Abstract

A tunable ring laser using a tapered single mode fiber tip as a bandpass filter has been proposed and demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. This is a simple and cost-effective tunable source. It is found that the tuning range and bandwidth of the laser are related to the relaxation time of the optical amplifier, the current of the amplifier, and the steepness of the tip shape. The calculations and experimental results show that the laser has a tuning range of 9nm in the L-band and the spectral linewidth can be varied from 0.06nm to 0.17nm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1217-1221 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. G. Limberger, N. H.Ky, D. M. Costantini, R. P. Salathé, and G. R. Fox, “Efficient active Bragg grating tunable filters,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997).
    [PubMed]
  3. X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. Lim, and C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645-648(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Stone and L. W. Stulz, “Pigtailed high finesse tunable FP interferometer with large, medium and small FSR,” Electron. Lett. 23, 781-783 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, K. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, “Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Li and X. Bao, “The observation of comblike transmission spectrum from a tapered single mode fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. C. Özcan, V. Tréanton, F. Guay, and R. Kashyap, “Highly symmetric optical fiber tapers fabricated with a CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 656-658 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers,” Opt. Express 12, 2258-2263(2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 343-354 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. J. Fielding, K. Edinger, and C. C. Davis, “Experimental observation of mode evolution in single-mode tapered optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1649-1656 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, “Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides,” Inst. Elect. Eng. Proc. 133, 377-384(1986).
  12. S. Lacroix, R. Bourbonnais, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, “Tapered monomode optical fibers: understanding large power transfer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4421-4425 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Low power acousto-optic device based on a tapered singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 725-727 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Jung, G. Brambilla, and D. J. Richardson, “Broadband single-mode operation of standard optical fibers by using a sub-wavelength optical wire filter,” Opt. Express 16, 14661-14667 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 355-364 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communications Systems, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002).
    [CrossRef]

2008

Y. Li and X. Bao, “The observation of comblike transmission spectrum from a tapered single mode fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, G. Brambilla, and D. J. Richardson, “Broadband single-mode operation of standard optical fibers by using a sub-wavelength optical wire filter,” Opt. Express 16, 14661-14667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

L. C. Özcan, V. Tréanton, F. Guay, and R. Kashyap, “Highly symmetric optical fiber tapers fabricated with a CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 656-658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. Lim, and C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645-648(2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

1999

1997

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, K. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, “Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548(1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Low power acousto-optic device based on a tapered singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 725-727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 355-364 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 343-354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. Stone and L. W. Stulz, “Pigtailed high finesse tunable FP interferometer with large, medium and small FSR,” Electron. Lett. 23, 781-783 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, “Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides,” Inst. Elect. Eng. Proc. 133, 377-384(1986).

S. Lacroix, R. Bourbonnais, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, “Tapered monomode optical fibers: understanding large power transfer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4421-4425 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communications Systems, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Y. Li and X. Bao, “The observation of comblike transmission spectrum from a tapered single mode fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Low power acousto-optic device based on a tapered singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 725-727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Black, R. J.

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 355-364 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 343-354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, “Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides,” Inst. Elect. Eng. Proc. 133, 377-384(1986).

Bourbonnais, R.

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, “Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides,” Inst. Elect. Eng. Proc. 133, 377-384(1986).

S. Lacroix, R. Bourbonnais, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, “Tapered monomode optical fibers: understanding large power transfer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4421-4425 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, G.

Bures, J.

Chan, C.

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. Lim, and C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645-648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Chisholm, K. E.

Costantini, D. M.

H. G. Limberger, N. H.Ky, D. M. Costantini, R. P. Salathé, and G. R. Fox, “Efficient active Bragg grating tunable filters,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997).
[PubMed]

Davis, C. C.

Dong, X.

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. Lim, and C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645-648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Edinger, K.

Everall, L. A.

Fielding, A. J.

Finazzi, V.

Fox, G. R.

H. G. Limberger, N. H.Ky, D. M. Costantini, R. P. Salathé, and G. R. Fox, “Efficient active Bragg grating tunable filters,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997).
[PubMed]

Gonthier, F.

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 355-364 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 343-354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Lacroix, R. Bourbonnais, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, “Tapered monomode optical fibers: understanding large power transfer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4421-4425 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guay, F.

L. C. Özcan, V. Tréanton, F. Guay, and R. Kashyap, “Highly symmetric optical fiber tapers fabricated with a CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 656-658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 343-354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, K. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, “Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548(1997).
[CrossRef]

Iocco, A.

Jung, Y.

Kaneko, K.

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, K. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, “Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548(1997).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

L. C. Özcan, V. Tréanton, F. Guay, and R. Kashyap, “Highly symmetric optical fiber tapers fabricated with a CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 656-658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, T.

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, K. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, “Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548(1997).
[CrossRef]

Ky, N. H.

H. G. Limberger, N. H.Ky, D. M. Costantini, R. P. Salathé, and G. R. Fox, “Efficient active Bragg grating tunable filters,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997).
[PubMed]

Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 343-354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 355-364 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Lacroix, R. Bourbonnais, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, “Tapered monomode optical fibers: understanding large power transfer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4421-4425 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li and X. Bao, “The observation of comblike transmission spectrum from a tapered single mode fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, M.

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. Lim, and C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645-648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1217-1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, N. H.Ky, D. M. Costantini, R. P. Salathé, and G. R. Fox, “Efficient active Bragg grating tunable filters,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997).
[PubMed]

Love, J. D.

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 355-364 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 343-354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ooba, N.

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, K. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, “Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548(1997).
[CrossRef]

Özcan, L. C.

L. C. Özcan, V. Tréanton, F. Guay, and R. Kashyap, “Highly symmetric optical fiber tapers fabricated with a CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 656-658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pannell, C. N.

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Low power acousto-optic device based on a tapered singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 725-727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Low power acousto-optic device based on a tapered singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 725-727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R. P.

Salathé, R. P.

H. G. Limberger, N. H.Ky, D. M. Costantini, R. P. Salathé, and G. R. Fox, “Efficient active Bragg grating tunable filters,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997).
[PubMed]

Shum, P.

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. Lim, and C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645-648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 343-354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J.

J. Stone and L. W. Stulz, “Pigtailed high finesse tunable FP interferometer with large, medium and small FSR,” Electron. Lett. 23, 781-783 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

J. Stone and L. W. Stulz, “Pigtailed high finesse tunable FP interferometer with large, medium and small FSR,” Electron. Lett. 23, 781-783 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tréanton, V.

L. C. Özcan, V. Tréanton, F. Guay, and R. Kashyap, “Highly symmetric optical fiber tapers fabricated with a CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 656-658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, K. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, “Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548(1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

Yang, X.

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. Lim, and C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645-648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Li and X. Bao, “The observation of comblike transmission spectrum from a tapered single mode fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Stone and L. W. Stulz, “Pigtailed high finesse tunable FP interferometer with large, medium and small FSR,” Electron. Lett. 23, 781-783 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, K. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, “Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with wide tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548(1997).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 1. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 343-354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. D. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices--Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc.-J Optoelectron. 138, 355-364 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Low power acousto-optic device based on a tapered singlemode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 725-727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Özcan, V. Tréanton, F. Guay, and R. Kashyap, “Highly symmetric optical fiber tapers fabricated with a CO2 laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 656-658 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Elect. Eng. Proc.

R. J. Black and R. Bourbonnais, “Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides,” Inst. Elect. Eng. Proc. 133, 377-384(1986).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Commun.

X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, M. Lim, and C. Chan, “Bandwidth-tunable filter and spacing-tunable comb filter with chirped-fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 259, 645-648(2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communications Systems, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, N. H.Ky, D. M. Costantini, R. P. Salathé, and G. R. Fox, “Efficient active Bragg grating tunable filters,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Camera pictures of two representative tapered fiber tips and their corresponding cladding diameter curves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective reflective index of LP 0 m mode in different tapered SMF tips with diameters 3.0 μm and 3.4 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of a tunable ring laser using a tapered SMF tip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Camera pictures of experimental setup including a fiber tip and SMF. The left is one free end of a SMF with a cladding diameter of 125 μm ; the right is the tapered SMF tip (b) with a diameter of 3.4 μm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Power spectra of the laser output at different tuning wavelengths when I EDFA = 90 mA . (b) The bandwidths of the laser are broadened when the current of the L-EDFA is increased.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Laser Characteristics with Three Kinds of Amplifiers

Equations (1)

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V core / cladding 2 ln S { 1 + 0.26 ln S } 1 / 2 .

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