Abstract

Recently developed integral imaging techniques are reviewed. Integral imaging captures and reproduces the light rays from the object space, enabling the acquisition and the display of the three-dimensional information of the object in an efficient way. Continuous effort on integral imaging has been improving the performance of the capture and display process in various aspects, including distortion, resolution, viewing angle, and depth range. Digital data processing of the captured light rays can now visualize the three-dimensional structure of the object with a high degree of freedom and enhanced quality. This recent progress is of high interest for both industrial applications and academic research.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

K. Yamamoto, T. Mishina, R. Oi, T. Senoh, and M. Okui, “Cross talk elimination using an aperture for recording elemental images of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 680-690 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Baasantseren, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Depth discrimination enhanced computational integral imaging using random pattern illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 020216 (2009).

D.-H. Shin and H. Yoo, “Signal model and granular-noise analysis of computational image reconstruction for curved integral imaging systems,” Appl. Opt. 48, 827-833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Moon and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional recognition of photon-starved events using computational integral imaging and statistical sampling,” Opt. Lett. 34, 731-733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Do, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional object-distortion-tolerant recognition for integral imaging using independent component analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 26, 245-251 (2009).

T.-C. Wei, D.-H. Shin, and B.-G. Lee, “Resolution-enhanced reconstruction of 3D object using depth-reversed elemental images for partially occluded object recognition,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 139-145 (2009).

J.-H. Park, M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, and N. Kim, “Fresnel and Fourier hologram generation using orthographic projection images,” Opt. Express 17, 6320-6334 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, L. He, and Q. Bu, “Performance characterization of integral imaging systems based on human vision,” Appl. Opt. 48, 183-188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing window expansion of integral floating display,” Appl. Opt. 48, 862-867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Saveljev and S.-J. Shin, “Layouts and celss in integral photography and pointlight source model,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 131-138 (2009).

J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging system using an electroluminescent film backlight for three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertibility and a curved structure,” Appl. Opt. 48, 998-1007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hahn, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Uniform angular resolution integral imaging display with boundary folding mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 48, 504-511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Kim, J. Hahn, and B. Lee, “The use of a negative index planoconcave lens array for wide-viewing angle integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 21865-21880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang and H. Hua, “Theoretical analysis for integral imaging performance based on microscanning of a microlens array,” Opt. Lett. 33, 449-451 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16, 8549-8556(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis on viewing characteristics of an integral floating system,” Appl. Opt. 47, D80-D86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, F. Okano, K. Suehiro, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Geometric analysis of spatial distortion in projection-type integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33, 684-686 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, S.-H. Kim, D.-S. Kim, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Image-forming principle of integral photography,” J. Display Technol. 4, 324-331 (2008).

N. Sgouros, I. Kontaxakis, and M. Sangriotis, “Effect of different traversal schemes in integral image coding,” Appl. Opt. 47, D28-D37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. McCormick, A. Aggoun, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth mapping of integral images through viewpoint image extraction with a hybrid disparity analysis algorithm,” J. Display Technol. 4, 101-108 (2008).

M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “Hologram generation of 3D objects using multiple orthographic view images,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 269-274 (2008).

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 8800-8813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Tavakoli, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three dimensional visualization by photon counting computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 4426-4436 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional tracking of occluded objects using integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2737-2739(2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Lee, D.-C. Hwang, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Blur-metric-based resolution enhancement of computationally reconstructed integral images,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2859-2869(2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Saavedra, R. Martinez-Cuenca, M. Martinez-Corral, H. Navarro, M. Daneshpanah, and B. Javidi, “Digital slicing of 3D scenes by Fourier filtering of integral images,” Opt. Express 16, 17154-17160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. DaneshPanah, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three dimensional imaging with randomly distributed sensors,” Opt. Express 16, 6368-6377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Moon and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of objects in scattering medium by use of computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 13080-13089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi and Y. S. Hwang, “Passive near-infrared 3D sensing and computational reconstruction with synthetic aperture integral imaging,” J. Display Technol. 4, 3-5 (2008).

R. Schulein and B. Javidi, “Underwater multi-view three-dimensional imaging,” J. Display Technol. 4, 351-353 (2008).

J. Hahn, Y. Kim, E.-H. Kim, and B. Lee, “Undistorted pickup method of both virtual and real objects for integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 13969-13978 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, H. Kawai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Depth-control method for integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33, 279-281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Fife, A. E. Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A multiaperture image sensor with 0.7 um pixels in 0.11 um CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2990-3005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. Tavakoli, M. Daneshpanah, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Performance of 3D integral imaging with position uncertainty,” Opt. Express 15, 11889-11902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Shin and H. Yoo, “Image quality enhancement in 3D computational integral imaging by use of interpolation methods,” Opt. Express 15, 12039-12049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Hyun, D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Curved computational integral imaging reconstruction technique for resolution-enhanced display of three-dimensional object images,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7697-7708 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three-dimensional distortion-tolerant object recognition using photon-counting integral imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 1513-1533 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Passalis, N. Sgouros, S. Athineos, and T. Theoharis, “Enhanced reconstruction of three-dimensional shape and texture from integral photography images,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5311-5320(2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Elharar, A. Stern, O. Hadar, and B. Javidi, “A hybrid compression method for integral images using discrete wavelet transform and discrete cosine transform,” J. Display Technol. 3, 321-325 (2007).

F. Okano, J. Arai, and M. Kawakita, “Wave optical analysis of integral method for three-dimensional images,” Opt. Lett. 32, 364-366 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, A. Pons, B. Javidi, and M. Martínez-Corral, “Facet braiding: a fundamental problem in integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1078-1080(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15, 13023-13034 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Shaked, J. Rosen, and A. Stern, “Integral holography: white-light single-shot hologram acquisition,” Opt. Express 15, 5754-5760 (2007).
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Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3766-3773 (2007).
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H. Liao, T. Dohi, and M. Iwahara, “Improved viewing resolution of integral videography by use of rotated prism sheets,” Opt. Express 15, 4814-4822 (2007).
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Y. Kim, J. Kim, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Point light source integral imaging with improved resolution and viewing angle by the use of electrically movable pinhole array,” Opt. Express 15, 18253-18267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth- and viewing-angle-enhanced 3-D/2-D switchable display system with high contrast ratio using multiple display devices and a lens array,” J. Soc. Info. Display 15, 315-320 (2007).

R. Martínez-Cuenca, H. Navarro, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, and M. Martinez-Corral, “Enhanced viewing-angle integral imaging by multiple-axis telecentric relay system,” Opt. Express 15, 16255-16260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343(2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
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M. Okui, J. Arai, Y. Nojiri, and F. Okano, “Optical screen for direct projection of integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9132-9139 (2006).
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T. Mishina, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Calculation of holograms from elemental images captured by integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4026-4036 (2006).
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B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Díaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded objects by using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1106-1108 (2006).
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D.-C. Hwang, J.-S. Park, S.-C. Kim, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Magnification of 3D reconstructed images in integral imaging using an intermediate-view reconstruction technique,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4631-4637 (2006).
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M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH) 25, 924-934 (2006).

B. Javidi, I. Moon, and S. Yeom, “Three-dimensional identification of biological microorganism using integral imaging,” Opt. Express 14, 12096-12108 (2006).
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A. Aggoun, “Pre-processing of integral images for 3-D displays,” J. Display Technol. 2, 393-400 (2006).

N. P. Sgouros, S. S. Athineos, M. S. Sangriotis, P. G. Papageorgas, and N. G. Theofanous, “Accurate lattice extraction in integral images,” Opt. Express 14, 10403-10409 (2006).
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J. Arai, H. Kawai, and F. Okano, “Microlens arrays for integral imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9066-9078 (2006).
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R. Martinez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “ Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted integral image display,” Opt. Express 14, 9657-9663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Formation of real, orthoscopic integral images by smart pixel mapping,” Opt. Express 13, 9175-9180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L71-L74 (2005).

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, J. Kim, J.-P. Bae, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Viewing angle enhancement of three-dimension/two-dimension convertible integral imaging display using double collimated or non-collimated illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L991-L994 (2005).

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B. Lee, S. Jung, and J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818-820(2002).
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J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002).
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2001

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J. Arai, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, “Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1704-1712 (2006).
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J. Arai, H. Kawai, and F. Okano, “Microlens arrays for integral imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9066-9078 (2006).
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M. Okui, J. Arai, Y. Nojiri, and F. Okano, “Optical screen for direct projection of integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9132-9139 (2006).
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Bae, J.-P.

J.-H. Park, J. Kim, J.-P. Bae, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Viewing angle enhancement of three-dimension/two-dimension convertible integral imaging display using double collimated or non-collimated illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L991-L994 (2005).

Bredif, M.

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Bredif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Stanford Tech. Rep. CTSR 2005-02 (Stanford University, 2005).

Bu, Q.

Cho, M.

Cho, S.-W.

Choi, H.

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3766-3773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth- and viewing-angle-enhanced 3-D/2-D switchable display system with high contrast ratio using multiple display devices and a lens array,” J. Soc. Info. Display 15, 315-320 (2007).

Y. Kim, J. Kim, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Point light source integral imaging with improved resolution and viewing angle by the use of electrically movable pinhole array,” Opt. Express 15, 18253-18267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
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J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate,” Opt. Express 11, 782 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “A novel depth extraction algorithm incorporating a lens array and a camera by reassembling pixel columns of elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 4929, 49-58 (2002).

Daneshpanah, M.

Davies, N.

Do, C. M.

C. M. Do, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional object-distortion-tolerant recognition for integral imaging using independent component analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 26, 245-251 (2009).

Dohi, T.

Duval, G.

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Bredif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Stanford Tech. Rep. CTSR 2005-02 (Stanford University, 2005).

Elharar, E.

Fife, K.

K. Fife, A. E. Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A multiaperture image sensor with 0.7 um pixels in 0.11 um CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2990-3005 (2008).
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Footer, M.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH) 25, 924-934 (2006).

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K. Fife, A. E. Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A multiaperture image sensor with 0.7 um pixels in 0.11 um CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2990-3005 (2008).
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Hahn, J.

Haino, Y.

Hanrahan, P.

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Bredif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Stanford Tech. Rep. CTSR 2005-02 (Stanford University, 2005).

Hata, N.

He, L.

Hong, J.

S.-W. Min, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Analysis of an optical depth converter used in a three-dimensional integral imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4539-4549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
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K. Hong, J. Hong, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Improved three-dimensional depth extraction using super resolved elemental image set,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper DWB1.

G. Park, J. Hong, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Enhancement of viewing angle and viewing distance in integral imaging by head tracking,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper DWB27.

Hong, K.

J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging system using an electroluminescent film backlight for three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertibility and a curved structure,” Appl. Opt. 48, 998-1007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hong, J. Hong, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Improved three-dimensional depth extraction using super resolved elemental image set,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper DWB1.

Hong, S.-H.

Horowitz, M.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH) 25, 924-934 (2006).

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Bredif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Stanford Tech. Rep. CTSR 2005-02 (Stanford University, 2005).

Hoshino, H.

Hua, H.

Hwang, D.-C.

Hwang, Y. S.

Hyun, J.-B.

Iwahara, M.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

C. M. Do, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional object-distortion-tolerant recognition for integral imaging using independent component analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 26, 245-251 (2009).

I. Moon and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional recognition of photon-starved events using computational integral imaging and statistical sampling,” Opt. Lett. 34, 731-733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Tavakoli, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three dimensional visualization by photon counting computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 4426-4436 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional tracking of occluded objects using integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2737-2739(2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Saavedra, R. Martinez-Cuenca, M. Martinez-Corral, H. Navarro, M. Daneshpanah, and B. Javidi, “Digital slicing of 3D scenes by Fourier filtering of integral images,” Opt. Express 16, 17154-17160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Moon and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of objects in scattering medium by use of computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 13080-13089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi and Y. S. Hwang, “Passive near-infrared 3D sensing and computational reconstruction with synthetic aperture integral imaging,” J. Display Technol. 4, 3-5 (2008).

M. DaneshPanah, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three dimensional imaging with randomly distributed sensors,” Opt. Express 16, 6368-6377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Schulein and B. Javidi, “Underwater multi-view three-dimensional imaging,” J. Display Technol. 4, 351-353 (2008).

J.-Y. Son, S.-H. Kim, D.-S. Kim, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Image-forming principle of integral photography,” J. Display Technol. 4, 324-331 (2008).

E. Elharar, A. Stern, O. Hadar, and B. Javidi, “A hybrid compression method for integral images using discrete wavelet transform and discrete cosine transform,” J. Display Technol. 3, 321-325 (2007).

R. Martínez-Cuenca, H. Navarro, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, and M. Martinez-Corral, “Enhanced viewing-angle integral imaging by multiple-axis telecentric relay system,” Opt. Express 15, 16255-16260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, A. Pons, B. Javidi, and M. Martínez-Corral, “Facet braiding: a fundamental problem in integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1078-1080(2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three-dimensional distortion-tolerant object recognition using photon-counting integral imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 1513-1533 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Tavakoli, M. Daneshpanah, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Performance of 3D integral imaging with position uncertainty,” Opt. Express 15, 11889-11902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “ Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted integral image display,” Opt. Express 14, 9657-9663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Díaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded objects by using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1106-1108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, I. Moon, and S. Yeom, “Three-dimensional identification of biological microorganism using integral imaging,” Opt. Express 14, 12096-12108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Formation of real, orthoscopic integral images by smart pixel mapping,” Opt. Express 13, 9175-9180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12, 483-491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yeom, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Compression of 3D color integral images,” Opt. Express 12, 1632-1642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.-H.

Jung, S.

Kanade, T.

M. Okutomi and T. Kanade, “A multiple-baseline stereo,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Machine Intell. 15, 353-363(1993).

Kang, J.-M.

Kawai, H.

Kawakita, M.

Kim, D.-S.

Kim, E.-H.

Kim, E.-S.

Kim, H.

Kim, H.-R.

Kim, J.

J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging system using an electroluminescent film backlight for three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertibility and a curved structure,” Appl. Opt. 48, 998-1007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing window expansion of integral floating display,” Appl. Opt. 48, 862-867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16, 8549-8556(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis on viewing characteristics of an integral floating system,” Appl. Opt. 47, D80-D86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15, 13023-13034 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3766-3773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J. Kim, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Point light source integral imaging with improved resolution and viewing angle by the use of electrically movable pinhole array,” Opt. Express 15, 18253-18267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth- and viewing-angle-enhanced 3-D/2-D switchable display system with high contrast ratio using multiple display devices and a lens array,” J. Soc. Info. Display 15, 315-320 (2007).

S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343(2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L71-L74 (2005).

J.-H. Park, J. Kim, J.-P. Bae, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Viewing angle enhancement of three-dimension/two-dimension convertible integral imaging display using double collimated or non-collimated illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L991-L994 (2005).

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-S.

Kim, N.

Kim, S.-C.

Kim, S.-H.

Kim, Y.

J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging system using an electroluminescent film backlight for three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertibility and a curved structure,” Appl. Opt. 48, 998-1007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging system using an electroluminescent film backlight for three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertibility and a curved structure,” Appl. Opt. 48, 998-1007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hahn, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Uniform angular resolution integral imaging display with boundary folding mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 48, 504-511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis on viewing characteristics of an integral floating system,” Appl. Opt. 47, D80-D86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hahn, Y. Kim, E.-H. Kim, and B. Lee, “Undistorted pickup method of both virtual and real objects for integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 13969-13978 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3766-3773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3766-3773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth- and viewing-angle-enhanced 3-D/2-D switchable display system with high contrast ratio using multiple display devices and a lens array,” J. Soc. Info. Display 15, 315-320 (2007).

Y. Kim, J. Kim, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Point light source integral imaging with improved resolution and viewing angle by the use of electrically movable pinhole array,” Opt. Express 15, 18253-18267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, J. Kim, J.-P. Bae, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Viewing angle enhancement of three-dimension/two-dimension convertible integral imaging display using double collimated or non-collimated illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L991-L994 (2005).

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Park, J. Hong, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Enhancement of viewing angle and viewing distance in integral imaging by head tracking,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper DWB27.

Kobayashi, M.

Kontaxakis, I.

Kung, S. Y.

C. Wu, M. McCormick, A. Aggoun, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth mapping of integral images through viewpoint image extraction with a hybrid disparity analysis algorithm,” J. Display Technol. 4, 101-108 (2008).

C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 135-143(2002).

Kwack, K.-D.

Lee, B.

J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging system using an electroluminescent film backlight for three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertibility and a curved structure,” Appl. Opt. 48, 998-1007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing window expansion of integral floating display,” Appl. Opt. 48, 862-867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hahn, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Uniform angular resolution integral imaging display with boundary folding mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 48, 504-511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16, 8549-8556(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis on viewing characteristics of an integral floating system,” Appl. Opt. 47, D80-D86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Hahn, and B. Lee, “The use of a negative index planoconcave lens array for wide-viewing angle integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 21865-21880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 8800-8813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hahn, Y. Kim, E.-H. Kim, and B. Lee, “Undistorted pickup method of both virtual and real objects for integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 13969-13978 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3766-3773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15, 13023-13034 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth- and viewing-angle-enhanced 3-D/2-D switchable display system with high contrast ratio using multiple display devices and a lens array,” J. Soc. Info. Display 15, 315-320 (2007).

Y. Kim, J. Kim, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Point light source integral imaging with improved resolution and viewing angle by the use of electrically movable pinhole array,” Opt. Express 15, 18253-18267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343(2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Multidirectional curved integral imaging with large depth by additional use of a large-aperture lens,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7375-7381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L71-L74 (2005).

J.-H. Park, J. Kim, J.-P. Bae, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Viewing angle enhancement of three-dimension/two-dimension convertible integral imaging display using double collimated or non-collimated illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L991-L994 (2005).

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Analysis of an optical depth converter used in a three-dimensional integral imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4539-4549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate,” Opt. Express 11, 782 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, and J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818-820(2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “A novel depth extraction algorithm incorporating a lens array and a camera by reassembling pixel columns of elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 4929, 49-58 (2002).

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “A new stereovision scheme using a camera and a lens array,” Proc. SPIE 4471, 73-80 (2001).

K. Hong, J. Hong, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Improved three-dimensional depth extraction using super resolved elemental image set,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper DWB1.

G. Park, J. Hong, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Enhancement of viewing angle and viewing distance in integral imaging by head tracking,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper DWB27.

Lee, B.-G.

Lee, K.-J.

Lee, S.-D.

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M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH) 25, 924-934 (2006).

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Bredif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Stanford Tech. Rep. CTSR 2005-02 (Stanford University, 2005).

Liao, H.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821-825 (1908).

Martinez-Corral, M.

Martínez-Corral, M.

Martinez-Cuenca, R.

Martínez-Cuenca, R.

McCormick, M.

Min, S.-W.

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing window expansion of integral floating display,” Appl. Opt. 48, 862-867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16, 8549-8556(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis on viewing characteristics of an integral floating system,” Appl. Opt. 47, D80-D86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15, 13023-13034 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L71-L74 (2005).

S.-W. Min, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Analysis of an optical depth converter used in a three-dimensional integral imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4539-4549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “A new stereovision scheme using a camera and a lens array,” Proc. SPIE 4471, 73-80 (2001).

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, T.

Moon, I.

Navarro, H.

Ng, R.

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH) 25, 924-934 (2006).

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Bredif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Stanford Tech. Rep. CTSR 2005-02 (Stanford University, 2005).

Nojiri, Y.

Oi, R.

Okano, F.

J. Arai, H. Kawai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Depth-control method for integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33, 279-281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, F. Okano, K. Suehiro, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Geometric analysis of spatial distortion in projection-type integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33, 684-686 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Okano, J. Arai, and M. Kawakita, “Wave optical analysis of integral method for three-dimensional images,” Opt. Lett. 32, 364-366 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Mishina, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Calculation of holograms from elemental images captured by integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4026-4036 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, “Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1704-1712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, H. Kawai, and F. Okano, “Microlens arrays for integral imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9066-9078 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Okui, J. Arai, Y. Nojiri, and F. Okano, “Optical screen for direct projection of integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9132-9139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, and F. Okano, “Geometrical effects of positional errors in integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 951-958 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, F. Okano, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, “Gradient-index lens-array method based on real-time integral photography for three-dimensional images,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2034-2045(1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okui, M.

Okutomi, M.

M. Okutomi and T. Kanade, “A multiple-baseline stereo,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Machine Intell. 15, 353-363(1993).

Papageorgas, P. G.

Park, G.

Park, J.-H.

J.-H. Park, M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, and N. Kim, “Fresnel and Fourier hologram generation using orthographic projection images,” Opt. Express 17, 6320-6334 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Baasantseren, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Depth discrimination enhanced computational integral imaging using random pattern illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 020216 (2009).

M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “Hologram generation of 3D objects using multiple orthographic view images,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 269-274 (2008).

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 8800-8813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343(2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, J. Kim, J.-P. Bae, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Viewing angle enhancement of three-dimension/two-dimension convertible integral imaging display using double collimated or non-collimated illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L991-L994 (2005).

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate,” Opt. Express 11, 782 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, and J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818-820(2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “A novel depth extraction algorithm incorporating a lens array and a camera by reassembling pixel columns of elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 4929, 49-58 (2002).

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “A new stereovision scheme using a camera and a lens array,” Proc. SPIE 4471, 73-80 (2001).

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Hong, J. Hong, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Improved three-dimensional depth extraction using super resolved elemental image set,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper DWB1.

Park, J.-S.

Passalis, G.

Ponce-Díaz, R.

Pons, A.

Rosen, J.

Saavedra, G.

Sangriotis, M.

Sangriotis, M. S.

Sasaki, H.

Sato, M.

Saveljev, V. V.

Schulein, R.

Senoh, T.

Sgouros, N.

Sgouros, N. P.

Shaked, N. T.

Shin, D.-H.

Shin, S.-J.

Son, J.-Y.

Stern, A.

Suehiro, K.

Tavakoli, B.

Theofanous, N. G.

Theoharis, T.

Wang, X.

Watson, E.

Wei, T.-C.

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C. Wheatstone, “Contributions to the physiology of vision.--Part the first. On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, phenomena of binocular vision,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 128, 371-394 (1838).
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Wong, H.-S. P.

K. Fife, A. E. Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A multiaperture image sensor with 0.7 um pixels in 0.11 um CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2990-3005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, M. McCormick, A. Aggoun, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth mapping of integral images through viewpoint image extraction with a hybrid disparity analysis algorithm,” J. Display Technol. 4, 101-108 (2008).

C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 135-143(2002).

Yamamoto, K.

Yamashita, T.

Yang, L.

Yeom, S.

Yoo, H.

Yoshimura, M.

Yuyama, I.

ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH)

M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH) 25, 924-934 (2006).

Appl. Opt.

D.-C. Hwang, J.-S. Park, S.-C. Kim, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Magnification of 3D reconstructed images in integral imaging using an intermediate-view reconstruction technique,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4631-4637 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Hyun, D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Curved computational integral imaging reconstruction technique for resolution-enhanced display of three-dimensional object images,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7697-7708 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Shin and H. Yoo, “Signal model and granular-noise analysis of computational image reconstruction for curved integral imaging systems,” Appl. Opt. 48, 827-833 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Lee, D.-C. Hwang, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Blur-metric-based resolution enhancement of computationally reconstructed integral images,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2859-2869(2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, F. Okano, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, “Gradient-index lens-array method based on real-time integral photography for three-dimensional images,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2034-2045(1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, H. Kawai, and F. Okano, “Microlens arrays for integral imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9066-9078 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and L. Yang, “3D imaging systems: a new development,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4520-4528 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Analysis of an optical depth converter used in a three-dimensional integral imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4539-4549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4882-4895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Passalis, N. Sgouros, S. Athineos, and T. Theoharis, “Enhanced reconstruction of three-dimensional shape and texture from integral photography images,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5311-5320(2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Mishina, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Calculation of holograms from elemental images captured by integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4026-4036 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Sgouros, I. Kontaxakis, and M. Sangriotis, “Effect of different traversal schemes in integral image coding,” Appl. Opt. 47, D28-D37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217-5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, L. He, and Q. Bu, “Performance characterization of integral imaging systems based on human vision,” Appl. Opt. 48, 183-188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing window expansion of integral floating display,” Appl. Opt. 48, 862-867 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Analysis on viewing characteristics of an integral floating system,” Appl. Opt. 47, D80-D86 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3766-3773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Jung, Y. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging system using an electroluminescent film backlight for three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertibility and a curved structure,” Appl. Opt. 48, 998-1007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Multidirectional curved integral imaging with large depth by additional use of a large-aperture lens,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7375-7381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44, 546-552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, M. Okui, T. Yamashita, and F. Okano, “Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1704-1712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Okui, J. Arai, Y. Nojiri, and F. Okano, “Optical screen for direct projection of integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9132-9139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional integral display using plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7149-7154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hahn, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Uniform angular resolution integral imaging display with boundary folding mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 48, 504-511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

K. Fife, A. E. Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A multiaperture image sensor with 0.7 um pixels in 0.11 um CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2990-3005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Machine Intell.

M. Okutomi and T. Kanade, “A multiple-baseline stereo,” IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Machine Intell. 15, 353-363(1993).

J. Display Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am A

C. M. Do, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional object-distortion-tolerant recognition for integral imaging using independent component analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 26, 245-251 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Korea

J. Phys.

G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversible donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821-825 (1908).

J. Soc. Info. Display

H. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth- and viewing-angle-enhanced 3-D/2-D switchable display system with high contrast ratio using multiple display devices and a lens array,” J. Soc. Info. Display 15, 315-320 (2007).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J.-H. Park, J. Kim, J.-P. Bae, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Viewing angle enhancement of three-dimension/two-dimension convertible integral imaging display using double collimated or non-collimated illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L991-L994 (2005).

G. Baasantseren, J.-H. Park, and N. Kim, “Depth discrimination enhanced computational integral imaging using random pattern illumination,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 020216 (2009).

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L71-L74 (2005).

Opt. Express

N. T. Shaked, J. Rosen, and A. Stern, “Integral holography: white-light single-shot hologram acquisition,” Opt. Express 15, 5754-5760 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, and N. Kim, “Fresnel and Fourier hologram generation using orthographic projection images,” Opt. Express 17, 6320-6334 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yeom, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Compression of 3D color integral images,” Opt. Express 12, 1632-1642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 8800-8813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate,” Opt. Express 11, 782 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Martínez-Cuenca, H. Navarro, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, and M. Martinez-Corral, “Enhanced viewing-angle integral imaging by multiple-axis telecentric relay system,” Opt. Express 15, 16255-16260 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16, 8549-8556(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15, 13023-13034 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. DaneshPanah, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three dimensional imaging with randomly distributed sensors,” Opt. Express 16, 6368-6377 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Moon and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of objects in scattering medium by use of computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 13080-13089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Tavakoli, M. Daneshpanah, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Performance of 3D integral imaging with position uncertainty,” Opt. Express 15, 11889-11902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Saavedra, R. Martinez-Cuenca, M. Martinez-Corral, H. Navarro, M. Daneshpanah, and B. Javidi, “Digital slicing of 3D scenes by Fourier filtering of integral images,” Opt. Express 16, 17154-17160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three-dimensional distortion-tolerant object recognition using photon-counting integral imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 1513-1533 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Tavakoli, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three dimensional visualization by photon counting computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 4426-4436 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, I. Moon, and S. Yeom, “Three-dimensional identification of biological microorganism using integral imaging,” Opt. Express 14, 12096-12108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “ Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted integral image display,” Opt. Express 14, 9657-9663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hahn, Y. Kim, E.-H. Kim, and B. Lee, “Undistorted pickup method of both virtual and real objects for integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 13969-13978 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Formation of real, orthoscopic integral images by smart pixel mapping,” Opt. Express 13, 9175-9180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Sgouros, S. S. Athineos, M. S. Sangriotis, P. G. Papageorgas, and N. G. Theofanous, “Accurate lattice extraction in integral images,” Opt. Express 14, 10403-10409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12, 483-491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Shin and H. Yoo, “Image quality enhancement in 3D computational integral imaging by use of interpolation methods,” Opt. Express 15, 12039-12049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, T. Dohi, and M. Iwahara, “Improved viewing resolution of integral videography by use of rotated prism sheets,” Opt. Express 15, 4814-4822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J. Kim, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Point light source integral imaging with improved resolution and viewing angle by the use of electrically movable pinhole array,” Opt. Express 15, 18253-18267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, “High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector,” Opt. Express 12, 1067-1076 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Hahn, and B. Lee, “The use of a negative index planoconcave lens array for wide-viewing angle integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16, 21865-21880 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang and H. Hua, “Theoretical analysis for integral imaging performance based on microscanning of a microlens array,” Opt. Lett. 33, 449-451 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Arai, H. Kawai, M. Kawakita, and F. Okano, “Depth-control method for integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33, 279-281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Moon and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional recognition of photon-starved events using computational integral imaging and statistical sampling,” Opt. Lett. 34, 731-733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Díaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded objects by using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1106-1108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional tracking of occluded objects using integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2737-2739(2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Okano, J. Arai, and M. Kawakita, “Wave optical analysis of integral method for three-dimensional images,” Opt. Lett. 32, 364-366 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, A. Pons, B. Javidi, and M. Martínez-Corral, “Facet braiding: a fundamental problem in integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1078-1080(2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Jung, and J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 818-820(2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawakita, H. Sasaki, J. Arai, F. Okano, K. Suehiro, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, and M. Sato, “Geometric analysis of spatial distortion in projection-type integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33, 684-686 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London

C. Wheatstone, “Contributions to the physiology of vision.--Part the first. On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, phenomena of binocular vision,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 128, 371-394 (1838).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “A new stereovision scheme using a camera and a lens array,” Proc. SPIE 4471, 73-80 (2001).

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “A novel depth extraction algorithm incorporating a lens array and a camera by reassembling pixel columns of elemental images,” Proc. SPIE 4929, 49-58 (2002).

C. Wu, A. Aggoun, M. McCormick, and S. Y. Kung, “Depth extraction from unidirectional integral image using a modified multi-baseline technique,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 135-143(2002).

Other

K. Hong, J. Hong, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Improved three-dimensional depth extraction using super resolved elemental image set,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper DWB1.

G. Park, J. Hong, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Enhancement of viewing angle and viewing distance in integral imaging by head tracking,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging (DH) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper DWB27.

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Bredif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Stanford Tech. Rep. CTSR 2005-02 (Stanford University, 2005).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Number of integral imaging papers published by OSA. Both journal and conference papers are included.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Concept of integral imaging.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of integral imaging (a) continuous light rays from the object points, (b) sampled light rays by a pinhole array, (c) disparity between elemental images, (d) optical reproduction of the sampled light rays using a pinhole array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pickup system using a single imaging lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Configurations of pickup system: (a) imaging lens at focal length of the field lens, (b) telecentric relay, (c) telecentric relay plus 4-f optics.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pickup system for pseudoscopic to orthoscopic conversion: (a) GRIN lens array, (b) overlaid lens arrays, (c) optical depth converter, (d) digital second pickup.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Concept of depth slice reconstruction (CIIR).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example of the reconstructed depth slice images (View 1).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Subimage generation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Example of the view generation (following the method presented in Ref. [46]): (a) elemental images, (b) generated view images (View 2).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Disparity dependency on the object depth: (a) disparity between elemental images, (b) disparity between subimages.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

3D mesh model of the object reconstructed from the elemental images (following the method presented in Ref. [45]): (a) elemental images, (b) reconstructed mesh model (View 3).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Example of the Fourier hologram calculated from the elemental images following Ref. [52]: (a) elemental images, (b) calculated Fourier hologram, (c) hologram reconstruction at various distances (View 4).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Display modes of integral imaging: (a) real/virtual mode, (b) focused mode.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Depth range and viewing angle of integral imaging display: (a) depth range of real mode, (b) depth range of focused mode, (c) viewing angle.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Examples of depth range enhancing configuration: (a) floating display, (b) multiple CDPs.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Examples of viewing angle enhancing configuration: (a) curved lens array, (b) multiaxis telecentric system, (c) head tracking.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Examples of resolution enhancing configuration: (a) multiprojection, (b) rotating prism, (c) electrically movable pinhole array.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Other advanced integral imaging display systems: (a) 3D/2D convertible display, (b) flexible configuration using a plastic fiber array, (c) uniform angular resolution by boundary mirrors.

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Tables (3)

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Table 1 Comparison between Stereoscopy, Integral Imaging and Holography

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Table 2 3D Data Processing based on Integral Imaging

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Table 3 Viewing Parameter Enhancement of 3D Displays based on Integral Imaging

Metrics