Abstract

There is growing interest in imaging and display of stereoscopic images on a mobile phone. Mobile phone users can capture a stereo image pair by taking two pictures, one after another, with a single camera at the left and right eye positions. Such a handheld setup makes it difficult to take the stereo image pair at the exact positions. In this respect, although either radial (toed-in) or parallel arrangements can be used, the former is better suited for a short distance subject, such as a self-portrait, because a single reference point can be placed at the center of two pictures. We describe the optimum distance of camera shifting in the horizontal direction, allowable differences of the radial arrangement for taking stereo images at a short distance, and the alignment procedure of viewing zone forming optics on the display panel through experiments and human subjective evaluation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J.-Y. Son, K.-H. Cha, S.-K. Kim, M.-C. Park, and S.-H. Jang, “Stereo-photography with hand phone,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 639205 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Takehiro, Fundamentals of 3D Images (NHK Broadcasting Technology Research Center, 1995).
  3. K.-H. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Yoon, J.-Y. Son, M.-C. Park, and S.-K. Kim, “Constraints for stereoscopic vision in stereo camera phone,” Proc. SPIE 6778, 67780H (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Uehara, T. Hiroya, H. Kusanagi, K. Shigemura, and H. Asada, “High-visibility 2D/3D LCD with HDDP arrangement and its optical characterization methods,” in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Information Display, Vol. 9-4 (Korean Information Display Society, 2008).
  5. J. Flack, J. Harrold, and G. J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next-generation autostereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900M (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Takaki, O. Yokoyama, and G. Hamagishi, “Flat panel display with slanted pixel arrangement for 16-view display,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723708 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Woods, T. Docherty, and R. Koch, “Image distortions in stereoscopic video systems,” Proc. SPIE 1915, 36-48(1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. T. Rule, “The shape of stereoscopic images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 124-129 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. G. Saunders, “Stereoscopic drawing by computer--is it orthoscopic?,” Appl. Opt. 7, 1499-1504 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J.-Y. Son, Y. N. Gruts, K.-D. Kwack, K.-H. Cha, and S.-K. Kim, “Stereoscopic image distortion in radial camera and projector configurations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 643-650(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Yamanoue, “The relation between size distortion and shooting conditions for stereoscopic images,” J. SMPTE 106, 225-232 (1997).
  12. J.-Y. Son, Y. Gruts, J.-H. Chun, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, and V. I. Bobrinev, “Distortion analysis in stereoscopic images,” Opt. Eng. 41, 680-685 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J.-Y. Son, V. I. Bobrinev, and K.-T. Kim, “Depth resolution and displayable depth of a scene in 3 dimensional images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1739-1745 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, K.-H. Cha, and S.-H. Jang, “3-D image display on handphone,” AIP Conf. Proc. 860, 427-435 (2006).

2009

Y. Takaki, O. Yokoyama, and G. Hamagishi, “Flat panel display with slanted pixel arrangement for 16-view display,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

K.-H. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Yoon, J.-Y. Son, M.-C. Park, and S.-K. Kim, “Constraints for stereoscopic vision in stereo camera phone,” Proc. SPIE 6778, 67780H (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Flack, J. Harrold, and G. J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next-generation autostereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900M (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, Y. N. Gruts, K.-D. Kwack, K.-H. Cha, and S.-K. Kim, “Stereoscopic image distortion in radial camera and projector configurations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 643-650(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J.-Y. Son, K.-H. Cha, S.-K. Kim, M.-C. Park, and S.-H. Jang, “Stereo-photography with hand phone,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 639205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, K.-H. Cha, and S.-H. Jang, “3-D image display on handphone,” AIP Conf. Proc. 860, 427-435 (2006).

2005

2002

J.-Y. Son, Y. Gruts, J.-H. Chun, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, and V. I. Bobrinev, “Distortion analysis in stereoscopic images,” Opt. Eng. 41, 680-685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Yamanoue, “The relation between size distortion and shooting conditions for stereoscopic images,” J. SMPTE 106, 225-232 (1997).

1993

A. Woods, T. Docherty, and R. Koch, “Image distortions in stereoscopic video systems,” Proc. SPIE 1915, 36-48(1993).
[CrossRef]

1968

1941

Asada, H.

S. Uehara, T. Hiroya, H. Kusanagi, K. Shigemura, and H. Asada, “High-visibility 2D/3D LCD with HDDP arrangement and its optical characterization methods,” in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Information Display, Vol. 9-4 (Korean Information Display Society, 2008).

Bahn, J.-E.

J.-Y. Son, Y. Gruts, J.-H. Chun, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, and V. I. Bobrinev, “Distortion analysis in stereoscopic images,” Opt. Eng. 41, 680-685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bobrinev, V. I.

J.-Y. Son, V. I. Bobrinev, and K.-T. Kim, “Depth resolution and displayable depth of a scene in 3 dimensional images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1739-1745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, Y. Gruts, J.-H. Chun, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, and V. I. Bobrinev, “Distortion analysis in stereoscopic images,” Opt. Eng. 41, 680-685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cha, K.-H.

J.-Y. Son, Y. N. Gruts, K.-D. Kwack, K.-H. Cha, and S.-K. Kim, “Stereoscopic image distortion in radial camera and projector configurations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 643-650(2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, K.-H. Cha, S.-K. Kim, M.-C. Park, and S.-H. Jang, “Stereo-photography with hand phone,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 639205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, K.-H. Cha, and S.-H. Jang, “3-D image display on handphone,” AIP Conf. Proc. 860, 427-435 (2006).

Choi, Y.-J.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, K.-H. Cha, and S.-H. Jang, “3-D image display on handphone,” AIP Conf. Proc. 860, 427-435 (2006).

J.-Y. Son, Y. Gruts, J.-H. Chun, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, and V. I. Bobrinev, “Distortion analysis in stereoscopic images,” Opt. Eng. 41, 680-685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chun, J.-H.

J.-Y. Son, Y. Gruts, J.-H. Chun, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, and V. I. Bobrinev, “Distortion analysis in stereoscopic images,” Opt. Eng. 41, 680-685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Docherty, T.

A. Woods, T. Docherty, and R. Koch, “Image distortions in stereoscopic video systems,” Proc. SPIE 1915, 36-48(1993).
[CrossRef]

Flack, J.

J. Flack, J. Harrold, and G. J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next-generation autostereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gruts, Y.

J.-Y. Son, Y. Gruts, J.-H. Chun, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, and V. I. Bobrinev, “Distortion analysis in stereoscopic images,” Opt. Eng. 41, 680-685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gruts, Y. N.

Hamagishi, G.

Y. Takaki, O. Yokoyama, and G. Hamagishi, “Flat panel display with slanted pixel arrangement for 16-view display,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harrold, J.

J. Flack, J. Harrold, and G. J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next-generation autostereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hiroya, T.

S. Uehara, T. Hiroya, H. Kusanagi, K. Shigemura, and H. Asada, “High-visibility 2D/3D LCD with HDDP arrangement and its optical characterization methods,” in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Information Display, Vol. 9-4 (Korean Information Display Society, 2008).

Jang, S.-H.

J.-Y. Son, K.-H. Cha, S.-K. Kim, M.-C. Park, and S.-H. Jang, “Stereo-photography with hand phone,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 639205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, K.-H. Cha, and S.-H. Jang, “3-D image display on handphone,” AIP Conf. Proc. 860, 427-435 (2006).

Kim, K.-T.

Kim, S.-H.

K.-H. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Yoon, J.-Y. Son, M.-C. Park, and S.-K. Kim, “Constraints for stereoscopic vision in stereo camera phone,” Proc. SPIE 6778, 67780H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-K.

K.-H. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Yoon, J.-Y. Son, M.-C. Park, and S.-K. Kim, “Constraints for stereoscopic vision in stereo camera phone,” Proc. SPIE 6778, 67780H (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, Y. N. Gruts, K.-D. Kwack, K.-H. Cha, and S.-K. Kim, “Stereoscopic image distortion in radial camera and projector configurations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 643-650(2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, K.-H. Cha, S.-K. Kim, M.-C. Park, and S.-H. Jang, “Stereo-photography with hand phone,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 639205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, R.

A. Woods, T. Docherty, and R. Koch, “Image distortions in stereoscopic video systems,” Proc. SPIE 1915, 36-48(1993).
[CrossRef]

Kusanagi, H.

S. Uehara, T. Hiroya, H. Kusanagi, K. Shigemura, and H. Asada, “High-visibility 2D/3D LCD with HDDP arrangement and its optical characterization methods,” in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Information Display, Vol. 9-4 (Korean Information Display Society, 2008).

Kwack, K.-D.

Lee, K.-H.

K.-H. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Yoon, J.-Y. Son, M.-C. Park, and S.-K. Kim, “Constraints for stereoscopic vision in stereo camera phone,” Proc. SPIE 6778, 67780H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, M.-C.

K.-H. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Yoon, J.-Y. Son, M.-C. Park, and S.-K. Kim, “Constraints for stereoscopic vision in stereo camera phone,” Proc. SPIE 6778, 67780H (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, K.-H. Cha, S.-K. Kim, M.-C. Park, and S.-H. Jang, “Stereo-photography with hand phone,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 639205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rule, J. T.

Saunders, B. G.

Saveljev, V. V.

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, K.-H. Cha, and S.-H. Jang, “3-D image display on handphone,” AIP Conf. Proc. 860, 427-435 (2006).

Shigemura, K.

S. Uehara, T. Hiroya, H. Kusanagi, K. Shigemura, and H. Asada, “High-visibility 2D/3D LCD with HDDP arrangement and its optical characterization methods,” in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Information Display, Vol. 9-4 (Korean Information Display Society, 2008).

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son, Y. N. Gruts, K.-D. Kwack, K.-H. Cha, and S.-K. Kim, “Stereoscopic image distortion in radial camera and projector configurations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 643-650(2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Yoon, J.-Y. Son, M.-C. Park, and S.-K. Kim, “Constraints for stereoscopic vision in stereo camera phone,” Proc. SPIE 6778, 67780H (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, K.-H. Cha, S.-K. Kim, M.-C. Park, and S.-H. Jang, “Stereo-photography with hand phone,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 639205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, K.-H. Cha, and S.-H. Jang, “3-D image display on handphone,” AIP Conf. Proc. 860, 427-435 (2006).

J.-Y. Son, V. I. Bobrinev, and K.-T. Kim, “Depth resolution and displayable depth of a scene in 3 dimensional images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1739-1745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, Y. Gruts, J.-H. Chun, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, and V. I. Bobrinev, “Distortion analysis in stereoscopic images,” Opt. Eng. 41, 680-685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, O. Yokoyama, and G. Hamagishi, “Flat panel display with slanted pixel arrangement for 16-view display,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takehiro, I.

I. Takehiro, Fundamentals of 3D Images (NHK Broadcasting Technology Research Center, 1995).

Uehara, S.

S. Uehara, T. Hiroya, H. Kusanagi, K. Shigemura, and H. Asada, “High-visibility 2D/3D LCD with HDDP arrangement and its optical characterization methods,” in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Information Display, Vol. 9-4 (Korean Information Display Society, 2008).

Woodgate, G. J.

J. Flack, J. Harrold, and G. J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next-generation autostereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woods, A.

A. Woods, T. Docherty, and R. Koch, “Image distortions in stereoscopic video systems,” Proc. SPIE 1915, 36-48(1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamanoue, H.

H. Yamanoue, “The relation between size distortion and shooting conditions for stereoscopic images,” J. SMPTE 106, 225-232 (1997).

Yokoyama, O.

Y. Takaki, O. Yokoyama, and G. Hamagishi, “Flat panel display with slanted pixel arrangement for 16-view display,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Y.-S.

K.-H. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Yoon, J.-Y. Son, M.-C. Park, and S.-K. Kim, “Constraints for stereoscopic vision in stereo camera phone,” Proc. SPIE 6778, 67780H (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. SMPTE

H. Yamanoue, “The relation between size distortion and shooting conditions for stereoscopic images,” J. SMPTE 106, 225-232 (1997).

Opt. Eng.

J.-Y. Son, Y. Gruts, J.-H. Chun, Y.-J. Choi, J.-E. Bahn, and V. I. Bobrinev, “Distortion analysis in stereoscopic images,” Opt. Eng. 41, 680-685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J.-Y. Son, K.-H. Cha, S.-K. Kim, M.-C. Park, and S.-H. Jang, “Stereo-photography with hand phone,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 639205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Yoon, J.-Y. Son, M.-C. Park, and S.-K. Kim, “Constraints for stereoscopic vision in stereo camera phone,” Proc. SPIE 6778, 67780H (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Flack, J. Harrold, and G. J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next-generation autostereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, O. Yokoyama, and G. Hamagishi, “Flat panel display with slanted pixel arrangement for 16-view display,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723708 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Woods, T. Docherty, and R. Koch, “Image distortions in stereoscopic video systems,” Proc. SPIE 1915, 36-48(1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

J.-Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, Y.-J. Choi, K.-H. Cha, and S.-H. Jang, “3-D image display on handphone,” AIP Conf. Proc. 860, 427-435 (2006).

S. Uehara, T. Hiroya, H. Kusanagi, K. Shigemura, and H. Asada, “High-visibility 2D/3D LCD with HDDP arrangement and its optical characterization methods,” in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Information Display, Vol. 9-4 (Korean Information Display Society, 2008).

I. Takehiro, Fundamentals of 3D Images (NHK Broadcasting Technology Research Center, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Parallel camera arrangement. Cameras are aligned with a constant interval to have their optical axes parallel to each other in a camera array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radial camera arrangement. Cameras are aligned with a constant angle interval on an arc with a specific radius of curvature, and the center of the curvature is used as a reference point when taking stereo images with a single camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Keystone and nonlinearity distortions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mixed image pair for different base distances of (a)  5 mm , (b)  10 mm , (c)  15 mm , (d)  20 mm when the distance between the camera of the mobile phone and the object is 21 cm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Synthesized stereo images by shifting the center of the left image vertically by (a) 2, (b) 3, and (c) 4 pixels.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Synthesized stereo images when the left image is rotated by (a)  4 ° , (b)  5 ° , (c)  6 ° in a counterclockwise direction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Process of stereo image capture and display for a 3-D mobile phone with a single camera: (a) taking a left view image, (b) storing, (c) taking a right view image, (d) stereo image pair, (e) synthesis of stereo images, (f) synthesized files, (g) combined image, (h) detachable VZFO, (i) stereoscopic image display.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Alignment procedure for an optical plate: (a) test pattern, (b) initial stage, (c) intermediate stage, (d) final stage.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Several mixed stereo image pairs photographed with the mobile phone in Fig. 8.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sin φ C sin φ P = m z C z P , z P 2 = m p z C 2 / c ,
N = 2 t [ s 2 ( 2.44 λ F D ) 2 ] 1 / 2 s D ,

Metrics