Abstract

We describe a scanning time-of-flight system which uses the time-correlated single-photon counting technique to produce three-dimensional depth images of distant, noncooperative surfaces when these targets are illuminated by a kHz to MHz repetition rate pulsed laser source. The data for the scene are acquired using a scanning optical system and an individual single-photon detector. Depth images have been successfully acquired with centimeter xyz resolution, in daylight conditions, for low-signature targets in field trials at distances of up to 325 m using an output illumination with an average optical power of less than 50 μW.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C. Mallet and F. Bretar, “Full-waveform topographic lidar: state-of-the-art,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 1-16 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Gatt, S. Johnson, and T. Nichols, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode ladar receiver performance characteristics and detection statistics,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3262-3276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. Hernandez-Marin, A. M. Wallace, and G. J. Gibson, “Multilayered 3D LiDAR image construction using spatial models in a Bayesian framework,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 30, 1028-1040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Cole, M. A. Marciniak, and M. B. Haeri, “Atmospheric-turbulence-effects correction factors for the laser range equation,” Opt. Eng. 47, 126001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hiskett, C. S. Parry, A. McCarthy, and G. S. Buller, “A photon-counting time-of-flight ranging technique developed for the avoidance of range ambiguity at gigahertz clock rates,” Opt. Express 16, 13685-13698 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2266-2268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Buller, R. E. Warburton, S. Pellegrini, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, L. J. J. Tan, A. B. Krysa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diode detectors for quantum key distribution,” IET Optoelectron. 1, 249-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Wallace, R. C. W. Sung, G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, R. E. Warburton, and R. A. Lamb, “Detecting and characterising returns in a pulsed ladar system,” IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 153, 160-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847-1854 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Marino and W. R. Davis, “Jigsaw: a foliage-penetrating 3D imaging laser radar system,” Lincoln Lab. J. 15, 23-36(2005).

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

2001 (1)

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

P. J. Green, “Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo computation and Bayesian model determination,” Biometrika 82, 711-732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

Albota, M. A.

Albright, K. L.

Amann, M. C.

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B. F.

Baba, H.

Baillie, D. A.

Barr, D. N.

Barrett, C. P.

Berk, A.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: A moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Technical Note GL-TR-89-0122, available from Geophysics Laboratory/OPE, Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1989.

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: A moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Technical Note GL-TR-89-0122, available from Geophysics Laboratory/OPE, Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1989.

Besse, P. A.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847-1854 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bird, A. W.

Blair, P.

Bosch, T.

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, J.

Bretar, F.

C. Mallet and F. Bretar, “Full-waveform topographic lidar: state-of-the-art,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 1-16 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G. M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G.

Buller, G. S.

P. A. Hiskett, C. S. Parry, A. McCarthy, and G. S. Buller, “A photon-counting time-of-flight ranging technique developed for the avoidance of range ambiguity at gigahertz clock rates,” Opt. Express 16, 13685-13698 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2266-2268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Buller, R. E. Warburton, S. Pellegrini, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, L. J. J. Tan, A. B. Krysa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diode detectors for quantum key distribution,” IET Optoelectron. 1, 249-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Wallace, R. C. W. Sung, G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, R. E. Warburton, and R. A. Lamb, “Detecting and characterising returns in a pulsed ladar system,” IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 153, 160-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. M. Wallace, “Time-of-flight optical ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7298-7304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Massa, A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, S. J. Fancey, and A. C. Walker, “Laser depth measurement based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Opt. Lett. 22, 543-545(1997).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Barrett, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, and A. C. Walker, “Components for the implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934-6944 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, R. R.

Casperson, D. E.

Charbon, E.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847-1854 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cole, W. P.

W. P. Cole, M. A. Marciniak, and M. B. Haeri, “Atmospheric-turbulence-effects correction factors for the laser range equation,” Opt. Eng. 47, 126001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

G. S. Buller, R. E. Warburton, S. Pellegrini, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, L. J. J. Tan, A. B. Krysa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diode detectors for quantum key distribution,” IET Optoelectron. 1, 249-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Massa, G. Buller, A. Walker, G. Smith, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. Wallace, “Optical design and evaluation of a three-dimensional imaging and ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1063-1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. M. Wallace, “Time-of-flight optical ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7298-7304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

David, J. P. R.

G. S. Buller, R. E. Warburton, S. Pellegrini, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, L. J. J. Tan, A. B. Krysa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diode detectors for quantum key distribution,” IET Optoelectron. 1, 249-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, W. R.

R. M. Marino and W. R. Davis, “Jigsaw: a foliage-penetrating 3D imaging laser radar system,” Lincoln Lab. J. 15, 23-36(2005).

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, “Photon-counting multikilohertz microlaser altimeters for airborne and spaceborne topographic measurements,” J. Geodyn. 34, 503-549 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fancey, S. J.

Fouche, D. G.

Gatt, P.

P. Gatt, S. Johnson, and T. Nichols, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode ladar receiver performance characteristics and detection statistics,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3262-3276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G. J.

S. Hernandez-Marin, A. M. Wallace, and G. J. Gibson, “Multilayered 3D LiDAR image construction using spatial models in a Bayesian framework,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 30, 1028-1040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Green, P. J.

P. J. Green, “Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo computation and Bayesian model determination,” Biometrika 82, 711-732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gulinatti, A.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, J. A.

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2266-2268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haeri, M. B.

W. P. Cole, M. A. Marciniak, and M. B. Haeri, “Atmospheric-turbulence-effects correction factors for the laser range equation,” Opt. Eng. 47, 126001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harkins, R. D.

A. M. Wallace, R. C. W. Sung, G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, R. E. Warburton, and R. A. Lamb, “Detecting and characterising returns in a pulsed ladar system,” IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 153, 160-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

Heinrichs, R. M.

Hernandez-Marin, S.

S. Hernandez-Marin, A. M. Wallace, and G. J. Gibson, “Multilayered 3D LiDAR image construction using spatial models in a Bayesian framework,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 30, 1028-1040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2266-2268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hindman, M.

Hiskett, P. A.

P. A. Hiskett, C. S. Parry, A. McCarthy, and G. S. Buller, “A photon-counting time-of-flight ranging technique developed for the avoidance of range ambiguity at gigahertz clock rates,” Opt. Express 16, 13685-13698 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C.

Johnson, S.

P. Gatt, S. Johnson, and T. Nichols, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode ladar receiver performance characteristics and detection statistics,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3262-3276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kocher, D. G.

Krysa, A. B.

G. S. Buller, R. E. Warburton, S. Pellegrini, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, L. J. J. Tan, A. B. Krysa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diode detectors for quantum key distribution,” IET Optoelectron. 1, 249-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, R. A.

A. M. Wallace, R. C. W. Sung, G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, R. E. Warburton, and R. A. Lamb, “Detecting and characterising returns in a pulsed ladar system,” IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 153, 160-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

Lescure, M.

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacKinnon, G. R.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

Mallet, C.

C. Mallet and F. Bretar, “Full-waveform topographic lidar: state-of-the-art,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 1-16 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marciniak, M. A.

W. P. Cole, M. A. Marciniak, and M. B. Haeri, “Atmospheric-turbulence-effects correction factors for the laser range equation,” Opt. Eng. 47, 126001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marino, R. M.

R. M. Marino and W. R. Davis, “Jigsaw: a foliage-penetrating 3D imaging laser radar system,” Lincoln Lab. J. 15, 23-36(2005).

Massa, J.

Massa, J. S.

McCarthy, A.

Mirin, R. P.

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mizerka, L. J.

Mooney, J.

Myllyla, R.

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2266-2268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D. T.

Ng, J. S.

G. S. Buller, R. E. Warburton, S. Pellegrini, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, L. J. J. Tan, A. B. Krysa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diode detectors for quantum key distribution,” IET Optoelectron. 1, 249-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, T.

P. Gatt, S. Johnson, and T. Nichols, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode ladar receiver performance characteristics and detection statistics,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3262-3276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niclass, C.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847-1854 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, M. E.

Parry, C. S.

Pellegrini, S.

G. S. Buller, R. E. Warburton, S. Pellegrini, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, L. J. J. Tan, A. B. Krysa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diode detectors for quantum key distribution,” IET Optoelectron. 1, 249-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Player, B. E.

Priedhorsky, W. C.

Prince, S. M.

Rarity, J. G.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ridley, K. D.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

Rioux, M.

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

Robertson, D. C.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: A moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Technical Note GL-TR-89-0122, available from Geophysics Laboratory/OPE, Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1989.

Rochas, A.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847-1854 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, K.

Scarlett, W. R.

Schilling, B. W.

Schwall, R. E.

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. C.

Smith, G.

Smith, G. R.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Song, M. M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M. J.

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sung, R.

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

Sung, R. C. W.

A. M. Wallace, R. C. W. Sung, G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, R. E. Warburton, and R. A. Lamb, “Detecting and characterising returns in a pulsed ladar system,” IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 153, 160-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Takeuchi, N.

Tan, L. J. J.

G. S. Buller, R. E. Warburton, S. Pellegrini, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, L. J. J. Tan, A. B. Krysa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diode detectors for quantum key distribution,” IET Optoelectron. 1, 249-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Templeton, G. C.

Theiler, J.

Tooley, F. A. P.

Trussell, C. W.

Ueno, T.

Umasuthan, M.

Walker, A.

Walker, A. C.

Wallace, A.

Wallace, A. M.

S. Hernandez-Marin, A. M. Wallace, and G. J. Gibson, “Multilayered 3D LiDAR image construction using spatial models in a Bayesian framework,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 30, 1028-1040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2266-2268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Wallace, R. C. W. Sung, G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, R. E. Warburton, and R. A. Lamb, “Detecting and characterising returns in a pulsed ladar system,” IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 153, 160-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. M. Wallace, “Time-of-flight optical ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7298-7304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Massa, A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, S. J. Fancey, and A. C. Walker, “Laser depth measurement based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Opt. Lett. 22, 543-545(1997).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, R. E.

G. S. Buller, R. E. Warburton, S. Pellegrini, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, L. J. J. Tan, A. B. Krysa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diode detectors for quantum key distribution,” IET Optoelectron. 1, 249-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2266-2268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Wallace, R. C. W. Sung, G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, R. E. Warburton, and R. A. Lamb, “Detecting and characterising returns in a pulsed ladar system,” IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 153, 160-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willard, B. C.

Wilson, S. K.

Zappa, F.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zayhowski, J. J.

Appl. Opt. (12)

P. Gatt, S. Johnson, and T. Nichols, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode ladar receiver performance characteristics and detection statistics,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3262-3276 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Ho, K. L. Albright, A. W. Bird, J. Bradley, D. E. Casperson, M. Hindman, W. C. Priedhorsky, W. R. Scarlett, R. C. Smith, J. Theiler, and S. K. Wilson, “Demonstration of literal three-dimensional imaging,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1833-1840(1999).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Barrett, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, and A. C. Walker, “Components for the implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934-6944 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Priedhorsky, R. C. Smith, and C. Ho, “Laser ranging and mapping with a photon-counting detector,” Appl. Opt. 35, 441-452 (1996).
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D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, and F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243-9252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. M. Wallace, “Time-of-flight optical ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7298-7304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Massa, G. Buller, A. Walker, G. Smith, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. Wallace, “Optical design and evaluation of a three-dimensional imaging and ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1063-1070 (2002).
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B. W. Schilling, D. N. Barr, G. C. Templeton, L. J. Mizerka, and C. W. Trussell, “Multiple-return laser radar for three-dimensional imaging through obscurations,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2791-2799 (2002).
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M. A. Albota, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, D. G. Fouche, B. E. Player, M. E. O'Brien, B. F. Aull, J. J. Zayhowski, J. Mooney, B. C. Willard, and R. R. Carlson, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon-counting avalanche photodiode array and microchip laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7671-7678 (2002).
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D. G. Fouche, “Detection and false-alarm probabilities for laser radars that use Geiger-mode detectors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5388-5398 (2003).
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N. Takeuchi, N. Sugimoto, H. Baba, and K. Sakurai, “Random modulation cw lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1382-1386 (1983).
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N. Takeuchi, H. Baba, K. Sakurai, and T. Ueno, “Diode-laser random-modulation cw lidar,” Appl. Opt. 25, 63-67 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biometrika (1)

P. J. Green, “Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo computation and Bayesian model determination,” Biometrika 82, 711-732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. (1)

A. M. Wallace, R. C. W. Sung, G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, R. E. Warburton, and R. A. Lamb, “Detecting and characterising returns in a pulsed ladar system,” IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. 153, 160-172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847-1854 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

S. Hernandez-Marin, A. M. Wallace, and G. J. Gibson, “Multilayered 3D LiDAR image construction using spatial models in a Bayesian framework,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 30, 1028-1040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IET Optoelectron. (1)

G. S. Buller, R. E. Warburton, S. Pellegrini, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, L. J. J. Tan, A. B. Krysa, and S. Cova, “Single-photon avalanche diode detectors for quantum key distribution,” IET Optoelectron. 1, 249-254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. (1)

C. Mallet and F. Bretar, “Full-waveform topographic lidar: state-of-the-art,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 64, 1-16 (2009).
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J. Geodyn. (1)

J. J. Degnan, “Photon-counting multikilohertz microlaser altimeters for airborne and spaceborne topographic measurements,” J. Geodyn. 34, 503-549 (2002).
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Lincoln Lab. J. (1)

R. M. Marino and W. R. Davis, “Jigsaw: a foliage-penetrating 3D imaging laser radar system,” Lincoln Lab. J. 15, 23-36(2005).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40, 10-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Cole, M. A. Marciniak, and M. B. Haeri, “Atmospheric-turbulence-effects correction factors for the laser range equation,” Opt. Eng. 47, 126001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. D. Ridley, and J. G. Rarity, “Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112(2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: A moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Technical Note GL-TR-89-0122, available from Geophysics Laboratory/OPE, Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1989.

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