Abstract

We study the recording of permanent Bragg gratings on surface-colored lithium fluoride (LiF) crystals by using the interference pattern of a continuous-wave UV argon-ion laser operating at 244nm. Gratings with spatial periodicity ranging from 400 to 1000nm are written by using a phase-mask interferometer and are stable for several months after the writing process. Absorption and photoluminescence spectra show the bleaching of primary F and F -aggregate laser-active color centers as a result of the process. Confocal microscopy is used to determine the pitch and the profile of the fluorescent gratings. The UV laser-induced optical bleaching in highly colored LiF ultrathin layers is responsible for the periodic spatial modulation of absorption and photoemission properties that characterize the gratings. In the colored surface layer, a reduction of as much as 50% of the initial color-center-induced refractive-index increase has been estimated in the bleached areas.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).
  2. L. F. Mollenauer and D. H. Olson, “Broadly tunable lasers using color centers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3109-3118 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. C. Bjorklund, L. F. Mollenauer, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Distributed-feedback color center lasers in the 2.5-3.0 μmregion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 116-118 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Kurubori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kawamura, D. Takamizu, T. Kurobori, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Nano-fabrication of optical devices in transparent dielectrics: volume gratings in SiO2 and DFB color center laser in LiF,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 332-336 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. C. Courrol, R. R. Salmad, L. Gomes, I. M. Ranieri, S. L. Baldochi, A. Z. Freitas, and N. D. Vieira Jr., “Color center production by femtosecond pulse laser irradiation in LiF crystals,” Opt. Express 12, 288-293 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. A. Nunes, H. J. Kalinowski, S. Paciornik, A. M. De Souza, and L. C. Scavarda do Carmo, “Electron beam production of colour centres in alkali halide crystals and films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 32, 222-224 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, “Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Montecchi, E. Nichelatti, A. Mancini, and R. M. Montereali, “Optical characterization of low-energy electron-beam-colored LiF crystals by spectral transmittance measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3745-3750 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, “Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. M. Montereali and M. Piccinini, “Optical gain of F2 colour centres in LiF confining structures realised by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 209, 201-208 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Fornarini, S. Martelli, A. Mancini, R. M. Montereali, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Realization and characterization of broad-band active stripe waveguides in LiF films,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. de Bernardi, ed. (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, 1999), pp. 343-346.
  13. M. A. Vincenti, S. Almaviva, R. M. Montereali, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. N. Nogueira, “Permanent luminescent micro-patterns photoinduced by low power ultraviolet irradiation in lithium fluoride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241125-241127 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).
  16. P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and G. Giel, “Analysis and application of a 0/1 order Talbot interferometer for 193 nm laser grating formation,” Opt. Commun. 129, 98-108 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. C. Cardozo da Silva, R. Falate, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Pinto, “Production of fiber Bragg gratings in phase mask interferometers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Telecommunications, J.F.Ferreira da Rocha, ed. (Instituto de Telecomunicações, 2003), pp. 449-451.
  18. J. Nahum and D. A. Wiegand, “Optical properties of some F-aggregate centers in LiF,” Phys. Rev. 154, 817-830 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Baldacchini, E. De Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, “Optical bands of F2 and F3+ centers in LiF,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 21-26 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. P. Voitovich, V. S. Kalinov, S. A. Mikhnov, and S. I. Ovsechuk, “Investigation of spectral and energy characteristics of green radiation generated in lithium fluoride with radiation color centers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 780-782(1987).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. A. Vincenti, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. M. Montereali, “Permanent bleaching of F2 color centers in lithium fluoride under UV light illumination,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1139-1142 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. A. Vincenti, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. M. Montereali, “Permanent bleaching of F2 color centers in lithium fluoride under UV light illumination,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1139-1142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. A. Vincenti, S. Almaviva, R. M. Montereali, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. N. Nogueira, “Permanent luminescent micro-patterns photoinduced by low power ultraviolet irradiation in lithium fluoride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241125-241127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. Kawamura, D. Takamizu, T. Kurobori, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Nano-fabrication of optical devices in transparent dielectrics: volume gratings in SiO2 and DFB color center laser in LiF,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 332-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Courrol, R. R. Salmad, L. Gomes, I. M. Ranieri, S. L. Baldochi, A. Z. Freitas, and N. D. Vieira Jr., “Color center production by femtosecond pulse laser irradiation in LiF crystals,” Opt. Express 12, 288-293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. Kurubori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. M. Montereali and M. Piccinini, “Optical gain of F2 colour centres in LiF confining structures realised by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 209, 201-208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, “Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Baldacchini, E. De Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, “Optical bands of F2 and F3+ centers in LiF,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Montecchi, E. Nichelatti, A. Mancini, and R. M. Montereali, “Optical characterization of low-energy electron-beam-colored LiF crystals by spectral transmittance measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3745-3750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, “Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225(1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

1996 (1)

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and G. Giel, “Analysis and application of a 0/1 order Talbot interferometer for 193 nm laser grating formation,” Opt. Commun. 129, 98-108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. A. Nunes, H. J. Kalinowski, S. Paciornik, A. M. De Souza, and L. C. Scavarda do Carmo, “Electron beam production of colour centres in alkali halide crystals and films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 32, 222-224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. P. Voitovich, V. S. Kalinov, S. A. Mikhnov, and S. I. Ovsechuk, “Investigation of spectral and energy characteristics of green radiation generated in lithium fluoride with radiation color centers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 780-782(1987).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, L. F. Mollenauer, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Distributed-feedback color center lasers in the 2.5-3.0 μmregion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 116-118 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer and D. H. Olson, “Broadly tunable lasers using color centers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3109-3118 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

1967 (1)

J. Nahum and D. A. Wiegand, “Optical properties of some F-aggregate centers in LiF,” Phys. Rev. 154, 817-830 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Albertano, A.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Almaviva, S.

M. A. Vincenti, S. Almaviva, R. M. Montereali, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. N. Nogueira, “Permanent luminescent micro-patterns photoinduced by low power ultraviolet irradiation in lithium fluoride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241125-241127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baldacchini, G.

E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, E. De Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, “Optical bands of F2 and F3+ centers in LiF,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baldochi, S. L.

Belli, M.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, L. F. Mollenauer, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Distributed-feedback color center lasers in the 2.5-3.0 μmregion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 116-118 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bollanti, S.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Bonfigli, F.

E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burattini, E.

R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, “Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cardozo da Silva, J. C.

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, R. Falate, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Pinto, “Production of fiber Bragg gratings in phase mask interferometers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Telecommunications, J.F.Ferreira da Rocha, ed. (Instituto de Telecomunicações, 2003), pp. 449-451.

Courrol, L. C.

De Nicola, E.

G. Baldacchini, E. De Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, “Optical bands of F2 and F3+ centers in LiF,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Souza, A. M.

R. A. Nunes, H. J. Kalinowski, S. Paciornik, A. M. De Souza, and L. C. Scavarda do Carmo, “Electron beam production of colour centres in alkali halide crystals and films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 32, 222-224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and G. Giel, “Analysis and application of a 0/1 order Talbot interferometer for 193 nm laser grating formation,” Opt. Commun. 129, 98-108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fabris, J. L.

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, R. Falate, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Pinto, “Production of fiber Bragg gratings in phase mask interferometers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Telecommunications, J.F.Ferreira da Rocha, ed. (Instituto de Telecomunicações, 2003), pp. 449-451.

Faenov, A. Ya

E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Falate, R.

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, R. Falate, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Pinto, “Production of fiber Bragg gratings in phase mask interferometers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Telecommunications, J.F.Ferreira da Rocha, ed. (Instituto de Telecomunicações, 2003), pp. 449-451.

Farley, R. J.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and G. Giel, “Analysis and application of a 0/1 order Talbot interferometer for 193 nm laser grating formation,” Opt. Commun. 129, 98-108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flora, F.

E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Fornarini, L.

L. Fornarini, S. Martelli, A. Mancini, R. M. Montereali, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Realization and characterization of broad-band active stripe waveguides in LiF films,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. de Bernardi, ed. (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, 1999), pp. 343-346.

Freitas, A. Z.

Giel, G.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and G. Giel, “Analysis and application of a 0/1 order Talbot interferometer for 193 nm laser grating formation,” Opt. Commun. 129, 98-108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, G.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Gomes, L.

Grilli, A.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Hirano, M.

K. Kawamura, D. Takamizu, T. Kurobori, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Nano-fabrication of optical devices in transparent dielectrics: volume gratings in SiO2 and DFB color center laser in LiF,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 332-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurubori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405(2003).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

K. Kawamura, D. Takamizu, T. Kurobori, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Nano-fabrication of optical devices in transparent dielectrics: volume gratings in SiO2 and DFB color center laser in LiF,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 332-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurubori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405(2003).
[CrossRef]

Ianzini, F.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Kalinov, V.

G. Baldacchini, E. De Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, “Optical bands of F2 and F3+ centers in LiF,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kalinov, V. S.

A. P. Voitovich, V. S. Kalinov, S. A. Mikhnov, and S. I. Ovsechuk, “Investigation of spectral and energy characteristics of green radiation generated in lithium fluoride with radiation color centers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 780-782(1987).
[CrossRef]

Kalinowski, H. J.

M. A. Vincenti, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. M. Montereali, “Permanent bleaching of F2 color centers in lithium fluoride under UV light illumination,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1139-1142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vincenti, S. Almaviva, R. M. Montereali, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. N. Nogueira, “Permanent luminescent micro-patterns photoinduced by low power ultraviolet irradiation in lithium fluoride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241125-241127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Nunes, H. J. Kalinowski, S. Paciornik, A. M. De Souza, and L. C. Scavarda do Carmo, “Electron beam production of colour centres in alkali halide crystals and films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 32, 222-224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, R. Falate, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Pinto, “Production of fiber Bragg gratings in phase mask interferometers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Telecommunications, J.F.Ferreira da Rocha, ed. (Instituto de Telecomunicações, 2003), pp. 449-451.

Kamiya, T.

K. Kawamura, D. Takamizu, T. Kurobori, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Nano-fabrication of optical devices in transparent dielectrics: volume gratings in SiO2 and DFB color center laser in LiF,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 332-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.

K. Kawamura, D. Takamizu, T. Kurobori, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Nano-fabrication of optical devices in transparent dielectrics: volume gratings in SiO2 and DFB color center laser in LiF,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 332-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurubori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405(2003).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

Kukhlevsky, S. V.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Kurobori, T.

K. Kawamura, D. Takamizu, T. Kurobori, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Nano-fabrication of optical devices in transparent dielectrics: volume gratings in SiO2 and DFB color center laser in LiF,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 332-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurubori, T.

T. Kurubori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lazzaro, P. Di

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Letardi, T.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Mancini, A.

M. Montecchi, E. Nichelatti, A. Mancini, and R. M. Montereali, “Optical characterization of low-energy electron-beam-colored LiF crystals by spectral transmittance measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3745-3750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, “Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225(1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fornarini, S. Martelli, A. Mancini, R. M. Montereali, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Realization and characterization of broad-band active stripe waveguides in LiF films,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. de Bernardi, ed. (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, 1999), pp. 343-346.

Marolo, T.

E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, S.

L. Fornarini, S. Martelli, A. Mancini, R. M. Montereali, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Realization and characterization of broad-band active stripe waveguides in LiF films,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. de Bernardi, ed. (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, 1999), pp. 343-346.

Mikhnov, S. A.

A. P. Voitovich, V. S. Kalinov, S. A. Mikhnov, and S. I. Ovsechuk, “Investigation of spectral and energy characteristics of green radiation generated in lithium fluoride with radiation color centers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 780-782(1987).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

G. C. Bjorklund, L. F. Mollenauer, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Distributed-feedback color center lasers in the 2.5-3.0 μmregion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 116-118 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer and D. H. Olson, “Broadly tunable lasers using color centers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3109-3118 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Montecchi, M.

E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Montecchi, E. Nichelatti, A. Mancini, and R. M. Montereali, “Optical characterization of low-energy electron-beam-colored LiF crystals by spectral transmittance measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3745-3750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Montereali, R. M.

M. A. Vincenti, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. M. Montereali, “Permanent bleaching of F2 color centers in lithium fluoride under UV light illumination,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1139-1142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vincenti, S. Almaviva, R. M. Montereali, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. N. Nogueira, “Permanent luminescent micro-patterns photoinduced by low power ultraviolet irradiation in lithium fluoride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241125-241127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Montereali and M. Piccinini, “Optical gain of F2 colour centres in LiF confining structures realised by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 209, 201-208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, “Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Baldacchini, E. De Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, “Optical bands of F2 and F3+ centers in LiF,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Montecchi, E. Nichelatti, A. Mancini, and R. M. Montereali, “Optical characterization of low-energy electron-beam-colored LiF crystals by spectral transmittance measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3745-3750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, “Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225(1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fornarini, S. Martelli, A. Mancini, R. M. Montereali, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Realization and characterization of broad-band active stripe waveguides in LiF films,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. de Bernardi, ed. (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, 1999), pp. 343-346.

Nahum, J.

J. Nahum and D. A. Wiegand, “Optical properties of some F-aggregate centers in LiF,” Phys. Rev. 154, 817-830 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Nichelatti, E.

E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Montecchi, E. Nichelatti, A. Mancini, and R. M. Montereali, “Optical characterization of low-energy electron-beam-colored LiF crystals by spectral transmittance measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3745-3750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nogueira, R. N.

M. A. Vincenti, S. Almaviva, R. M. Montereali, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. N. Nogueira, “Permanent luminescent micro-patterns photoinduced by low power ultraviolet irradiation in lithium fluoride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241125-241127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, R. Falate, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Pinto, “Production of fiber Bragg gratings in phase mask interferometers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Telecommunications, J.F.Ferreira da Rocha, ed. (Instituto de Telecomunicações, 2003), pp. 449-451.

Nottola, A.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Nunes, R. A.

R. A. Nunes, H. J. Kalinowski, S. Paciornik, A. M. De Souza, and L. C. Scavarda do Carmo, “Electron beam production of colour centres in alkali halide crystals and films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 32, 222-224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. H.

L. F. Mollenauer and D. H. Olson, “Broadly tunable lasers using color centers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3109-3118 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ovsechuk, S. I.

A. P. Voitovich, V. S. Kalinov, S. A. Mikhnov, and S. I. Ovsechuk, “Investigation of spectral and energy characteristics of green radiation generated in lithium fluoride with radiation color centers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 780-782(1987).
[CrossRef]

Paciornik, S.

R. A. Nunes, H. J. Kalinowski, S. Paciornik, A. M. De Souza, and L. C. Scavarda do Carmo, “Electron beam production of colour centres in alkali halide crystals and films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 32, 222-224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Palladino, L.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Pelli, S.

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, “Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225(1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fornarini, S. Martelli, A. Mancini, R. M. Montereali, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Realization and characterization of broad-band active stripe waveguides in LiF films,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. de Bernardi, ed. (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, 1999), pp. 343-346.

Piccinini, M.

R. M. Montereali and M. Piccinini, “Optical gain of F2 colour centres in LiF confining structures realised by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 209, 201-208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, “Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, T.

E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Pinto, J. L.

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, R. Falate, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Pinto, “Production of fiber Bragg gratings in phase mask interferometers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Telecommunications, J.F.Ferreira da Rocha, ed. (Instituto de Telecomunicações, 2003), pp. 449-451.

Ranieri, I. M.

Reale, A.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Reale, L.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Righini, G. C.

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, “Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225(1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fornarini, S. Martelli, A. Mancini, R. M. Montereali, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Realization and characterization of broad-band active stripe waveguides in LiF films,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. de Bernardi, ed. (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, 1999), pp. 343-346.

Salmad, R. R.

Scacco, A.

G. Baldacchini, E. De Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, “Optical bands of F2 and F3+ centers in LiF,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scafati, A.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Scavarda do Carmo, L. C.

R. A. Nunes, H. J. Kalinowski, S. Paciornik, A. M. De Souza, and L. C. Scavarda do Carmo, “Electron beam production of colour centres in alkali halide crystals and films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 32, 222-224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schina, G.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Tabocchini, M. A.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Takamizu, D.

K. Kawamura, D. Takamizu, T. Kurobori, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Nano-fabrication of optical devices in transparent dielectrics: volume gratings in SiO2 and DFB color center laser in LiF,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 332-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

G. C. Bjorklund, L. F. Mollenauer, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Distributed-feedback color center lasers in the 2.5-3.0 μmregion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 116-118 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Turcu, E. I. C.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Vieira, N. D.

Vigli-Papadaki, K.

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Vincenti, M. A.

M. A. Vincenti, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. M. Montereali, “Permanent bleaching of F2 color centers in lithium fluoride under UV light illumination,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1139-1142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vincenti, S. Almaviva, R. M. Montereali, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. N. Nogueira, “Permanent luminescent micro-patterns photoinduced by low power ultraviolet irradiation in lithium fluoride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241125-241127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voitovich, A. P.

A. P. Voitovich, V. S. Kalinov, S. A. Mikhnov, and S. I. Ovsechuk, “Investigation of spectral and energy characteristics of green radiation generated in lithium fluoride with radiation color centers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 780-782(1987).
[CrossRef]

Wiegand, D. A.

J. Nahum and D. A. Wiegand, “Optical properties of some F-aggregate centers in LiF,” Phys. Rev. 154, 817-830 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. M. Montereali, M. Piccinini, and E. Burattini, “Amplified spontaneous emission in active channel waveguides produced by electron-beam lithography in LiF crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4082-4084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vincenti, S. Almaviva, R. M. Montereali, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. N. Nogueira, “Permanent luminescent micro-patterns photoinduced by low power ultraviolet irradiation in lithium fluoride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241125-241127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bjorklund, L. F. Mollenauer, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Distributed-feedback color center lasers in the 2.5-3.0 μmregion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 116-118 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. F. Mollenauer and D. H. Olson, “Broadly tunable lasers using color centers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3109-3118 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Montecchi, E. Nichelatti, A. Mancini, and R. M. Montereali, “Optical characterization of low-energy electron-beam-colored LiF crystals by spectral transmittance measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3745-3750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

E. Nichelatti, F. Bonfigli, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, T. Marolo, M. Montecchi, R. M. Montereali, T. Pikuz, and G. Baldacchini, “Surface generation of color centers in lithium fluoride by EUV-irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1774-1779 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

G. Baldacchini, E. De Nicola, R. M. Montereali, A. Scacco, and V. Kalinov, “Optical bands of F2 and F3+ centers in LiF,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 21-26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

T. Kurubori, K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Simultaneous fabrication of laser-active colour centres and permanent microgratings in lithium fluoride by a single femtosecond pulse,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, L399-L405(2003).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (2)

K. Kawamura, D. Takamizu, T. Kurobori, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Nano-fabrication of optical devices in transparent dielectrics: volume gratings in SiO2 and DFB color center laser in LiF,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 218, 332-336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Nunes, H. J. Kalinowski, S. Paciornik, A. M. De Souza, and L. C. Scavarda do Carmo, “Electron beam production of colour centres in alkali halide crystals and films,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 32, 222-224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento D (1)

S. Bollanti, A. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Ya Faenov, F. Flora, G. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. V. Kukhlevsky, T. Letardi, A. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Pikuz, A. Reale, L. Reale, A. Scafati, M. A. Tabocchini, E. I. C. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki, and G. Schina, “Soft x-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications,” Nuovo Cimento D 20, 1685-1701 (1998).

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and G. Giel, “Analysis and application of a 0/1 order Talbot interferometer for 193 nm laser grating formation,” Opt. Commun. 129, 98-108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Montereali, A. Mancini, G. C. Righini, and S. Pelli, “Active stripe waveguides produced by electron beam lithography in LiF single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 153, 223-225(1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Montereali and M. Piccinini, “Optical gain of F2 colour centres in LiF confining structures realised by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Commun. 209, 201-208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. Nahum and D. A. Wiegand, “Optical properties of some F-aggregate centers in LiF,” Phys. Rev. 154, 817-830 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

M. A. Vincenti, H. J. Kalinowski, and R. M. Montereali, “Permanent bleaching of F2 color centers in lithium fluoride under UV light illumination,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1139-1142 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. P. Voitovich, V. S. Kalinov, S. A. Mikhnov, and S. I. Ovsechuk, “Investigation of spectral and energy characteristics of green radiation generated in lithium fluoride with radiation color centers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 780-782(1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Fornarini, S. Martelli, A. Mancini, R. M. Montereali, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Realization and characterization of broad-band active stripe waveguides in LiF films,” in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Integrated Optics, C. de Bernardi, ed. (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, 1999), pp. 343-346.

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, R. Falate, R. N. Nogueira, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Pinto, “Production of fiber Bragg gratings in phase mask interferometers,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Telecommunications, J.F.Ferreira da Rocha, ed. (Instituto de Telecomunicações, 2003), pp. 449-451.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

RT optical density spectra of the blank LiF crystal (dotted curve), of the colored zone (solid curve), and of the uniformly illuminated spot (dashed curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RT photoluminescence spectra of the untreated colored LiF crystal (solid curve) and of the two recorded gratings (dashed curve, 10 min ; dotted curve, 20 min ) under argon laser excitation at 458 nm in identical conditions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RT photoluminescence spectra (solid curve) of (a) the untreated colored LiF crystal and (b) the uniformly UV laser illuminated spot reported as a function of the emission energy together with their best-fit as the sum of two Gaussian bands ascribed to the F 3 + and F 2 luminescence bands.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Confocal fluorescence microscopy image, in false color, of a Bragg grating recorded on a surface colored LiF crystal by CW illumination at 244 nm . The two white lines limit the region in which the photoluminescence intensity profile was averaged to determine the grating characteristics.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Gray level fluorescence intensity profile of the grating, vertically averaged between the marked white lines in Fig. 2. The arrow indicates the curve chosen to measure the bandwidth in (b) the enlarged detail. In (b) the measured intensity is indicated by the solid line and the Gaussian best-fit is represented by the curve.

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