Abstract

We demonstrate in-line phase-contrast imaging of nanothickness foils by using a relatively large, polychromatic, debris-free femtosecond-laser-driven cluster-based plasma soft x-ray source, and a high-resolution, large dynamic range LiF crystal detector. The spatial coherence length of radiation in our setup reached a value of 5μm on the sample plane, which is enough to observe phase-contrast enhancement in the images registered by the detector placed only a few hundred micrometers behind the object. We have developed a tabletop soft x-ray emission source, which emits radiation within a 4πsr solid angle, and which allows one to obtain contact and propagation-based phase-contrast imaging of nanostructures with 700nm spatial resolutions. This advance could be of utility for metrology applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  2. D. Attwood, Soft X Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principle and Application (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 365-385.
  3. F. Calegari, S. Stagira, C. D'Andrea, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, L. Poletto, P. Viloresi, A. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “Table-top soft x-ray imaging of nanometric films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111122 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Calegari, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, J. Gabanillas-Gonzalez, A. Faenov, S. Gasilov, T. Pikuz, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging with a laser-plasma source and color center detector,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2593-2595 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Daido, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. G. Watson, M. Steyer, R. Kaur, M. S. Schultz, and M. Amit, “Spatial coherence of a repetitive laser-plasma point x-ray source in the water window spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1155-1157 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Ya. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. Calegari, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, J. Gabanillas-Gonzalez, A. Faenov, S. Gasilov, T. Pikuz, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging with a laser-plasma source and color center detector,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2593-2595 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Boschetto, G. Mourow, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, B. Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma kev x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Laperie, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Propagation based differential phase contrast imaging and tomography of murine tissue with a laser plasma x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Ya. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, S. Stagira, C. D'Andrea, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, L. Poletto, P. Viloresi, A. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “Table-top soft x-ray imaging of nanometric films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ya. I. Nesterets, T. E. Gureyev, and S. W. Wilkins, “Polychromaticity in the combined propagation-based/analyser-based phase-contrast imaging,” J. Phys. D 38, 4259-4271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, and A. Ya. Faenov, “On the generation of large clusters in gas-jet targets for lasers,” J. Tech. Phys. 49, 388-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stewenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard x-rays,” Nature 384, 335-338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Daido, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. G. Watson, M. Steyer, R. Kaur, M. S. Schultz, and M. Amit, “Spatial coherence of a repetitive laser-plasma point x-ray source in the water window spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1155-1157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ahr, B.

C. M. Laperie, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Propagation based differential phase contrast imaging and tomography of murine tissue with a laser plasma x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Almaviva, S.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amit, M.

H. Daido, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. G. Watson, M. Steyer, R. Kaur, M. S. Schultz, and M. Amit, “Spatial coherence of a repetitive laser-plasma point x-ray source in the water window spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1155-1157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anastasio, M.

C. M. Laperie, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Propagation based differential phase contrast imaging and tomography of murine tissue with a laser plasma x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, Soft X Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principle and Application (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 365-385.

Baldacchini, G.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

Boldarev, A. S.

T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Ya. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, and A. Ya. Faenov, “On the generation of large clusters in gas-jet targets for lasers,” J. Tech. Phys. 49, 388-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bollanti, S.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bolton, P.

T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonfigli, F.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boschetto, D.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourow, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, B. Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma kev x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bulanov, S. V.

T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

Chen, L. M.

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, R.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourow, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, B. Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma kev x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cricenti, A.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daido, H.

T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Daido, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. G. Watson, M. Steyer, R. Kaur, M. S. Schultz, and M. Amit, “Spatial coherence of a repetitive laser-plasma point x-ray source in the water window spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1155-1157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Daito, I.

T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dance, J. B.

I. C. E. Turcu and J. B. Dance, X-Rays from Laser Plasmas (Wiley, 1998).

D'Andrea, C.

F. Calegari, S. Stagira, C. D'Andrea, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, L. Poletto, P. Viloresi, A. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “Table-top soft x-ray imaging of nanometric films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

Diebold, G. J.

C. M. Laperie, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Propagation based differential phase contrast imaging and tomography of murine tissue with a laser plasma x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faenov, A.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, J. Gabanillas-Gonzalez, A. Faenov, S. Gasilov, T. Pikuz, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging with a laser-plasma source and color center detector,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2593-2595 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, S. Stagira, C. D'Andrea, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, L. Poletto, P. Viloresi, A. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “Table-top soft x-ray imaging of nanometric films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
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T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
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A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Ya. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
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Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
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T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
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Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
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Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
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T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
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T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083701 (2005).
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Kimura, T.

T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
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T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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C. M. Laperie, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Propagation based differential phase contrast imaging and tomography of murine tissue with a laser plasma x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
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G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martellucci, S.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Montereali, R. M.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mordovanakis, A.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourow, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, B. Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma kev x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mourow, G.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourow, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, B. Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma kev x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murra, D.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nees, J.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourow, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, B. Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma kev x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nesterets, Ya. I.

Ya. I. Nesterets, T. E. Gureyev, and S. W. Wilkins, “Polychromaticity in the combined propagation-based/analyser-based phase-contrast imaging,” J. Phys. D 38, 4259-4271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nichelatti, E.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

Oliva, C.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozaki, T.

R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paganin, D. M.

D. M. Paganin, Coherent X-Ray Optics (Oxford U. Press, 2006), p. 261.

Palladino, L.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petrocelli, G.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, T.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, J. Gabanillas-Gonzalez, A. Faenov, S. Gasilov, T. Pikuz, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging with a laser-plasma source and color center detector,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2593-2595 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, T. A.

T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, S. Stagira, C. D'Andrea, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, L. Poletto, P. Viloresi, A. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “Table-top soft x-ray imaging of nanometric films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pogany, A.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stewenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard x-rays,” Nature 384, 335-338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

Reale, A.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reale, L.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richetta, M.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritucci, A.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rose-Petruck, C.

C. M. Laperie, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Propagation based differential phase contrast imaging and tomography of murine tissue with a laser plasma x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ross, I. N.

H. Daido, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. G. Watson, M. Steyer, R. Kaur, M. S. Schultz, and M. Amit, “Spatial coherence of a repetitive laser-plasma point x-ray source in the water window spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1155-1157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rousse, A.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourow, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, B. Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma kev x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

Schultz, M. S.

H. Daido, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. G. Watson, M. Steyer, R. Kaur, M. S. Schultz, and M. Amit, “Spatial coherence of a repetitive laser-plasma point x-ray source in the water window spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1155-1157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shi, D.

C. M. Laperie, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Propagation based differential phase contrast imaging and tomography of murine tissue with a laser plasma x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skobelev, I. Yu.

T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

Stewenson, A. W.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stewenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard x-rays,” Nature 384, 335-338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steyer, M.

H. Daido, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. G. Watson, M. Steyer, R. Kaur, M. S. Schultz, and M. Amit, “Spatial coherence of a repetitive laser-plasma point x-ray source in the water window spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1155-1157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, T.

T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tomassetti, G.

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R.

R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turcu, I. C. E.

H. Daido, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. G. Watson, M. Steyer, R. Kaur, M. S. Schultz, and M. Amit, “Spatial coherence of a repetitive laser-plasma point x-ray source in the water window spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1155-1157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. C. E. Turcu and J. B. Dance, X-Rays from Laser Plasmas (Wiley, 1998).

Ustione, A.

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, G.

Villoresi, P.

Viloresi, P.

F. Calegari, S. Stagira, C. D'Andrea, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, L. Poletto, P. Viloresi, A. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “Table-top soft x-ray imaging of nanometric films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

Wands, J. R.

C. M. Laperie, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Propagation based differential phase contrast imaging and tomography of murine tissue with a laser plasma x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J. G.

H. Daido, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. G. Watson, M. Steyer, R. Kaur, M. S. Schultz, and M. Amit, “Spatial coherence of a repetitive laser-plasma point x-ray source in the water window spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1155-1157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S. W.

Ya. I. Nesterets, T. E. Gureyev, and S. W. Wilkins, “Polychromaticity in the combined propagation-based/analyser-based phase-contrast imaging,” J. Phys. D 38, 4259-4271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stewenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard x-rays,” Nature 384, 335-338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wintermeyer, P.

C. M. Laperie, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Propagation based differential phase contrast imaging and tomography of murine tissue with a laser plasma x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, K.

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Ya. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. Fukuda, A. Ya. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, J. Ma, L. M. Chen, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Daido, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. G. Watson, M. Steyer, R. Kaur, M. S. Schultz, and M. Amit, “Spatial coherence of a repetitive laser-plasma point x-ray source in the water window spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1155-1157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Boschetto, G. Mourow, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, B. Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma kev x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Laperie, P. Wintermeyer, J. R. Wands, D. Shi, M. Anastasio, X. Li, B. Ahr, G. J. Diebold, and C. Rose-Petruck, “Propagation based differential phase contrast imaging and tomography of murine tissue with a laser plasma x-ray source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 173901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ustione, A. Cricenti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, and L. Reale, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy images of microradiographs stored in lithium fluoride films with an optical resolution of λ/12,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, S. Stagira, C. D'Andrea, G. Valentini, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, L. Poletto, P. Viloresi, A. Faenov, and T. A. Pikuz, “Table-top soft x-ray imaging of nanometric films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

C. Oliva, A. Ustione, S. Almaviva, G. Baldacchini, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, M. Francucci, P. Gaudio, S. Martellucci, M. Richetta, L. Reale, and A. Cricenti, “SNOM images of x-ray radiographs at nano-scale stored in a thin layer of lithium fluoride,” J. Microsc. 229, 490-495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

T. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, S. V. Gasilov, A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, Y. Fukuda, M. Kando, H. Kotaki, I. Daito, T. Homma, K. Kawase, T. Kameshima, T. Kawachi, P. Bolton, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Tajima, Y. Kato, and S. V. Bulanov, “Enhancement of soft x-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 163, 012106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

Ya. I. Nesterets, T. E. Gureyev, and S. W. Wilkins, “Polychromaticity in the combined propagation-based/analyser-based phase-contrast imaging,” J. Phys. D 38, 4259-4271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Tech. Phys. (1)

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, and A. Ya. Faenov, “On the generation of large clusters in gas-jet targets for lasers,” J. Tech. Phys. 49, 388-395 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stewenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard x-rays,” Nature 384, 335-338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

G. Baldacchini, S. Bollanti, F. Bonfigli, F. Flora, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Lai, T. Marolo, R. M. Montereali, D. Murra, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, E. Nichelatti, G. Tomassetti, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Ritucci, T. Limongi, L. Palladino, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Petrocelli, “Submicron soft x-ray imaging detectors based on LiF crystals and films: characterization and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Boldarev, V. A. Gasilov, A. Ya. Faenov, Y. Fukuda, and K. Yamakawa, “Gas-cluster targets for femtosecond laser interaction: modeling and optimization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley-Interscience, 2000), p. 303.20.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996), p. 67.

I. C. E. Turcu and J. B. Dance, X-Rays from Laser Plasmas (Wiley, 1998).

D. Attwood, Soft X Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principle and Application (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 365-385.

D. M. Paganin, Coherent X-Ray Optics (Oxford U. Press, 2006), p. 261.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Images of the test object, calculated in the point projection geometry, with different magnification M, depending on the source size d. Test object has the form of a 100 nm thick carbon slab containing two cylinderlike objects of 4 μm radii and thicknesses of 1 and 50 nm . (a) Size of the source d s = 0.5 μm , contact image; (b)  d s = 0.5 μm , M = 100 x ; (c)  d s = 10 μm , M = 3 x ; (d)  d s = 100 μm , M = 1.07 x . Calculations were made for a polychromatic source radiated in the spectral range of 1 15 nm and the fixed source–detector distance z so + z od = 150 mm . It is clearly seen that the image quality in the cases of (b) and (d) is comparable, despite the huge difference in the sizes of the sources.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Soft x-ray imaging of a spider web and the insects caught by it, with submicrometer spatial resolution in a square centimeter field of view. Spider silk with size of 700 nm is well resolved. Also clearly seen are the submicrometer inhomogeneities of glue, which was used by the spider to construct the web and catch the insects.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Increase of visibility of point defects (either impurities or thickness imperfections) in the images of the 800 nm thick Al foils (different parts of foils were imaged). (a) Contact image, (b) and (c) detector placed 1 mm and 5 mm from the foil, respectively. Second row of images shows results of numerical modeling. (d) Simulated foil defect pattern was taken from the absorption image and it was assumed that there are variations in thickness, with a maximum deviation of 10%. (e) and (f) Images calculated for the z od = 1 mm and z od = 5 mm , respectively. A polychromatic 1 15 nm source with a diameter of 100 μm , with the detector placed at a distance of 500 mm from the source, was used for simulations. (g) Intensity profiles taken along a single row from the contact image (solid curve) and the phase-enhanced image (dashed curve). Significant enhancement of defect visibility was achieved by moving from contact to PBPC imaging.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Observation of diffraction fringes at extremely small propagation distances. (a) and (b)  10 x and 40 x soft x-ray images of 100 nm thick Zr foil placed on the LiF crystal surface. (c) Experimental and calculated intensity profile at the border of the foil, where it is either practically in contact (part 1) or 500 μm from the detector (part 2). Modeling was done for a polychromatic 1 15 nm source with a diameter of 100 μm , with the detector placed at a distance of 500 mm from the source.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Observation of the foil structure inside the curled piece. (a) Photo of the damaged sample ( 100 nm Zr foil); (b)  40 x soft x-ray image of 100 nm thick Zr foil obtained on the LiF crystal, placed at a distance of 3.8 mm from the object; (c) and (d) enlarged fragments of the image. (e) Experimental intensity profile at the border between three and four foil layers (solid curve) and the calculated intensity (dashed lines). Intensity minima (black stripes on two-dimensional images) considerably enhance understanding of the curl’s internal structure.

Equations (2)

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I i ( r d ) = λ C ( λ ) I i ( r d + r s z so / z od , λ ) S ( r s ) d r s .
I i ( r d , λ ) = | exp ( i k z e ) I 1 { exp ( i z e f 2 2 k ) U ˜ ( f , λ ) } | 2 .

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