Abstract

Holographic gratings were recorded in C60-doped nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) by two-beam coupling. The asymmetric energy transfer dependence on the polarity of the applied voltage and multiple diffractions in two-beam coupling indicated that the gratings were photorefractive and worked in the Raman–Nath regime. The diffraction efficiencies (DEs) of the main diffraction orders were investigated at different applied voltages. The diffractive intensity distribution was asymmetric, and a first-order DE as high as 66% (as high as 84% excluding the influence of the scattering) was obtained from the 20μm thick C60-doped NLC film.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

2007 (1)

X. Sun, F. Yao, Y. Pei, and J. Zhang, “Light controlled diffraction gratings in C60-doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effect in undoped and CdSe nanorods-doped nematic liquid crystal-bulk and interface contributions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 443-450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee and C.-C. Lee, “Two-wave mixing in a nematic liquid-crystal film sandwiched between photoconducting polymeric layers,” Nanotechnology 17, 157-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, “Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. P. Wiederrecht, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139-169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures,” Opt. Commun. 187, 257-261(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525-534(1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 78, 875-882 (1994).

1978 (1)

Bartkiewicz, S.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures,” Opt. Commun. 187, 257-261(2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Cipparrone, G.

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, “Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dyadyusha, A.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Guenther, B. D.

Kaczmarek, M.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures,” Opt. Commun. 187, 257-261(2001).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effect in undoped and CdSe nanorods-doped nematic liquid crystal-bulk and interface contributions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 443-450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M.-Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525-534(1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. J.

Kim, G. Y.

Kwak, C. H.

Lee, C.-C.

W. Lee and C.-C. Lee, “Two-wave mixing in a nematic liquid-crystal film sandwiched between photoconducting polymeric layers,” Nanotechnology 17, 157-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

Lee, W.

W. Lee and C.-C. Lee, “Two-wave mixing in a nematic liquid-crystal film sandwiched between photoconducting polymeric layers,” Nanotechnology 17, 157-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

Matczyszyn, K.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures,” Opt. Commun. 187, 257-261(2001).
[CrossRef]

Miniewicz, A.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures,” Opt. Commun. 187, 257-261(2001).
[CrossRef]

Ostroverkhov, V.

Pagliusi, P.

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, “Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pei, Y.

X. Sun, F. Yao, Y. Pei, and J. Zhang, “Light controlled diffraction gratings in C60-doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

Reznikov, Yu.

Rudenko, E. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 78, 875-882 (1994).

Shih, M.-Y.

Singer, K. D.

Slussarenko, S.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M.-Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 78, 875-882 (1994).

Sun, X.

X. Sun, F. Yao, Y. Pei, and J. Zhang, “Light controlled diffraction gratings in C60-doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. P. Wiederrecht, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139-169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. V.

Yang, H. R.

Yao, F.

X. Sun, F. Yao, Y. Pei, and J. Zhang, “Light controlled diffraction gratings in C60-doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1993).

Zhang, J.

X. Sun, F. Yao, Y. Pei, and J. Zhang, “Light controlled diffraction gratings in C60-doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Electrically controlled surface diffraction gratings in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139-169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525-534(1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effect in undoped and CdSe nanorods-doped nematic liquid crystal-bulk and interface contributions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 443-450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, “The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, F. Yao, Y. Pei, and J. Zhang, “Light controlled diffraction gratings in C60-doped nematic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (1)

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 78, 875-882 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nanotechnology (1)

W. Lee and C.-C. Lee, “Two-wave mixing in a nematic liquid-crystal film sandwiched between photoconducting polymeric layers,” Nanotechnology 17, 157-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, “High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures,” Opt. Commun. 187, 257-261(2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, “Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1993).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-beam-coupling with a laser probe experimental setup was used to study the diffractive properties of the thin grating produced in a NLC cell. The grating was recorded by two Ar + laser beams I 1 and I 2 under the application of a dc voltage. A weak p-polarized He–Ne laser beam I 3 was used to probe the grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time evolution of the two transmitted beams in two-beam-coupling setup at applied voltage of 1.6 V with the polarity (a) the same as that shown in Fig. 1 and (b) reverse to that shown in Fig. 1. The powers of two writing beams were both 1 mW .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction pattern at the applied voltage of 1.9 V captured by a CCD camera.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the first-order diffraction efficiency on the applied voltage, Inset, time evolution of the first-order diffraction efficiency at 1.9 V .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction distributions of the main diffractive orders.

Equations (1)

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η i = J i 2 ( 2 π L n 1 λ cos θ ) ,

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