Abstract

We demonstrate the ability to make high resolution arbitrary patterned optical retarders using liquid crystal polymer (LCP). Contact lithography is used to define unique LCP alignment domains. Patterned LCP retarders are imaged between crossed polarizers to determine pattern visibility as a function of feature size. It was determined that patterned retarders for wavelengths between 250 nm and 2500 nm can be constructed with feature sizes as small as 4 μm. We also showed that multiple patterns can be created on the same substrate using a combination of patterned LCP and opaque features. Our process has applications in displays, double-patterning lithography, and imaging polarimetry.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  36. G. Cinacchi and L. De Gaetani, “On the deflection and persistence lengths of mesogenic worm-like rods,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 274-284 (2008).
  37. C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, D. A. Huse, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, A. Daniel, E. Huang, P. Mansky, T. P. Russell, C. J. Hawker, D. A. Egolf, I. V. Melnikov, and E. Bodenschatz, “Reducing substrate pinning of block copolymer microdomains with a buffer layer of polymer brushes,” Macromolecules 33, 857-865 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2-Lett. 34, L764-L767 (1995).

2009

2008

G. Cinacchi and L. De Gaetani, “On the deflection and persistence lengths of mesogenic worm-like rods,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 274-284 (2008).

2007

K. Hazu, T. Sekikawa, and M. Yamashita, “Spatial right modulator with an over-two-octave bandwidth from ultraviolet to near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3318-3320 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kim, M. T. Kao, E. F. Hasselbrink, and E. Meyhofer, “Active alignment of microtubules with electric fields,” Nano Lett. 7, 211-217 (2007).

2006

K. M. Seemann, J. Ebbecke, and A. Wixforth, “Alignment of carbon nanotubes on pre-structured silicon by surface acoustic waves,” Nanotechnology 17, 4529-4532 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. M. I. van der Zande, S. J. Roosendaal, C. Doornkamp, J. Steenbakkers, and J. Lub, “Synthesis, properties, and photopolymerization of liquid-crystalline oxetanes: application in transflective liquid-crystal displays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 791-798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Marshall, K. Adelsberger, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “The LCPDI: a compact and robust phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer based on dye-doped lc technology,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 23-45 (2006).

2005

K. L. Marshall, K. Adlesberger, B. Kolodzie, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “A second-generation liquid crystal phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer employing structured substrates,” Proc. SPIE 5880, 58800D (2005).

2004

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 859-869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

I. H. Bechtold, M. P. De Santo, J. J. Bonvent, E. A. Oliveira, R. Barberi, and T. Rasing, “Rubbing-induced charge domains observed by electrostatic force microscopy: effect on liquid crystal alignment,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 591-598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

I. O. Shklyarevskiy, M. I. Boamfa, P. C. M. Christianen, F. Touhari, H. van Kempen, G. Deroover, P. Callant, and J. C. Maan, “Magnetic field induced alignment of cyanine dye J-aggregates,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8407-8410 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. O'Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D 33, R67-R84(2000).

S. Pau, O. Nalamasu, R. Cirelli, J. Frackoviak, A. Timko, G. P. Watson, F. Klemens, and G. Timp, “Sub-wavelength printing using multiple overlapping masks,” Microelectron. Eng. 53, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, D. A. Huse, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, A. Daniel, E. Huang, P. Mansky, T. P. Russell, C. J. Hawker, D. A. Egolf, I. V. Melnikov, and E. Bodenschatz, “Reducing substrate pinning of block copolymer microdomains with a buffer layer of polymer brushes,” Macromolecules 33, 857-865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Andrienko, Y. Kurioz, Y. Reznikov, C. Rosenblatt, R. Petschek, O. Lavrentovich, and D. Subacius, “Tilted photoalignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 50-55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikawa, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “Mechanism of unidirectional liquid-crystal alignment on polyimides with linearly polarized ultraviolet light exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2403-2405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment of liquid crystals on polyimide films exposed to ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5644-5650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Xu, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, Y. Matsuki, and Y. Takeuchi, “Generation of nematic liquid crystal alignment with polyimides exposed to linearly polarized light of long wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 181-188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. J. Pidduck, G. P. Bryan Brown, S. Haslam, R. Bannister, I. Kitely, T. J. McMaster, and L. Boogaard, “Atomic force microscopy studies of rubbed polyimide surfaces used for liquid crystal alignment,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 14, 1723-1728(1996).

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599-1603(1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ruetschi, J. Funfschilling, and H.-J. Guntherodt, “Creation of submicron orientational structures in thin liquid crystal polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3155-3161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multidomain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381, 212-215 (1996).

1995

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2-Lett. 34, L764-L767 (1995).

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-generation of linearly polymerized liquid-crystal aligning layers comprising novel, integrated optically patterned retarders and color filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 34, 3240-3249 (1995).

M. Hasegawa and Y. Taira, “Nematic homogeneous photo alignment by polyimide exposure to linearly polarized UV,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 8, 241-248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374, 709-711 (1995).

1994

F. L. Chen and A. M. Jamieson, “Molecular weight-dependant behavior of the twist distortion in a nematic monodomain containing a main-chain liquid-crystal polymer,” Macromolecules 27, 1943-1948 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

V. Arrighi, J. S. Higgins, R. A. Weiss, and A. L. Cimecioglu, “A small-angle neutron-scattering study of a semiflexible main-chain liquid crystalline copolyester,” Macromolecules 25, 5297-5305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid-crystals by lineraly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 31, 2155-2164 (1992).

D. S. Seo, S. Kobayashi, and M. Nishikawa, “Study of the pretilt angle for 5 cb on rubber polyimide films containing trifluoromethyl moiety and analysis of the surface atomic concentration of F/C (Percent) with an electron spectroscope for chemical-analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2392-2394(1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. Hentschke and J. Herzfeld, “Isotropic, nematic, and columnar ordering in systems of persistent flexible hard rods,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 1148-1155 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Dyadyusha, V. M. Kozenkov, T. Y. Marusiy, Y. A. Reznikov, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Light-induced planar alignment of nematic liquid-crystal by the anisotropic surface without mechanical texture,” Ukr. Fiz. Zhurnal 36, 1059-1062 (1991).

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid-crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).

H. Kromer, R. Kuhn, H. Pielartzik, W. Siebke, V. Eckhardt, and M. Schmidt, “Persistence length and molecular mass-distribution of a thermotropic main-chain liquid-crystal polymer,” Macromolecules 24, 1950-1954(1991).
[CrossRef]

1973

D. W. Berreman, “Alignment of liquid-crystals by grooved surfaces,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 23, 215-231 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adamson, D. H.

C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, D. A. Huse, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, A. Daniel, E. Huang, P. Mansky, T. P. Russell, C. J. Hawker, D. A. Egolf, I. V. Melnikov, and E. Bodenschatz, “Reducing substrate pinning of block copolymer microdomains with a buffer layer of polymer brushes,” Macromolecules 33, 857-865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adelsberger, K.

K. L. Marshall, K. Adelsberger, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “The LCPDI: a compact and robust phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer based on dye-doped lc technology,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 23-45 (2006).

Adlesberger, K.

K. L. Marshall, K. Adlesberger, B. Kolodzie, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “A second-generation liquid crystal phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer employing structured substrates,” Proc. SPIE 5880, 58800D (2005).

Andrienko, D.

D. Andrienko, Y. Kurioz, Y. Reznikov, C. Rosenblatt, R. Petschek, O. Lavrentovich, and D. Subacius, “Tilted photoalignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 50-55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arrighi, V.

V. Arrighi, J. S. Higgins, R. A. Weiss, and A. L. Cimecioglu, “A small-angle neutron-scattering study of a semiflexible main-chain liquid crystalline copolyester,” Macromolecules 25, 5297-5305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bannister, R.

A. J. Pidduck, G. P. Bryan Brown, S. Haslam, R. Bannister, I. Kitely, T. J. McMaster, and L. Boogaard, “Atomic force microscopy studies of rubbed polyimide surfaces used for liquid crystal alignment,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 14, 1723-1728(1996).

Barberi, R.

I. H. Bechtold, M. P. De Santo, J. J. Bonvent, E. A. Oliveira, R. Barberi, and T. Rasing, “Rubbing-induced charge domains observed by electrostatic force microscopy: effect on liquid crystal alignment,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 591-598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bechtold, I. H.

I. H. Bechtold, M. P. De Santo, J. J. Bonvent, E. A. Oliveira, R. Barberi, and T. Rasing, “Rubbing-induced charge domains observed by electrostatic force microscopy: effect on liquid crystal alignment,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 591-598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Alignment of liquid-crystals by grooved surfaces,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 23, 215-231 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Boamfa, M. I.

I. O. Shklyarevskiy, M. I. Boamfa, P. C. M. Christianen, F. Touhari, H. van Kempen, G. Deroover, P. Callant, and J. C. Maan, “Magnetic field induced alignment of cyanine dye J-aggregates,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8407-8410 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bodenschatz, E.

C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, D. A. Huse, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, A. Daniel, E. Huang, P. Mansky, T. P. Russell, C. J. Hawker, D. A. Egolf, I. V. Melnikov, and E. Bodenschatz, “Reducing substrate pinning of block copolymer microdomains with a buffer layer of polymer brushes,” Macromolecules 33, 857-865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bonvent, J. J.

I. H. Bechtold, M. P. De Santo, J. J. Bonvent, E. A. Oliveira, R. Barberi, and T. Rasing, “Rubbing-induced charge domains observed by electrostatic force microscopy: effect on liquid crystal alignment,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 591-598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boogaard, L.

A. J. Pidduck, G. P. Bryan Brown, S. Haslam, R. Bannister, I. Kitely, T. J. McMaster, and L. Boogaard, “Atomic force microscopy studies of rubbed polyimide surfaces used for liquid crystal alignment,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 14, 1723-1728(1996).

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599-1603(1996).
[CrossRef]

Bryan Brown, G. P.

A. J. Pidduck, G. P. Bryan Brown, S. Haslam, R. Bannister, I. Kitely, T. J. McMaster, and L. Boogaard, “Atomic force microscopy studies of rubbed polyimide surfaces used for liquid crystal alignment,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 14, 1723-1728(1996).

Callant, P.

I. O. Shklyarevskiy, M. I. Boamfa, P. C. M. Christianen, F. Touhari, H. van Kempen, G. Deroover, P. Callant, and J. C. Maan, “Magnetic field induced alignment of cyanine dye J-aggregates,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8407-8410 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Callegari, A. C.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

Chaikin, P. M.

C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, D. A. Huse, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, A. Daniel, E. Huang, P. Mansky, T. P. Russell, C. J. Hawker, D. A. Egolf, I. V. Melnikov, and E. Bodenschatz, “Reducing substrate pinning of block copolymer microdomains with a buffer layer of polymer brushes,” Macromolecules 33, 857-865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari, P.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

Chen, F. L.

F. L. Chen and A. M. Jamieson, “Molecular weight-dependant behavior of the twist distortion in a nematic monodomain containing a main-chain liquid-crystal polymer,” Macromolecules 27, 1943-1948 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599-1603(1996).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid-crystals by lineraly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 31, 2155-2164 (1992).

Christianen, P. C. M.

I. O. Shklyarevskiy, M. I. Boamfa, P. C. M. Christianen, F. Touhari, H. van Kempen, G. Deroover, P. Callant, and J. C. Maan, “Magnetic field induced alignment of cyanine dye J-aggregates,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8407-8410 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cimecioglu, A. L.

V. Arrighi, J. S. Higgins, R. A. Weiss, and A. L. Cimecioglu, “A small-angle neutron-scattering study of a semiflexible main-chain liquid crystalline copolyester,” Macromolecules 25, 5297-5305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cinacchi, G.

G. Cinacchi and L. De Gaetani, “On the deflection and persistence lengths of mesogenic worm-like rods,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 274-284 (2008).

Cirelli, R.

S. Pau, O. Nalamasu, R. Cirelli, J. Frackoviak, A. Timko, G. P. Watson, F. Klemens, and G. Timp, “Sub-wavelength printing using multiple overlapping masks,” Microelectron. Eng. 53, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, A.

C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, D. A. Huse, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, A. Daniel, E. Huang, P. Mansky, T. P. Russell, C. J. Hawker, D. A. Egolf, I. V. Melnikov, and E. Bodenschatz, “Reducing substrate pinning of block copolymer microdomains with a buffer layer of polymer brushes,” Macromolecules 33, 857-865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Gaetani, L.

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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

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M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374, 709-711 (1995).

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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

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B. M. I. van der Zande, S. J. Roosendaal, C. Doornkamp, J. Steenbakkers, and J. Lub, “Synthesis, properties, and photopolymerization of liquid-crystalline oxetanes: application in transflective liquid-crystal displays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 791-798 (2006).
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I. O. Shklyarevskiy, M. I. Boamfa, P. C. M. Christianen, F. Touhari, H. van Kempen, G. Deroover, P. Callant, and J. C. Maan, “Magnetic field induced alignment of cyanine dye J-aggregates,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8407-8410 (2002).
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C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, D. A. Huse, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, A. Daniel, E. Huang, P. Mansky, T. P. Russell, C. J. Hawker, D. A. Egolf, I. V. Melnikov, and E. Bodenschatz, “Reducing substrate pinning of block copolymer microdomains with a buffer layer of polymer brushes,” Macromolecules 33, 857-865 (2000).
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K. L. Marshall, K. Adelsberger, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “The LCPDI: a compact and robust phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer based on dye-doped lc technology,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 23-45 (2006).

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A. G. Dyadyusha, V. M. Kozenkov, T. Y. Marusiy, Y. A. Reznikov, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Light-induced planar alignment of nematic liquid-crystal by the anisotropic surface without mechanical texture,” Ukr. Fiz. Zhurnal 36, 1059-1062 (1991).

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Y. Wang, C. Xu, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, Y. Matsuki, and Y. Takeuchi, “Generation of nematic liquid crystal alignment with polyimides exposed to linearly polarized light of long wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 181-188 (1998).
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A. J. Pidduck, G. P. Bryan Brown, S. Haslam, R. Bannister, I. Kitely, T. J. McMaster, and L. Boogaard, “Atomic force microscopy studies of rubbed polyimide surfaces used for liquid crystal alignment,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 14, 1723-1728(1996).

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C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, D. A. Huse, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, A. Daniel, E. Huang, P. Mansky, T. P. Russell, C. J. Hawker, D. A. Egolf, I. V. Melnikov, and E. Bodenschatz, “Reducing substrate pinning of block copolymer microdomains with a buffer layer of polymer brushes,” Macromolecules 33, 857-865 (2000).
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T. Kim, M. T. Kao, E. F. Hasselbrink, and E. Meyhofer, “Active alignment of microtubules with electric fields,” Nano Lett. 7, 211-217 (2007).

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K. L. Marshall, K. Adelsberger, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “The LCPDI: a compact and robust phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer based on dye-doped lc technology,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 23-45 (2006).

K. L. Marshall, K. Adlesberger, B. Kolodzie, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “A second-generation liquid crystal phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer employing structured substrates,” Proc. SPIE 5880, 58800D (2005).

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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

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S. Pau, O. Nalamasu, R. Cirelli, J. Frackoviak, A. Timko, G. P. Watson, F. Klemens, and G. Timp, “Sub-wavelength printing using multiple overlapping masks,” Microelectron. Eng. 53, 119-122 (2000).
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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

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J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

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I. H. Bechtold, M. P. De Santo, J. J. Bonvent, E. A. Oliveira, R. Barberi, and T. Rasing, “Rubbing-induced charge domains observed by electrostatic force microscopy: effect on liquid crystal alignment,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 591-598 (2003).
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M. O'Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D 33, R67-R84(2000).

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S. Pau, O. Nalamasu, R. Cirelli, J. Frackoviak, A. Timko, G. P. Watson, F. Klemens, and G. Timp, “Sub-wavelength printing using multiple overlapping masks,” Microelectron. Eng. 53, 119-122 (2000).
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D. Andrienko, Y. Kurioz, Y. Reznikov, C. Rosenblatt, R. Petschek, O. Lavrentovich, and D. Subacius, “Tilted photoalignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 50-55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. J. Pidduck, G. P. Bryan Brown, S. Haslam, R. Bannister, I. Kitely, T. J. McMaster, and L. Boogaard, “Atomic force microscopy studies of rubbed polyimide surfaces used for liquid crystal alignment,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 14, 1723-1728(1996).

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H. Kromer, R. Kuhn, H. Pielartzik, W. Siebke, V. Eckhardt, and M. Schmidt, “Persistence length and molecular mass-distribution of a thermotropic main-chain liquid-crystal polymer,” Macromolecules 24, 1950-1954(1991).
[CrossRef]

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O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 859-869 (2004).
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I. H. Bechtold, M. P. De Santo, J. J. Bonvent, E. A. Oliveira, R. Barberi, and T. Rasing, “Rubbing-induced charge domains observed by electrostatic force microscopy: effect on liquid crystal alignment,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 591-598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Register, R. A.

C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, D. A. Huse, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, A. Daniel, E. Huang, P. Mansky, T. P. Russell, C. J. Hawker, D. A. Egolf, I. V. Melnikov, and E. Bodenschatz, “Reducing substrate pinning of block copolymer microdomains with a buffer layer of polymer brushes,” Macromolecules 33, 857-865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V. Y.

A. G. Dyadyusha, V. M. Kozenkov, T. Y. Marusiy, Y. A. Reznikov, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Light-induced planar alignment of nematic liquid-crystal by the anisotropic surface without mechanical texture,” Ukr. Fiz. Zhurnal 36, 1059-1062 (1991).

Reznikov, Y.

D. Andrienko, Y. Kurioz, Y. Reznikov, C. Rosenblatt, R. Petschek, O. Lavrentovich, and D. Subacius, “Tilted photoalignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 50-55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Y. A.

A. G. Dyadyusha, V. M. Kozenkov, T. Y. Marusiy, Y. A. Reznikov, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Light-induced planar alignment of nematic liquid-crystal by the anisotropic surface without mechanical texture,” Ukr. Fiz. Zhurnal 36, 1059-1062 (1991).

Roosendaal, S. J.

B. M. I. van der Zande, S. J. Roosendaal, C. Doornkamp, J. Steenbakkers, and J. Lub, “Synthesis, properties, and photopolymerization of liquid-crystalline oxetanes: application in transflective liquid-crystal displays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 791-798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, C.

D. Andrienko, Y. Kurioz, Y. Reznikov, C. Rosenblatt, R. Petschek, O. Lavrentovich, and D. Subacius, “Tilted photoalignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 50-55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ruetschi, M.

M. Ruetschi, J. Funfschilling, and H.-J. Guntherodt, “Creation of submicron orientational structures in thin liquid crystal polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3155-3161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Russell, T. P.

C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, D. A. Huse, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, A. Daniel, E. Huang, P. Mansky, T. P. Russell, C. J. Hawker, D. A. Egolf, I. V. Melnikov, and E. Bodenschatz, “Reducing substrate pinning of block copolymer microdomains with a buffer layer of polymer brushes,” Macromolecules 33, 857-865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374, 709-711 (1995).

Saitoh, Y.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

Sakai, K.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

Sakakibara, Y.

Sands, J. M.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374, 709-711 (1995).

Satoh, H.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multidomain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381, 212-215 (1996).

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-generation of linearly polymerized liquid-crystal aligning layers comprising novel, integrated optically patterned retarders and color filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 34, 3240-3249 (1995).

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2-Lett. 34, L764-L767 (1995).

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid-crystals by lineraly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 31, 2155-2164 (1992).

Schmidt, M.

H. Kromer, R. Kuhn, H. Pielartzik, W. Siebke, V. Eckhardt, and M. Schmidt, “Persistence length and molecular mass-distribution of a thermotropic main-chain liquid-crystal polymer,” Macromolecules 24, 1950-1954(1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid-crystals by lineraly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 31, 2155-2164 (1992).

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multidomain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381, 212-215 (1996).

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2-Lett. 34, L764-L767 (1995).

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-generation of linearly polymerized liquid-crystal aligning layers comprising novel, integrated optically patterned retarders and color filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 34, 3240-3249 (1995).

Seemann, K. M.

K. M. Seemann, J. Ebbecke, and A. Wixforth, “Alignment of carbon nanotubes on pre-structured silicon by surface acoustic waves,” Nanotechnology 17, 4529-4532 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multidomain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381, 212-215 (1996).

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2-Lett. 34, L764-L767 (1995).

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-generation of linearly polymerized liquid-crystal aligning layers comprising novel, integrated optically patterned retarders and color filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 34, 3240-3249 (1995).

Sekikawa, T.

Seo, D. S.

D. S. Seo, S. Kobayashi, and M. Nishikawa, “Study of the pretilt angle for 5 cb on rubber polyimide films containing trifluoromethyl moiety and analysis of the surface atomic concentration of F/C (Percent) with an electron spectroscope for chemical-analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2392-2394(1992).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid-crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).

Shiono, T.

Y. Wang, C. Xu, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, Y. Matsuki, and Y. Takeuchi, “Generation of nematic liquid crystal alignment with polyimides exposed to linearly polarized light of long wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 181-188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shiota, Y.

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

Shklyarevskiy, I. O.

I. O. Shklyarevskiy, M. I. Boamfa, P. C. M. Christianen, F. Touhari, H. van Kempen, G. Deroover, P. Callant, and J. C. Maan, “Magnetic field induced alignment of cyanine dye J-aggregates,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8407-8410 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Siebke, W.

H. Kromer, R. Kuhn, H. Pielartzik, W. Siebke, V. Eckhardt, and M. Schmidt, “Persistence length and molecular mass-distribution of a thermotropic main-chain liquid-crystal polymer,” Macromolecules 24, 1950-1954(1991).
[CrossRef]

Steenbakkers, J.

B. M. I. van der Zande, S. J. Roosendaal, C. Doornkamp, J. Steenbakkers, and J. Lub, “Synthesis, properties, and photopolymerization of liquid-crystalline oxetanes: application in transflective liquid-crystal displays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 791-798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Subacius, D.

D. Andrienko, Y. Kurioz, Y. Reznikov, C. Rosenblatt, R. Petschek, O. Lavrentovich, and D. Subacius, “Tilted photoalignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 50-55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid-crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid-crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).

Taheri, B.

M. Nishikawa, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “Mechanism of unidirectional liquid-crystal alignment on polyimides with linearly polarized ultraviolet light exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2403-2405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taira, Y.

M. Hasegawa and Y. Taira, “Nematic homogeneous photo alignment by polyimide exposure to linearly polarized UV,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 8, 241-248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Xu, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, Y. Matsuki, and Y. Takeuchi, “Generation of nematic liquid crystal alignment with polyimides exposed to linearly polarized light of long wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 181-188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanigawa, T.

Timko, A.

S. Pau, O. Nalamasu, R. Cirelli, J. Frackoviak, A. Timko, G. P. Watson, F. Klemens, and G. Timp, “Sub-wavelength printing using multiple overlapping masks,” Microelectron. Eng. 53, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Timp, G.

S. Pau, O. Nalamasu, R. Cirelli, J. Frackoviak, A. Timko, G. P. Watson, F. Klemens, and G. Timp, “Sub-wavelength printing using multiple overlapping masks,” Microelectron. Eng. 53, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Toney, M. F.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374, 709-711 (1995).

Touhari, F.

I. O. Shklyarevskiy, M. I. Boamfa, P. C. M. Christianen, F. Touhari, H. van Kempen, G. Deroover, P. Callant, and J. C. Maan, “Magnetic field induced alignment of cyanine dye J-aggregates,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8407-8410 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van der Zande, B. M. I.

B. M. I. van der Zande, S. J. Roosendaal, C. Doornkamp, J. Steenbakkers, and J. Lub, “Synthesis, properties, and photopolymerization of liquid-crystalline oxetanes: application in transflective liquid-crystal displays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 791-798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Kempen, H.

I. O. Shklyarevskiy, M. I. Boamfa, P. C. M. Christianen, F. Touhari, H. van Kempen, G. Deroover, P. Callant, and J. C. Maan, “Magnetic field induced alignment of cyanine dye J-aggregates,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8407-8410 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599-1603(1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Xu, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, Y. Matsuki, and Y. Takeuchi, “Generation of nematic liquid crystal alignment with polyimides exposed to linearly polarized light of long wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 181-188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watson, G. P.

S. Pau, O. Nalamasu, R. Cirelli, J. Frackoviak, A. Timko, G. P. Watson, F. Klemens, and G. Timp, “Sub-wavelength printing using multiple overlapping masks,” Microelectron. Eng. 53, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R. A.

V. Arrighi, J. S. Higgins, R. A. Weiss, and A. L. Cimecioglu, “A small-angle neutron-scattering study of a semiflexible main-chain liquid crystalline copolyester,” Macromolecules 25, 5297-5305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

M. Nishikawa, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “Mechanism of unidirectional liquid-crystal alignment on polyimides with linearly polarized ultraviolet light exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2403-2405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599-1603(1996).
[CrossRef]

Wixforth, A.

K. M. Seemann, J. Ebbecke, and A. Wixforth, “Alignment of carbon nanotubes on pre-structured silicon by surface acoustic waves,” Nanotechnology 17, 4529-4532 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Y. Wang, C. Xu, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, Y. Matsuki, and Y. Takeuchi, “Generation of nematic liquid crystal alignment with polyimides exposed to linearly polarized light of long wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 181-188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, M.

Yaroshchuk, O.

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 859-869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

B. M. I. van der Zande, S. J. Roosendaal, C. Doornkamp, J. Steenbakkers, and J. Lub, “Synthesis, properties, and photopolymerization of liquid-crystalline oxetanes: application in transflective liquid-crystal displays,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 791-798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. S. Seo, S. Kobayashi, and M. Nishikawa, “Study of the pretilt angle for 5 cb on rubber polyimide films containing trifluoromethyl moiety and analysis of the surface atomic concentration of F/C (Percent) with an electron spectroscope for chemical-analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2392-2394(1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikawa, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “Mechanism of unidirectional liquid-crystal alignment on polyimides with linearly polarized ultraviolet light exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2403-2405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Wang, C. Xu, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, Y. Matsuki, and Y. Takeuchi, “Generation of nematic liquid crystal alignment with polyimides exposed to linearly polarized light of long wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 181-188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ruetschi, J. Funfschilling, and H.-J. Guntherodt, “Creation of submicron orientational structures in thin liquid crystal polymer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3155-3161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Andrienko, Y. Kurioz, Y. Reznikov, C. Rosenblatt, R. Petschek, O. Lavrentovich, and D. Subacius, “Tilted photoalignment of a nematic liquid crystal induced by a magnetic field,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 50-55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

I. O. Shklyarevskiy, M. I. Boamfa, P. C. M. Christianen, F. Touhari, H. van Kempen, G. Deroover, P. Callant, and J. C. Maan, “Magnetic field induced alignment of cyanine dye J-aggregates,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8407-8410 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol.

M. Hasegawa and Y. Taira, “Nematic homogeneous photo alignment by polyimide exposure to linearly polarized UV,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 8, 241-248 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

M. O'Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced surface alignment for liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D 33, R67-R84(2000).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid-crystals by lineraly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 31, 2155-2164 (1992).

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-generation of linearly polymerized liquid-crystal aligning layers comprising novel, integrated optically patterned retarders and color filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 34, 3240-3249 (1995).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2-Lett.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2-Lett. 34, L764-L767 (1995).

Liq. Cryst.

I. H. Bechtold, M. P. De Santo, J. J. Bonvent, E. A. Oliveira, R. Barberi, and T. Rasing, “Rubbing-induced charge domains observed by electrostatic force microscopy: effect on liquid crystal alignment,” Liq. Cryst. 30, 591-598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 859-869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

H. Kromer, R. Kuhn, H. Pielartzik, W. Siebke, V. Eckhardt, and M. Schmidt, “Persistence length and molecular mass-distribution of a thermotropic main-chain liquid-crystal polymer,” Macromolecules 24, 1950-1954(1991).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Chen and A. M. Jamieson, “Molecular weight-dependant behavior of the twist distortion in a nematic monodomain containing a main-chain liquid-crystal polymer,” Macromolecules 27, 1943-1948 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Arrighi, J. S. Higgins, R. A. Weiss, and A. L. Cimecioglu, “A small-angle neutron-scattering study of a semiflexible main-chain liquid crystalline copolyester,” Macromolecules 25, 5297-5305 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, D. A. Huse, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, A. Daniel, E. Huang, P. Mansky, T. P. Russell, C. J. Hawker, D. A. Egolf, I. V. Melnikov, and E. Bodenschatz, “Reducing substrate pinning of block copolymer microdomains with a buffer layer of polymer brushes,” Macromolecules 33, 857-865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

S. Pau, O. Nalamasu, R. Cirelli, J. Frackoviak, A. Timko, G. P. Watson, F. Klemens, and G. Timp, “Sub-wavelength printing using multiple overlapping masks,” Microelectron. Eng. 53, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

D. W. Berreman, “Alignment of liquid-crystals by grooved surfaces,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 23, 215-231 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Marshall, K. Adelsberger, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “The LCPDI: a compact and robust phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer based on dye-doped lc technology,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 454, 23-45 (2006).

Nano Lett.

T. Kim, M. T. Kao, E. F. Hasselbrink, and E. Meyhofer, “Active alignment of microtubules with electric fields,” Nano Lett. 7, 211-217 (2007).

Nanotechnology

K. M. Seemann, J. Ebbecke, and A. Wixforth, “Alignment of carbon nanotubes on pre-structured silicon by surface acoustic waves,” Nanotechnology 17, 4529-4532 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374, 709-711 (1995).

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multidomain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing angles,” Nature 381, 212-215 (1996).

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid-crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49-50 (1991).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

J. P. Doyle, P. Chaudhari, J. L. Lacey, E. A. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. C. Callegari, N. D. Lang, M. Lu, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nakano, N. Okazaki, S. Odahara, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, and Y. Shiota, “Ion beam alignment for liquid crystal display fabrication,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 206, 467-471 (2003).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. Hentschke and J. Herzfeld, “Isotropic, nematic, and columnar ordering in systems of persistent flexible hard rods,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 1148-1155 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

J.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment of liquid crystals on polyimide films exposed to ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 5644-5650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599-1603(1996).
[CrossRef]

Ukr. Fiz. Zhurnal

A. G. Dyadyusha, V. M. Kozenkov, T. Y. Marusiy, Y. A. Reznikov, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and A. I. Khizhnyak, “Light-induced planar alignment of nematic liquid-crystal by the anisotropic surface without mechanical texture,” Ukr. Fiz. Zhurnal 36, 1059-1062 (1991).

Other

Microlithography: Science and Technology, K. Suzuki and B. W. Smith, eds., 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2007).

G. Cinacchi and L. De Gaetani, “On the deflection and persistence lengths of mesogenic worm-like rods,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 495, 274-284 (2008).

D. Nečas and P. Klapetek, Gwyddion, GNU General Public License, 2008.

A. J. Pidduck, G. P. Bryan Brown, S. Haslam, R. Bannister, I. Kitely, T. J. McMaster, and L. Boogaard, “Atomic force microscopy studies of rubbed polyimide surfaces used for liquid crystal alignment,” J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. A 14, 1723-1728(1996).

K. L. Marshall, K. Adlesberger, B. Kolodzie, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “A second-generation liquid crystal phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer employing structured substrates,” Proc. SPIE 5880, 58800D (2005).

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