowire-array-based photonics crystal cavity by finite-difference time-domain calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

Park, W.

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J. B. Lee, “Negative refraction in a Si-polymer photonic crystal membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

S. Assefa, P. T. Rakich, P. Bienstman, S. G. Johnson, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Guiding 1.5 μm light in photonic crystals based on dielectric rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6110-6112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiang, Z.

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ma, “Characteristics of ultra-compact polymer modulators based on silicon photonic crystal ring resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 023507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, and R. A. Soref, “Optical add-drop filters based on photonic crystal ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15, 1823-1831 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakich, P. T.

S. Assefa, P. T. Rakich, P. Bienstman, S. G. Johnson, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Guiding 1.5 μm light in photonic crystals based on dielectric rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6110-6112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rocha, H. H. B.

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. d. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, K. D. A. Saboia, A. F. G. F. Filho, G. F. Guimarães, J. R. R. Sousa, H. H. B. Rocha, and A. S. B. Sombra, “Logic gates based in two- and three-modes nonlinear optical fiber couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1191-1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruda, H. E.

T. Xu, S. Yang, S. V. Nair, and H. E. Ruda, “Nanowire-array-based photonics crystal cavity by finite-difference time-domain calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saboia, K. D. A.

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. d. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, K. D. A. Saboia, A. F. G. F. Filho, G. F. Guimarães, J. R. R. Sousa, H. H. B. Rocha, and A. S. B. Sombra, “Logic gates based in two- and three-modes nonlinear optical fiber couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1191-1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schonbrun, E.

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J. B. Lee, “Negative refraction in a Si-polymer photonic crystal membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

Smith, H. I.

S. Assefa, P. T. Rakich, P. Bienstman, S. G. Johnson, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Guiding 1.5 μm light in photonic crystals based on dielectric rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6110-6112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sombra, A. S. B.

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. d. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, K. D. A. Saboia, A. F. G. F. Filho, G. F. Guimarães, J. R. R. Sousa, H. H. B. Rocha, and A. S. B. Sombra, “Logic gates based in two- and three-modes nonlinear optical fiber couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1191-1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ma, “Characteristics of ultra-compact polymer modulators based on silicon photonic crystal ring resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 2, 023507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, and R. A. Soref, “Optical add-drop filters based on photonic crystal ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15, 1823-1831 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sousa, J. R. R.

J. W. M. Menezes, W. B. d. Fraga, A. C. Ferreira, K. D. A. Saboia, A. F. G. F. Filho, G. F. Guimarães, J. R. R. Sousa, H. H. B. Rocha, and A. S. B. Sombra, “Logic gates based in two- and three-modes nonlinear optical fiber couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1191-1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Wang, J. Sun, and Q. Sun, “Proposal for all-optical switchable or/xor logic gates using sum-frequency generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 541-543 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, D. Liu, and D. Huang, “All-optical and gate at 10 Gbit/s based on cascaded single-port-coupled SOAs,” Opt. Express 12, 361-366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

J. Wang, J. Sun, and Q. Sun, “Proposal for all-optical switchable or/xor logic gates using sum-frequency generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 541-543 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tameh, T. A.

Tanabe, T.

Taniyama, H.

Tinker, M.

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J. B. Lee, “Negative refraction in a Si-polymer photonic crystal membrane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tokushima, M.

M. Tokushima, H. Yamada, and Y. Arakawa, “1.5 μm-wavelength light guiding in waveguides in square-lattice-of-rod photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4298-4300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P. T. Ho, “Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Sun, and Q. Sun, “Proposal for all-optical switchable or/xor logic gates using sum-frequency generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 541-543 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wehrspohn, R. B.

R. B. Wehrspohn, H. S. kitzerow, and K. Busch, Nanophotonic Materials:Photonic Crystals, Plasmonics, and Metamaterials (Wiley-VCH, 2008), pp. 77-96.

Wu, J. S.

K. Y. Lee, J. M. Lin, Y. C. Yang, Y. B. Yang, J. S. Wu, Y. J. Lin, and W. Y. Lee, “The designs of xor logic gates based on photonic crystals,” Proc. SPIE 7315, 71353Y (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Xu, T.

T. Xu, S. Yang, S. V. Nair, and H. E. Ruda, “Nanowire-array-based photonics crystal cavity by finite-difference time-domain calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (503 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (571 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (523 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of proposed 45 ° single PCRR with coupling section L c = 0 a . (b), (c) Dispersion plot and the corresponding bus–waveguide mode along Γ X and Γ M , where the radius and the refractive index of the Si rod are 0.1 a and 3.48, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: intensity at output ports B, C, and D; right: corresponding cavity resonant wavelengths and quality factor Q: (a)  45 ° PCRR with scatterers (S); (b)  45 ° PCRR without S; (c) conventional 5 × 5 PCRR with S, where L c = 0 a , d = 4 a , and L = 22 a , respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of our proposed photonic crystal logic gate and (b) (from top to bottom: Media 1, Media 2, and Media 3) propagating field intensity distribution, where the arrow represents the direction of the incident light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Behavior of our proposed PC logic gate with various combinations of input signals where φ = 0 , L = 22 a , and d = 4 a ; (b) definition of logic levels 0 and 1; (c)  output intensity changes with L where φ = 0 and d = 4 a ; (d)  output intensity changes with φ, where L = 32 a and d = 4 a .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Field distribution to demonstrate the performance of proposed not and nor gates where the operating wavelength is 1553.4 nm .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Truth Table for Our PC Gates

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