Abstract

Here we report how ultrafast pulsed illumination at low average power results in a stable three- dimensional (3D) optical trap holding latex nanoparticles which is otherwise not possible with continuous wave lasers at the same power level. The gigantic peak power of a femtosecond pulse exerts a huge instantaneous gradient force that has been predicted theoretically earlier and implemented for microsecond pulses in a different context by others. In addition, the resulting two-photon fluorescence allows direct observation of trapping events by providing intrinsic 3D resolution.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

A. K. De and D. Goswami, “Exploring the nature of photo-damage in two-photon excitation by fluorescence intensity modulation,” J. Fluoresc. 19, 381-386 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Zhou, L. Qu, K. Yao, M. Zhong, and Y. Li, “Observing nanometre scale particles with light scattering for manipulation using optical tweezers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. De, D. Roy, B. Saha, and D. Goswami, “A simple method for constructing and calibrating an optical tweezer,” Curr. Sci. 95, 723-724 (2008).

2007

2005

A. A. Ambaredkar and Y. Li, “Optical levitation and manipulation of stuck particles with pulsed optical tweezers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1797-1799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. L. J. Vossen, D. Fific, J. Penninkhof, T. van Dillen, A. Pollman, and A. van Blaaderen, “Combined optical tweezers/ion beam technique to tune colloidal masks for nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 1175-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Hansen, V. K. Bhatia, N. Harrit, and L. Oddershede, “Expanding the optical trapping range of gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 1937-1942 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Tan, H. A. Lopez, C. W. Cai, and Y. Zhang, “Optical trapping of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 4, 1415-1419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Prikulis, F. Svedberg, M. Käll, J. Enger, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical spectroscopy of single trapped metal nanoparticles in solution,” Nano Lett. 4, 115-118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xing, F. Mao, L. Chai, and Q. Wang, “Numerical modeling and theoretical analysis of femtosecond laser tweezers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36, 635-639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbert, and K. Dholakia, “Femtosecond optical tweezers for in-situ control of two-photon fluorescence,” Opt. Express 12, 3011-3017 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, “Laser-induced heating in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 84, 1308-1316 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2000

P. A. M. Neto and H. M. Nussenzweig, “Theory of optical tweezers,” Europhys. Lett. 50, 702-708 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Bustamante, J. C. Macosko, and G. J. L. Wuite, “Grabbing the cat by the tail: manipulating molecules one by one,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1, 130-136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, “History of optical trapping ad manipulation of small-neutral particle, atoms and molecules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 841-855 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

D. T. Chiu and R. N. Zare, “Biased diffusion, optical trapping, and manipulation of single molecules in solution,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 6512-6513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

1990

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235, 1517-1520 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

A. Ashkin, “Applications of laser radiation pressure,” Science 210, 1081-1088 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

Agate, B.

Ajito, K.

Ambaredkar, A. A.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, “History of optical trapping ad manipulation of small-neutral particle, atoms and molecules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 841-855 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235, 1517-1520 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, “Applications of laser radiation pressure,” Science 210, 1081-1088 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Optical Trapping and Manipulation of Neutral Particles Using Lasers: a Reprint Volume with Commentaries (World Scientific, 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

Bhatia, V. K.

P. M. Hansen, V. K. Bhatia, N. Harrit, and L. Oddershede, “Expanding the optical trapping range of gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 1937-1942 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, S. M.

Brown, C. T. A.

Bustamante, C.

C. Bustamante, J. C. Macosko, and G. J. L. Wuite, “Grabbing the cat by the tail: manipulating molecules one by one,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1, 130-136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cai, C. W.

S. Tan, H. A. Lopez, C. W. Cai, and Y. Zhang, “Optical trapping of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 4, 1415-1419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chai, L.

Q. Xing, F. Mao, L. Chai, and Q. Wang, “Numerical modeling and theoretical analysis of femtosecond laser tweezers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36, 635-639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, D. T.

D. T. Chiu and R. N. Zare, “Biased diffusion, optical trapping, and manipulation of single molecules in solution,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 6512-6513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De, A. K.

A. K. De and D. Goswami, “Exploring the nature of photo-damage in two-photon excitation by fluorescence intensity modulation,” J. Fluoresc. 19, 381-386 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. K. De, D. Roy, B. Saha, and D. Goswami, “A simple method for constructing and calibrating an optical tweezer,” Curr. Sci. 95, 723-724 (2008).

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235, 1517-1520 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enger, J.

J. Prikulis, F. Svedberg, M. Käll, J. Enger, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical spectroscopy of single trapped metal nanoparticles in solution,” Nano Lett. 4, 115-118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fific, D.

D. L. J. Vossen, D. Fific, J. Penninkhof, T. van Dillen, A. Pollman, and A. van Blaaderen, “Combined optical tweezers/ion beam technique to tune colloidal masks for nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 1175-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gittes, F.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, “Laser-induced heating in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 84, 1308-1316 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goksör, M.

J. Prikulis, F. Svedberg, M. Käll, J. Enger, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical spectroscopy of single trapped metal nanoparticles in solution,” Nano Lett. 4, 115-118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goswami, D.

A. K. De and D. Goswami, “Exploring the nature of photo-damage in two-photon excitation by fluorescence intensity modulation,” J. Fluoresc. 19, 381-386 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. K. De, D. Roy, B. Saha, and D. Goswami, “A simple method for constructing and calibrating an optical tweezer,” Curr. Sci. 95, 723-724 (2008).

Hale, G. M.

Hansen, P. M.

P. M. Hansen, V. K. Bhatia, N. Harrit, and L. Oddershede, “Expanding the optical trapping range of gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 1937-1942 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanstorp, D.

J. Prikulis, F. Svedberg, M. Käll, J. Enger, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical spectroscopy of single trapped metal nanoparticles in solution,” Nano Lett. 4, 115-118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harrit, N.

P. M. Hansen, V. K. Bhatia, N. Harrit, and L. Oddershede, “Expanding the optical trapping range of gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 1937-1942 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käll, M.

J. Prikulis, F. Svedberg, M. Käll, J. Enger, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical spectroscopy of single trapped metal nanoparticles in solution,” Nano Lett. 4, 115-118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Konig, K.

Li, Y.

J. Zhou, L. Qu, K. Yao, M. Zhong, and Y. Li, “Observing nanometre scale particles with light scattering for manipulation using optical tweezers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Ambaredkar and Y. Li, “Optical levitation and manipulation of stuck particles with pulsed optical tweezers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1797-1799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lopez, H. A.

S. Tan, H. A. Lopez, C. W. Cai, and Y. Zhang, “Optical trapping of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 4, 1415-1419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macosko, J. C.

C. Bustamante, J. C. Macosko, and G. J. L. Wuite, “Grabbing the cat by the tail: manipulating molecules one by one,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1, 130-136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maiti, S.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, F.

Q. Xing, F. Mao, L. Chai, and Q. Wang, “Numerical modeling and theoretical analysis of femtosecond laser tweezers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36, 635-639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neto, P. A. M.

P. A. M. Neto and H. M. Nussenzweig, “Theory of optical tweezers,” Europhys. Lett. 50, 702-708 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nussenzweig, H. M.

P. A. M. Neto and H. M. Nussenzweig, “Theory of optical tweezers,” Europhys. Lett. 50, 702-708 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oddershede, L.

P. M. Hansen, V. K. Bhatia, N. Harrit, and L. Oddershede, “Expanding the optical trapping range of gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 1937-1942 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penninkhof, J.

D. L. J. Vossen, D. Fific, J. Penninkhof, T. van Dillen, A. Pollman, and A. van Blaaderen, “Combined optical tweezers/ion beam technique to tune colloidal masks for nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 1175-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterman, E. J. G.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, “Laser-induced heating in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 84, 1308-1316 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollman, A.

D. L. J. Vossen, D. Fific, J. Penninkhof, T. van Dillen, A. Pollman, and A. van Blaaderen, “Combined optical tweezers/ion beam technique to tune colloidal masks for nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 1175-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prikulis, J.

J. Prikulis, F. Svedberg, M. Käll, J. Enger, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical spectroscopy of single trapped metal nanoparticles in solution,” Nano Lett. 4, 115-118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qu, L.

J. Zhou, L. Qu, K. Yao, M. Zhong, and Y. Li, “Observing nanometre scale particles with light scattering for manipulation using optical tweezers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Ramser, K.

J. Prikulis, F. Svedberg, M. Käll, J. Enger, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical spectroscopy of single trapped metal nanoparticles in solution,” Nano Lett. 4, 115-118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roy, D.

A. K. De, D. Roy, B. Saha, and D. Goswami, “A simple method for constructing and calibrating an optical tweezer,” Curr. Sci. 95, 723-724 (2008).

Saha, B.

A. K. De, D. Roy, B. Saha, and D. Goswami, “A simple method for constructing and calibrating an optical tweezer,” Curr. Sci. 95, 723-724 (2008).

Schmidt, C. F.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, “Laser-induced heating in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 84, 1308-1316 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shear, J. B.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbert, W.

Sonek, G. J.

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svedberg, F.

J. Prikulis, F. Svedberg, M. Käll, J. Enger, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical spectroscopy of single trapped metal nanoparticles in solution,” Nano Lett. 4, 115-118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svoboda, K.

Tan, S.

S. Tan, H. A. Lopez, C. W. Cai, and Y. Zhang, “Optical trapping of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 4, 1415-1419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Torimistu, K.

Tromberg, B. J.

van Blaaderen, A.

D. L. J. Vossen, D. Fific, J. Penninkhof, T. van Dillen, A. Pollman, and A. van Blaaderen, “Combined optical tweezers/ion beam technique to tune colloidal masks for nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 1175-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Dillen, T.

D. L. J. Vossen, D. Fific, J. Penninkhof, T. van Dillen, A. Pollman, and A. van Blaaderen, “Combined optical tweezers/ion beam technique to tune colloidal masks for nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 1175-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vossen, D. L. J.

D. L. J. Vossen, D. Fific, J. Penninkhof, T. van Dillen, A. Pollman, and A. van Blaaderen, “Combined optical tweezers/ion beam technique to tune colloidal masks for nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 1175-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Wang, Q.

Q. Xing, F. Mao, L. Chai, and Q. Wang, “Numerical modeling and theoretical analysis of femtosecond laser tweezers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36, 635-639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wuite, G. J. L.

C. Bustamante, J. C. Macosko, and G. J. L. Wuite, “Grabbing the cat by the tail: manipulating molecules one by one,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1, 130-136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Q.

Q. Xing, F. Mao, L. Chai, and Q. Wang, “Numerical modeling and theoretical analysis of femtosecond laser tweezers,” Opt. Laser Technol. 36, 635-639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yao, K.

J. Zhou, L. Qu, K. Yao, M. Zhong, and Y. Li, “Observing nanometre scale particles with light scattering for manipulation using optical tweezers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

D. T. Chiu and R. N. Zare, “Biased diffusion, optical trapping, and manipulation of single molecules in solution,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 6512-6513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

S. Tan, H. A. Lopez, C. W. Cai, and Y. Zhang, “Optical trapping of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 4, 1415-1419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

Zhong, M.

J. Zhou, L. Qu, K. Yao, M. Zhong, and Y. Li, “Observing nanometre scale particles with light scattering for manipulation using optical tweezers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, L. Qu, K. Yao, M. Zhong, and Y. Li, “Observing nanometre scale particles with light scattering for manipulation using optical tweezers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zipfel, W. R.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

Biophys. J.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, “Laser-induced heating in optical traps,” Biophys. J. 84, 1308-1316 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

J. Zhou, L. Qu, K. Yao, M. Zhong, and Y. Li, “Observing nanometre scale particles with light scattering for manipulation using optical tweezers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 3995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Sci.

A. K. De, D. Roy, B. Saha, and D. Goswami, “A simple method for constructing and calibrating an optical tweezer,” Curr. Sci. 95, 723-724 (2008).

Europhys. Lett.

P. A. M. Neto and H. M. Nussenzweig, “Theory of optical tweezers,” Europhys. Lett. 50, 702-708 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Ashkin, “History of optical trapping ad manipulation of small-neutral particle, atoms and molecules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 841-855 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

D. T. Chiu and R. N. Zare, “Biased diffusion, optical trapping, and manipulation of single molecules in solution,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 6512-6513 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluoresc.

A. K. De and D. Goswami, “Exploring the nature of photo-damage in two-photon excitation by fluorescence intensity modulation,” J. Fluoresc. 19, 381-386 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Prikulis, F. Svedberg, M. Käll, J. Enger, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical spectroscopy of single trapped metal nanoparticles in solution,” Nano Lett. 4, 115-118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. L. J. Vossen, D. Fific, J. Penninkhof, T. van Dillen, A. Pollman, and A. van Blaaderen, “Combined optical tweezers/ion beam technique to tune colloidal masks for nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 1175-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tan, H. A. Lopez, C. W. Cai, and Y. Zhang, “Optical trapping of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 4, 1415-1419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hansen, V. K. Bhatia, N. Harrit, and L. Oddershede, “Expanding the optical trapping range of gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5, 1937-1942 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.

C. Bustamante, J. C. Macosko, and G. J. L. Wuite, “Grabbing the cat by the tail: manipulating molecules one by one,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1, 130-136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P.M.Sheetz, ed., Laser Tweezers in Cell Biology (Academic, 1998).

A. Ashkin, Optical Trapping and Manipulation of Neutral Particles Using Lasers: a Reprint Volume with Commentaries (World Scientific, 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The excitation beam path is shown as a solid (red) line, while the backscattered path is shown as a dashed (red) line. The fluorescence collection path is shown as a dashed–dot (green) line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence signal at 10 mW laser power: (a) frequent spikes showing biased diffusion and (b) trapping for a few seconds.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fluorescence and (b) backscattered signals (black curves) along with their step-function fits (red curves) at 30 mW laser power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Backscattered signal (black curve) along with the step-function fit (red curve) for cw excitation at 200 mW .

Equations (4)

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F = ( α 2 ) E 2 ,
α = ( n 2 1 n 2 + 2 ) r 3 ,
l = 2 D τ ,
D = k B T 6 π η r ,

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