Abstract

We demonstrate a novel linear polarization imaging technique and its potential application in dermatology. This technique records a series of images corresponding to different combinations of illumination and detection polarization and calculates intensity differences between orthogonal detection polarizations pixel by pixel. Fitting the polarization difference data to an analytical expression of the incident and detection polarization angles results in two new parameters, G and φ3/2. It is shown that G is strongly correlated to the order of alignment of the fibrous structure in the sample, and φ3/2 represents the angle of orientation of the fibers. Preliminary clinical testing implies that this method may be applied for medical diagnosis of skin diseases.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, and R. Hibst, “Anisotropy of light propagation in biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2617-2619 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000-1005 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340(2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Design, testing, and clinical studies of a handheld polarized light camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1305-1310 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. L. Jacques, R. Samathama, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 684201 (2008).
  6. S. Manhas, M. K. Swami, P. Buddhiwant, N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, and J. Singh, “Mueller matrix approach for determination of optical rotation in chiral turbid media in backscattering geometry,” Opt. Express 14, 190-202 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. L. Jacques, M. R. Ostermeyer, L. Wang, and D. Stephens, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” Proc. SPIE 2671, 199-210 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, A. Pradhan, and S. K. Majumder, “Anomalous behavior of depolarization of light in a turbid medium,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 236-242 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. R. Shao, Y. H. He, W. Li, and H. Ma, “Polarization-degree imaging contrast in turbid media: a quantitative study,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4491-4496 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, and A. C. Boccara, “Enhancement of hidden structures of early skin fibrosis using polarization degree patterns and Pearson correlation analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051706 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. J. Wu, J. T. Walsh, “Stokes polarimetry imaging of rat-tail tissue in a turbid medium: degree of linear polarization image maps using incident linearly polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014031 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Zeng, T. L. Yun, W. Li, and H. Ma, “Monte Carlo simulation of polarized light scattering in anisotropic medium,” presented at the Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference, Shanghai, China, 30 October-2 November 2008, paper SuN5, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=AOE-2008-SuN5.

2008

S. L. Jacques, R. Samathama, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 684201 (2008).

2006

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, A. Pradhan, and S. K. Majumder, “Anomalous behavior of depolarization of light in a turbid medium,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 236-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Wu, J. T. Walsh, “Stokes polarimetry imaging of rat-tail tissue in a turbid medium: degree of linear polarization image maps using incident linearly polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014031 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manhas, M. K. Swami, P. Buddhiwant, N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, and J. Singh, “Mueller matrix approach for determination of optical rotation in chiral turbid media in backscattering geometry,” Opt. Express 14, 190-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Shao, Y. H. He, W. Li, and H. Ma, “Polarization-degree imaging contrast in turbid media: a quantitative study,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4491-4496 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, and A. C. Boccara, “Enhancement of hidden structures of early skin fibrosis using polarization degree patterns and Pearson correlation analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051706 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, and R. Hibst, “Anisotropy of light propagation in biological tissue,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2617-2619 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Design, testing, and clinical studies of a handheld polarized light camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1305-1310 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

S. L. Jacques, M. R. Ostermeyer, L. Wang, and D. Stephens, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” Proc. SPIE 2671, 199-210 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000-1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000-1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bicout, D.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, and A. C. Boccara, “Enhancement of hidden structures of early skin fibrosis using polarization degree patterns and Pearson correlation analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051706 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brosseau, C.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buddhiwant, P.

Chernomordik, V.

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, and A. C. Boccara, “Enhancement of hidden structures of early skin fibrosis using polarization degree patterns and Pearson correlation analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051706 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, F. K.

Ghosh, N.

Gupta, P. K.

Hassan, M.

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, and A. C. Boccara, “Enhancement of hidden structures of early skin fibrosis using polarization degree patterns and Pearson correlation analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051706 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y. H.

Hibst, R.

Isenhath, S.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samathama, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 684201 (2008).

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samathama, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 684201 (2008).

J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Design, testing, and clinical studies of a handheld polarized light camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1305-1310 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, M. R. Ostermeyer, L. Wang, and D. Stephens, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” Proc. SPIE 2671, 199-210 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kienle, A.

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samathama, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 684201 (2008).

J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Design, testing, and clinical studies of a handheld polarized light camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1305-1310 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W.

H. R. Shao, Y. H. He, W. Li, and H. Ma, “Polarization-degree imaging contrast in turbid media: a quantitative study,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4491-4496 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Zeng, T. L. Yun, W. Li, and H. Ma, “Monte Carlo simulation of polarized light scattering in anisotropic medium,” presented at the Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference, Shanghai, China, 30 October-2 November 2008, paper SuN5, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=AOE-2008-SuN5.

Ma, H.

H. R. Shao, Y. H. He, W. Li, and H. Ma, “Polarization-degree imaging contrast in turbid media: a quantitative study,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4491-4496 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Zeng, T. L. Yun, W. Li, and H. Ma, “Monte Carlo simulation of polarized light scattering in anisotropic medium,” presented at the Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference, Shanghai, China, 30 October-2 November 2008, paper SuN5, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=AOE-2008-SuN5.

Majumder, S. K.

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, A. Pradhan, and S. K. Majumder, “Anomalous behavior of depolarization of light in a turbid medium,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 236-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manhas, S.

Martinez, A. S.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ostermeyer, M. R.

S. L. Jacques, M. R. Ostermeyer, L. Wang, and D. Stephens, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” Proc. SPIE 2671, 199-210 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, A.

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, A. Pradhan, and S. K. Majumder, “Anomalous behavior of depolarization of light in a turbid medium,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 236-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S. A.

J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Design, testing, and clinical studies of a handheld polarized light camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1305-1310 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Design, testing, and clinical studies of a handheld polarized light camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1305-1310 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samathama, R.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samathama, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 684201 (2008).

Schmitt, J. M.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shao, H. R.

Singh, J.

Stephens, D.

S. L. Jacques, M. R. Ostermeyer, L. Wang, and D. Stephens, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” Proc. SPIE 2671, 199-210 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sviridov, A. P.

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, and A. C. Boccara, “Enhancement of hidden structures of early skin fibrosis using polarization degree patterns and Pearson correlation analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051706 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swami, M. K.

Walsh, J. T.

P. J. Wu, J. T. Walsh, “Stokes polarimetry imaging of rat-tail tissue in a turbid medium: degree of linear polarization image maps using incident linearly polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014031 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

S. L. Jacques, M. R. Ostermeyer, L. Wang, and D. Stephens, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” Proc. SPIE 2671, 199-210 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P. J.

P. J. Wu, J. T. Walsh, “Stokes polarimetry imaging of rat-tail tissue in a turbid medium: degree of linear polarization image maps using incident linearly polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014031 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, T. L.

N. Zeng, T. L. Yun, W. Li, and H. Ma, “Monte Carlo simulation of polarized light scattering in anisotropic medium,” presented at the Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference, Shanghai, China, 30 October-2 November 2008, paper SuN5, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=AOE-2008-SuN5.

Zeng, N.

N. Zeng, T. L. Yun, W. Li, and H. Ma, “Monte Carlo simulation of polarized light scattering in anisotropic medium,” presented at the Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference, Shanghai, China, 30 October-2 November 2008, paper SuN5, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=AOE-2008-SuN5.

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Dermatol.

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000-1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Design, testing, and clinical studies of a handheld polarized light camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1305-1310 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, and A. C. Boccara, “Enhancement of hidden structures of early skin fibrosis using polarization degree patterns and Pearson correlation analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051706 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Wu, J. T. Walsh, “Stokes polarimetry imaging of rat-tail tissue in a turbid medium: degree of linear polarization image maps using incident linearly polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014031 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, A. Pradhan, and S. K. Majumder, “Anomalous behavior of depolarization of light in a turbid medium,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 236-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. L. Jacques, R. Samathama, S. Isenhath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE 6842, 684201 (2008).

S. L. Jacques, M. R. Ostermeyer, L. Wang, and D. Stephens, “Polarized light transmission through skin using video reflectometry: toward optical tomography of superficial tissue layers,” Proc. SPIE 2671, 199-210 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

N. Zeng, T. L. Yun, W. Li, and H. Ma, “Monte Carlo simulation of polarized light scattering in anisotropic medium,” presented at the Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference, Shanghai, China, 30 October-2 November 2008, paper SuN5, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=AOE-2008-SuN5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of backscattering LPD imaging. L1 and L2 are lenses, and P1 and P2 are polarizers that can rotate around their respective optical axes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results of milk and silk samples: (a) the fitting curve of LDP with different incident polarization angles; (b) (from left to right) intensity, DOP (degree of polarization), and α image of milk; and (c) (from left to right) intensity, DOP (degree of polarization), and α image of silk.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of (a) intensity, (b) G, and (c)  φ 3 / 2 of the cross section of a duck heart.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of tinea pedis case: (a) photograph of the skin, (b) light intensity image, (c) degree of polarization image, and (d) anisotropy parameter G image. The elliptic frame (upper right) indicates an area of healthy skin. The circle frame (lower left) indicates an area of tinea pedis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of herpes zoster case: (a) photograph of the skin, (b) light intensity image, (c) degree of polarization image, and (d) anisotropy parameter G image.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ I out Q out U out V out ] = M s M o M i [ I in Q in U in V in ] = [ 1 0 0 0 0 cos 2 θ s sin 2 θ s 0 0 sin 2 θ s cos 2 θ s 0 0 0 0 1 ] [ M 11 M 12 M 13 M 14 M 21 M 22 M 23 M 24 M 31 M 32 M 33 M 34 M 41 M 42 M 43 M 44 ] [ 1 0 0 0 0 cos 2 θ i sin 2 θ i 0 0 sin 2 θ i cos 2 θ i 0 0 0 0 1 ] [ I in 0 0 0 ] .
LDP ( θ i , θ s ) = Q out = I in cos 2 θ s ( M 21 + M 22 cos 2 θ i + M 23 sin 2 θ i ) + I in sin 2 θ s ( M 31 + M 32 cos 2 θ i + M 33 sin 2 θ i ) = I in { cos 2 θ i ( M 22 cos 2 θ s + M 32 sin 2 θ s ) + sin 2 θ i ( M 23 cos 2 θ s + M 33 sin 2 θ s ) } + I in ( M 21 cos 2 θ s + M 31 sin 2 θ s ) .
LDP ( θ i , θ s ) = I in A cos ( 4 θ s φ 1 ) + B cos ( 2 θ i φ 2 ( θ s ) ) + I in C cos ( 2 θ s φ 3 ) ,
B = ( M 23 2 + M 22 2 + M 33 2 + M 32 2 ) / 2 ,
A = B 2 ( M 22 M 33 M 23 M 32 ) 2 ,
C = M 21 2 + M 31 2 ,
tan φ 3 = M 31 / M 21 ,
G = A / B = 1 2 ( M 22 M 33 M 23 M 32 ) 2 ( M 23 2 + M 22 2 + M 33 2 + M 32 2 ) 2 .

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