Abstract

We present a theoretical and experimental study on sensitivity enhancement of a fiber-loop cavity ring-down pressure sensor. The cladding of the sensing fiber is etched in hydrofluoric acid solution to enhance its sensitivity. The experimental results demonstrate that the pressure applied on the sensing fiber is linearly proportional to the difference between the reciprocals of the ring-down time with and without pressure, and the relative sensitivity exponentially increases with decreasing the cladding diameter. When the sensing fiber is etched to 41.15μm, its sensitivity is about 36 times that of nonetched fiber in the range of 0 to 32.5MPa. The measured relative standard deviation of the ring-down time is about 0.15% and, correspondingly, the least detectable loss is about 0.00069dB.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2554 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven, and eight stretching quanta,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Yang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhao, and N. Di, “Measurement of low loss and mirrors' reflectivity using cavity ring down spectroscopy with high accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 6150, 615007 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843-849 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Evanescent field absorption in a passive optical fiber resonator using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 297-303 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Andachi, T. Nakayama, M. Kawasaki, S. Kurokawa, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-optic ring-down spectroscopy using a tunable picosecond gain-switched diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 131-135 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Single-cell detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523-4525 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. von Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, “Cavity-ring-down principle for fiber-optic resonators: experimental realization of bending loss and evanescent-field sensing,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3567-3575 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Tong, M. Jakubinek, A. Wright, A. Gillies, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for small liquid samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4818-4826 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. B. Tarsa, D. M. Brzozowski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Cavity ringdown strain gauge,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1339-1341 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Ni, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, J. Sun, and P. Shum, “Cavity ring-down long-period fibre grating strain sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3135-3138 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Wang, “Fiber ringdown temperature sensors,” Opt. Eng. 44, 030503 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Wang and A. Mbi, “An alternative method to develop fibre grating temperature sensors using the fibre loop ringdown scheme,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1741-1751 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Gupta, H. Jiao, and A. O'Keefe, “Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1878-1880 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber cavity ring-down refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1351-1353 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Wang and S. T. Scherrer, “Fiber ringdown pressure sensors,” Opt. Lett. 29, 352-354 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Wang and S. T. Scherrer, “Fiber loop ringdown for physical sensor development: pressure sensor,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6458-6464 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Qiu, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, B. Fu, X. Chen, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber ring-down pressure sensor,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 1698-1700 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. von Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, “Time constant extraction from noisy cavity-ring-down signals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 131-137 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber cavity ring-down refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1351-1353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Qiu, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, B. Fu, X. Chen, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber ring-down pressure sensor,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 1698-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Andachi, T. Nakayama, M. Kawasaki, S. Kurokawa, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-optic ring-down spectroscopy using a tunable picosecond gain-switched diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 131-135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, J. Sun, and P. Shum, “Cavity ring-down long-period fibre grating strain sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3135-3138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Yang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhao, and N. Di, “Measurement of low loss and mirrors' reflectivity using cavity ring down spectroscopy with high accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 6150, 615007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang and A. Mbi, “An alternative method to develop fibre grating temperature sensors using the fibre loop ringdown scheme,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1741-1751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Wang, “Fiber ringdown temperature sensors,” Opt. Eng. 44, 030503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Single-cell detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523-4525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Evanescent field absorption in a passive optical fiber resonator using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 297-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang and S. T. Scherrer, “Fiber ringdown pressure sensors,” Opt. Lett. 29, 352-354 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Tarsa, D. M. Brzozowski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Cavity ringdown strain gauge,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1339-1341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wang and S. T. Scherrer, “Fiber loop ringdown for physical sensor development: pressure sensor,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6458-6464 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Z. Tong, M. Jakubinek, A. Wright, A. Gillies, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for small liquid samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4818-4826 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, “Time constant extraction from noisy cavity-ring-down signals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 131-137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, “Cavity-ring-down principle for fiber-optic resonators: experimental realization of bending loss and evanescent-field sensing,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3567-3575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gupta, H. Jiao, and A. O'Keefe, “Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1878-1880 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843-849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven, and eight stretching quanta,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Andachi, M.

M. Andachi, T. Nakayama, M. Kawasaki, S. Kurokawa, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-optic ring-down spectroscopy using a tunable picosecond gain-switched diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 131-135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atherton, K.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843-849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. S.

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brzozowski, D. M.

Chan, C. C.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber cavity ring-down refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1351-1353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, J. Sun, and P. Shum, “Cavity ring-down long-period fibre grating strain sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3135-3138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

H. Qiu, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, B. Fu, X. Chen, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber ring-down pressure sensor,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 1698-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

H. Qiu, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, B. Fu, X. Chen, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber ring-down pressure sensor,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 1698-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843-849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Di, N.

D. Yang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhao, and N. Di, “Measurement of low loss and mirrors' reflectivity using cavity ring down spectroscopy with high accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 6150, 615007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Y.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, J. Sun, and P. Shum, “Cavity ring-down long-period fibre grating strain sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3135-3138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, B.

H. Qiu, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, B. Fu, X. Chen, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber ring-down pressure sensor,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 1698-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gillies, A.

Z. Tong, M. Jakubinek, A. Wright, A. Gillies, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for small liquid samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4818-4826 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

Jakubinek, M.

Z. Tong, M. Jakubinek, A. Wright, A. Gillies, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for small liquid samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4818-4826 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

D. Yang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhao, and N. Di, “Measurement of low loss and mirrors' reflectivity using cavity ring down spectroscopy with high accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 6150, 615007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, H.

Kawasaki, M.

M. Andachi, T. Nakayama, M. Kawasaki, S. Kurokawa, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-optic ring-down spectroscopy using a tunable picosecond gain-switched diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 131-135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozin, I.

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, S.

M. Andachi, T. Nakayama, M. Kawasaki, S. Kurokawa, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-optic ring-down spectroscopy using a tunable picosecond gain-switched diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 131-135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, K. K.

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Evanescent field absorption in a passive optical fiber resonator using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 297-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Tarsa, D. M. Brzozowski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Cavity ringdown strain gauge,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1339-1341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Single-cell detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523-4525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven, and eight stretching quanta,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

H. Qiu, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, B. Fu, X. Chen, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber ring-down pressure sensor,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 1698-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loock, H.-P.

M. Andachi, T. Nakayama, M. Kawasaki, S. Kurokawa, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-optic ring-down spectroscopy using a tunable picosecond gain-switched diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 131-135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, M. Jakubinek, A. Wright, A. Gillies, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for small liquid samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4818-4826 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mbi, A.

C. Wang and A. Mbi, “An alternative method to develop fibre grating temperature sensors using the fibre loop ringdown scheme,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1741-1751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, T.

M. Andachi, T. Nakayama, M. Kawasaki, S. Kurokawa, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-optic ring-down spectroscopy using a tunable picosecond gain-switched diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 131-135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ni, N.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber cavity ring-down refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1351-1353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, J. Sun, and P. Shum, “Cavity ring-down long-period fibre grating strain sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3135-3138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O'Keefe, A.

M. Gupta, H. Jiao, and A. O'Keefe, “Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1878-1880 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Oleschuk, R. D.

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, H.

H. Qiu, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, B. Fu, X. Chen, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber ring-down pressure sensor,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 1698-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

H. Qiu, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, B. Fu, X. Chen, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber ring-down pressure sensor,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 1698-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rabinowitz, P.

P. B. Tarsa, D. M. Brzozowski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Cavity ringdown strain gauge,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1339-1341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Evanescent field absorption in a passive optical fiber resonator using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 297-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Single-cell detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523-4525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven, and eight stretching quanta,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scherrer, S. T.

Shum, P.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber cavity ring-down refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1351-1353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, J. Sun, and P. Shum, “Cavity ring-down long-period fibre grating strain sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3135-3138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M. W.

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843-849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, J. Sun, and P. Shum, “Cavity ring-down long-period fibre grating strain sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3135-3138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tarsa, P. B.

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Single-cell detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523-4525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Evanescent field absorption in a passive optical fiber resonator using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 297-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Tarsa, D. M. Brzozowski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Cavity ringdown strain gauge,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1339-1341 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, M. Jakubinek, A. Wright, A. Gillies, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for small liquid samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4818-4826 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

von Lerber, T.

Wang, C.

C. Wang and A. Mbi, “An alternative method to develop fibre grating temperature sensors using the fibre loop ringdown scheme,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1741-1751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, “Fiber ringdown temperature sensors,” Opt. Eng. 44, 030503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang and S. T. Scherrer, “Fiber ringdown pressure sensors,” Opt. Lett. 29, 352-354 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wang and S. T. Scherrer, “Fiber loop ringdown for physical sensor development: pressure sensor,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6458-6464 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wist, A. D.

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Single-cell detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523-4525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, A.

Z. Tong, M. Jakubinek, A. Wright, A. Gillies, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for small liquid samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4818-4826 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xia, L.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber cavity ring-down refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1351-1353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

D. Yang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhao, and N. Di, “Measurement of low loss and mirrors' reflectivity using cavity ring down spectroscopy with high accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 6150, 615007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843-849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

D. Yang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhao, and N. Di, “Measurement of low loss and mirrors' reflectivity using cavity ring down spectroscopy with high accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 6150, 615007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Andachi, T. Nakayama, M. Kawasaki, S. Kurokawa, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-optic ring-down spectroscopy using a tunable picosecond gain-switched diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 88, 131-135 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Single-cell detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523-4525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Evanescent field absorption in a passive optical fiber resonator using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 297-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. von Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, “Time constant extraction from noisy cavity-ring-down signals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 131-137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, “Fiber cavity ring-down refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1351-1353 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven, and eight stretching quanta,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843-849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, J. Sun, and P. Shum, “Cavity ring-down long-period fibre grating strain sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3135-3138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang and A. Mbi, “An alternative method to develop fibre grating temperature sensors using the fibre loop ringdown scheme,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1741-1751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Qiu, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, B. Fu, X. Chen, and G. Li, “Multimode fiber ring-down pressure sensor,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 1698-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Wang, “Fiber ringdown temperature sensors,” Opt. Eng. 44, 030503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Yang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhao, and N. Di, “Measurement of low loss and mirrors' reflectivity using cavity ring down spectroscopy with high accuracy,” Proc. SPIE 6150, 615007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, M. Jakubinek, A. Wright, A. Gillies, and H.-P. Loock, “Fiber-loop ring-down spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for small liquid samples,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4818-4826 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for pressure sensing based on fiber loop cavity ring-down technique. LD controller, laser diode controller; DFB LD, distributed feedback laser diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical experimental ring-down event averaged for 64 times by oscilloscope (solid curve). The circles show the peaks detected from the event, and the dashed curve gives the fitting curve of the peaks using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationships between the force F and the reciprocal of the ring-down time 1 / τ at different cladding diameters. The cladding of the sensing fiber is etched in HF solution for 0, 10, 20, 40, and 53 min , so the corresponding cladding diameter decreases from 125 μm to 107.54, 91.80, 65.25, and 41.15 μm , respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationships between the pressure P and the term ( 1 / τ 1 / τ 0 ) when the cladding diameters are 125, 107.54, 91.80, 65.25, and 41.15 μm , respectively in (a)–(e). Experimental data are shown by triangles; the fitting curves using the linear model are given in solid curves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Section of the sensing fiber with cladding etched in HF solution for 20 min . The cladding diameter decreases to 91.80 μm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between the cladding diameter D and the relative sensitivity R k . Experimental dada are shown in squares; the fitting curve using the exponential model is given by the solid curve.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Repeatability and dynamic response of the ring-down time when the cladding diameter of the sensing fiber is 91.80 μm . Pressure of 0.6 and 9.7 MPa is applied on the sensing fiber at intervals. The ring-down time changes alternately between 46.58 ± 0.07 and 43.90 ± 0.07 μs , with relative standard deviations of 0.15% and 0.16%, respectively.

Equations (8)

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τ 0 = t r 2 L c + L t + 3 L s = t r A ,
τ = t r 2 L c + L t + 3 L s + β l F = t r A + B ,
β = β 0 exp ( α D ) ,
P = F S ,
1 τ 1 τ 0 = c n eff L B = c β l S n eff L P = k P ,
R k β 2 β 1 = exp ( α ( D 1 D 2 ) ) ,
τ 0 = t r A = 4.343 Γ t r .
Δ τ 0 τ 0 = Δ Γ Γ .

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