Abstract

Measuring buried, undercut microstructures is a challenging task in metrology. These structures are usually characterized by measuring their cross sections after physically cutting the samples. This method is destructive and the obtained information is incomplete. The distortion due to cutting also affects the measurement accuracy. In this paper, we first apply the laser fluorescent confocal microscopy and intensity differentiation algorithm to obtain the complete three-dimensional profile of the buried, undercut structures in microfluidic devices, which are made by the soft lithography technique and bonded by the oxygen plasma method. The impact of material wettability and the refractive index (n) mismatch among the liquid, samples, cover layer, and objective on the measurement accuracy are experimentally investigated.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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R. B. Xing, Y. Xuan, Z. Wang, and D. G. Ma, “Undercut structures fabricated by microtransfer printing combined with UV exposure and their applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9, 760-763 (2009).
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S. G. Li, Z. G. Xu, I. Reading, S. F. Yoon, Z. P. Fang, and J. H. Zhao, “ Three dimensional sidewall measurements by laser fluorescent confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 4001-4014 (2008).
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2007 (9)

B. Z. Yang and Q. Lin, “A planar compliance-based self-adaptive microfluid variable resistor,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 411-19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Samel, M. K. Chowdhury, and G. Stemme, “The fabrication of microfluidic structures by means of full-wafer adhesive bonding using a poly (dimethylsiloxane) catalyst,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 171710-1714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Al-Assaad, L. Tao, and W. C. Hu, “Visible light angular scatterometry for nanolithography,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 651839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Z. Q. Lu, X. D. Wang, Z. Cui, G. H. Pan, Y. Zhou, M. Muñoz, C. Hao, Y. H. Lu, and N. Garcia, “Fabrication of ferromagnetic nanoconstrictions by electron beam lithography using LOR/PMMA bilayer technique,” Microelectron. Eng. 84, 1499-1502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Lenhart, D. Fischer, S. Sambasivan, E. K. Lin, W. L. Wu, D. J. Guerrero, Y. B. Wang, and R. Puligadda, “Understanding deviations in lithographic patterns near interfaces: characterization of bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARC) and the BARC--resist interface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4166-4175(2007).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Orji and R. G. Dixson, “Higher order tip effects in traceable CD-AFM-based linewidth measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 448-455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Qian and J. S. Villarrubia, “General three-dimensional image simulation and surface reconstruction in scanning probe microscopy using a dexel representation,” Ultramicrosc. 108, 29-42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Qian, J. Villarrubia, F. L. Tian, and R. Dixson, “Image simulation and surface reconstruction of undercut features in atomic force microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 651811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Van Elburg, L. C. Kuypers, W. F. Decraemer, and J. J. J. Dirckx, “Improved correction of axial geometrical distortion in index-mismatched fluorescent confocal microscopic images using high-aperture objective lenses,” J. Microsc. 228, 45-54 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

J. Li, A. Q. Liu, and Q. X. Zhang, “Tolerance analysis for comb-drive actuator using DRIE fabrication,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 125, 494-503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Murayama, S. Gonda, H. Koyanagi, T. Terasawa, and S. Hosaka, “Critical-dimension measurement using multi-angle-scanning method in atomic force microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5928-5932 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Murayama, S. Gonda, H. Koyanagi, T. Terasawa, and S. Hosaka, “Side-wall measurement using tilt-scanning method in atomic force microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5423-5428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hashimoto, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, “Polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction/hybridization assays using flow-through microfluidic devices for the detection of low-abundant DNA point mutations,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1915-1923 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhu, G. Liu, Y. H. Guo, and Y. C. Tian, “Study of PMMA thermal bonding,” Microsyst. Technol. 13, 403-407(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Y. C. Su and L. W. Lin, “Localized bonding processes for assembly and packaging of polymeric MEMS,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 635-642 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Rody, P. Martin, C. Couderc, P. Sixt, C. Gardin, K. Lucas, K. Patterson, C. Miramond-Collet, J. Belledent, R. Boone, A. Borjon, and Y. Trouiller, “Evaluation of transparent etch stop layer phase shift mask patterning and comparison with the single trench undercut approach,” Proc. SPIE 5992, 59920R (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Marschner and C. Stief, “Characterization of 193 nm resist layers by critical dimension-scanning electron microscopy sidewall imaging,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 4, 013007 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kuypers, W. F. Decraemer, J. J. J. Dirckx, and J.-P. Timmermans, “A procedure to determine the correct thickness of an object with confocal microscopy in case of refractive index mismatch,” J. Microsc. 218, 68-78 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

W. W. Y. Chow, K. F. Lei, G. Shi, W. J. Li, and Q. Huang, “Micro fluidic channel fabrication by PDMS-interface bonding,” Proc. SPIE 5275, 141-148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, “A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

B. D. Bunday, M. Bishop, J. R. Swyers, and K. Lensing, “Quantitative profile-shape measurement study on a CD-SEM with application to etch-bias control and several different CMOS features,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 383-395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Paik, J. Kim, S. Park, S. Kim, C. Koo, S. K. Lee,and D. D. Cho, “A novel micromachining technique to fabricate released GaAs microstructures with a rectangular cross section,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 326-332 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Haeberlé, M. Ammar, H. Furukawa, K. Tenjimbayashi, and P. Török, “Point spread function of optical microscopes imaging through stratified media,” Opt. Express 11, 2964-2969(2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Marmur, “Wetting on hydrophobic rough surfaces: to be heterogeneous or not to be?,” Langmuir 19, 8343-8348 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

A. Diaspro, F. Federici, and M. Robello, “Influence of refractive-index mismatch in high-resolution three-dimensional confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 41, 685-690 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opsa, H. Y. Chu, Y. X. Wen, Y. C. Chang, and G. W. Li, “Fundamental solutions for real-time optical CD metrology,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 163-176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Kaiser, Y. Levy, T. Tiedje, J. F. Young, and I. Kelson, “Determining the profile of textured membranes by the alpha particle energy loss method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2607-2609(2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chuang, F. G. Tseng, and W. K. Lin, “Reduction of diffraction effect of UV exposure on SU-8 negative thick photoresist by air gap elimination,” Microsyst. Technol. 8, 308-313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Lee, P. Im, Y. Park, and J. Kim, “Welding bead and chamfer inspection by means of laser vision,” Proc. SPIE 4190, 41-50(2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Booth and T. Wilson, “Refractive-index-mismatch induced aberrations in single-photon and two-photon microscopy and the use of aberration correction,” J Biomed. Opt. 6, 266-272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Bucher, M. Scholz, M. Stetter, K. Obermayer, and H.-J. Pflüger, “Correction methods for three-dimensional reconstructions from confocal images. I. Tissue shrinking and axial scaling,” J. Neurosci. Methods 100, 135-143 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Egner, M. Schrader, and S. W. Hell, “Refractive index mismatch induced intensity and phase variations in fluorescence confocal, multiphoton and 4Pi-microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 153, 211-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, “Focusing of electromagnetic waves through a dielectric interface by lenses of finite Fresnel number,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 3009-3015 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. J. D. Carter, A. Pepin, M. R. Schweizer, H. I. Smith, and L. E. Ocola, “Direct measurement of the effect of substrate photoelectrons in x-ray nanolithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2509-2513 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. W. Williams and N. J. Wood, “Photothermal imaging of damage and undercutting to gold-coated Kapton samples exposed to atomic oxygen,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 469-476(1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Jacobsen and S. W. Hell, “Effect of the specimen refractive index on the imaging of a confocal microscope employing high aperture oil immersion lenses,” Bioimaging 3, 39-47 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

F. Guilak, “Volume and surface area measurement of viable chondrocytes in situ using geometric modelling of serial confocal sections,” J. Microsc. 173, 245-256 (1994).

S. Murakawa and J. P. Mcvittie, “Mechanism of surface charging effects on etching profile defects,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2184-2188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

I. J. Stares, C. Duffill, J. A. Ogilvy, and C. B. Scruby, “On-line weld pool monitoring and defect detection using ultrasonics,” NDT Int. 23, 195-200 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1981 (1)

G. J. Yang and T. S. Huang, “The effect of median filtering on edge location estimation,” Comput. Graph. Image Process. 15, 224-245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adams, T.

M. G. Alonso-Amigo and T. Adams, “Development of a plastic microfluidics chip,” IVD Technology, http://www.devicelink.com/ivdt/archive/03/03/003.html (2003).

Al-Assaad, R. M.

R. M. Al-Assaad, L. Tao, and W. C. Hu, “Visible light angular scatterometry for nanolithography,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 651839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alonso-Amigo, M. G.

M. G. Alonso-Amigo and T. Adams, “Development of a plastic microfluidics chip,” IVD Technology, http://www.devicelink.com/ivdt/archive/03/03/003.html (2003).

Ammar, M.

Barany, F.

M. Hashimoto, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, “Polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction/hybridization assays using flow-through microfluidic devices for the detection of low-abundant DNA point mutations,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1915-1923 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Belledent, J.

Y. Rody, P. Martin, C. Couderc, P. Sixt, C. Gardin, K. Lucas, K. Patterson, C. Miramond-Collet, J. Belledent, R. Boone, A. Borjon, and Y. Trouiller, “Evaluation of transparent etch stop layer phase shift mask patterning and comparison with the single trench undercut approach,” Proc. SPIE 5992, 59920R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, M.

B. D. Bunday, M. Bishop, J. R. Swyers, and K. Lensing, “Quantitative profile-shape measurement study on a CD-SEM with application to etch-bias control and several different CMOS features,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 383-395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boone, R.

Y. Rody, P. Martin, C. Couderc, P. Sixt, C. Gardin, K. Lucas, K. Patterson, C. Miramond-Collet, J. Belledent, R. Boone, A. Borjon, and Y. Trouiller, “Evaluation of transparent etch stop layer phase shift mask patterning and comparison with the single trench undercut approach,” Proc. SPIE 5992, 59920R (2005).
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K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, “A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
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I. J. Stares, C. Duffill, J. A. Ogilvy, and C. B. Scruby, “On-line weld pool monitoring and defect detection using ultrasonics,” NDT Int. 23, 195-200 (1990).
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M. H. Khadema, M. Shamsa, and S. Hossainpourb, “Numerical simulation of roughness effects on flow and heat transfer in microchannels at slip flow regime,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf. 3669-77 (2009).
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Y. Rody, P. Martin, C. Couderc, P. Sixt, C. Gardin, K. Lucas, K. Patterson, C. Miramond-Collet, J. Belledent, R. Boone, A. Borjon, and Y. Trouiller, “Evaluation of transparent etch stop layer phase shift mask patterning and comparison with the single trench undercut approach,” Proc. SPIE 5992, 59920R (2005).
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M. Hashimoto, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, “Polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction/hybridization assays using flow-through microfluidic devices for the detection of low-abundant DNA point mutations,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1915-1923 (2006).
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I. J. Stares, C. Duffill, J. A. Ogilvy, and C. B. Scruby, “On-line weld pool monitoring and defect detection using ultrasonics,” NDT Int. 23, 195-200 (1990).
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B. Samel, M. K. Chowdhury, and G. Stemme, “The fabrication of microfluidic structures by means of full-wafer adhesive bonding using a poly (dimethylsiloxane) catalyst,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 171710-1714 (2007).
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D. Bucher, M. Scholz, M. Stetter, K. Obermayer, and H.-J. Pflüger, “Correction methods for three-dimensional reconstructions from confocal images. I. Tissue shrinking and axial scaling,” J. Neurosci. Methods 100, 135-143 (2000).
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T. Marschner and C. Stief, “Characterization of 193 nm resist layers by critical dimension-scanning electron microscopy sidewall imaging,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 4, 013007 (2005).
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Y. C. Su and L. W. Lin, “Localized bonding processes for assembly and packaging of polymeric MEMS,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 635-642 (2005).
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R. Subramanian, B. Singh, and K. A. Phan, “Using scatterometry to detect and control undercut for ARC with developable BARCs,” U.S. patent 6,972,201 B1 (6 December 2005).

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C. Kaiser, Y. Levy, T. Tiedje, J. F. Young, and I. Kelson, “Determining the profile of textured membranes by the alpha particle energy loss method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2607-2609(2002).
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A. W. Williams and N. J. Wood, “Photothermal imaging of damage and undercutting to gold-coated Kapton samples exposed to atomic oxygen,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 469-476(1996).
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J. L. Lenhart, D. Fischer, S. Sambasivan, E. K. Lin, W. L. Wu, D. J. Guerrero, Y. B. Wang, and R. Puligadda, “Understanding deviations in lithographic patterns near interfaces: characterization of bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARC) and the BARC--resist interface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4166-4175(2007).
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J. Liu, Y. F. Yap, and N. T. Nguyen, “Behavior of microdroplets in diffuser/nozzle structures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 6, 835-846 (2009).
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S. H. Tan, S. M. S. Murshed, N. T. Nguyen, T. N. Wong, and L. Yobas, “Thermally controlled droplet formation in flow focusing geometry: formation regimes and effect of nanoparticle suspension,” J. Phys. D 41, 16550 (2008).

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C. Kaiser, Y. Levy, T. Tiedje, J. F. Young, and I. Kelson, “Determining the profile of textured membranes by the alpha particle energy loss method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2607-2609(2002).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Kaiser, Y. Levy, T. Tiedje, J. F. Young, and I. Kelson, “Determining the profile of textured membranes by the alpha particle energy loss method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2607-2609(2002).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. L. Lenhart, D. Fischer, S. Sambasivan, E. K. Lin, W. L. Wu, D. J. Guerrero, Y. B. Wang, and R. Puligadda, “Understanding deviations in lithographic patterns near interfaces: characterization of bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARC) and the BARC--resist interface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4166-4175(2007).
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R. B. Xing, Y. Xuan, Z. Wang, and D. G. Ma, “Undercut structures fabricated by microtransfer printing combined with UV exposure and their applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9, 760-763 (2009).
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Y. C. Su and L. W. Lin, “Localized bonding processes for assembly and packaging of polymeric MEMS,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 635-642 (2005).
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M. H. Khadema, M. Shamsa, and S. Hossainpourb, “Numerical simulation of roughness effects on flow and heat transfer in microchannels at slip flow regime,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf. 3669-77 (2009).
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M. J. Booth and T. Wilson, “Refractive-index-mismatch induced aberrations in single-photon and two-photon microscopy and the use of aberration correction,” J Biomed. Opt. 6, 266-272 (2001).
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J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

B. Z. Yang and Q. Lin, “A planar compliance-based self-adaptive microfluid variable resistor,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 411-19 (2007).
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T. Marschner and C. Stief, “Characterization of 193 nm resist layers by critical dimension-scanning electron microscopy sidewall imaging,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 4, 013007 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of micronozzle chip [20].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional image at the circled region in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescent image directly obtained from the laser confocal microscope. (a) Plan view, (b) cross-sectional image, (c) differentiation image of (a). The insets are the enlargement at the region marked with a dashed-dotted square in the respective diagrams. The pseudocolor is displayed for easy observation. (d) Profile of the inset of (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Three-dimensional profiles of the four walls of the buried channel. (a) Left, (b) right, (c) top, and (d) bottom. Their positions are defined in Fig. 3b. (e) Cross-sectional profile along the dashed line in (a)–(d). The inset is the enlargement of the right top corner as outlined by the dashed-dotted square.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional profile of a buried channel made by PMMA material and bonded with thermal and pressure method. The inset is the raw fluorescent image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-sectional image of an undercut feature.

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