Abstract

Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films doped with a volume ratio of 0.3% Ag were prepared by sputtering and subsequently annealed in temperatures of 200, 260, 300, 360, and 400°C. The annealed films show increased transmittance in the visible wavelength range. The refractive index n and extinction coefficient k were extracted from simulating the transmittance spectra by using spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis method. The n values apparently increased in the whole wavelength range, but the k values were found to have almost no change in the near ultraviolet region after Ag doping. It is, therefore, proposed that the ITO:Ag combined with an ITO multilayer structure can be applied in special optical devices.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Han, D. Kim, J.-S. Cho, S. K. Koh, and Y. S. Song, “Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film deposition by ion beam sputtering,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 65, 211-218 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 308, 1-7 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. E. Costellamo, Handbook of Display Technology (Academic, 1992).
  4. L. Yanrong and H. Zhengzhong, Introduction to the Electric Materials (Tsinghua U. Publishing, 2001).
  5. S. Ishibashi, Y. Higuchi, Y. Ota, and K. Nakamura, “Low resistivity indium-tin oxide transparent conductive films. I. Effect of introducing H2O gas or H2 gas during direct current magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1399-1405(1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from x-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films 345, 273-277 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Minami, “Present status of transparent conducting oxide thin-film development for indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substitutes,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5822-5828 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Bertran, C. Corbella, M. Vives, A. Pinyol, C. Person, and I. Porqueras, “RF sputtering deposition of Ag/ITO coatings at room temperature,” Solid State Ionics 165, 139-148 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. I. Kim, S. H. Cho, S. R. Choi, J. H. Lee, H. H. Yoon, M. C. Oh, J. H. Jang, and P. K. Song, “Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications,” Thin Solid Films 514, 4041-4064 (2009)..
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Zhang, X. P. Dong, X. F. Xu, X. J. Wang, and J. S. Wu, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO:Zr transparent conducting films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 10, 264-269 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Ohnoa, T. Kawahara, M. Murasugi, H. Tanaka, T. Kawai, and S. Kohiki, “Magnetic and electric properties of Fe-doped ITO thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 310, e717-e719 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. S. Jung, S. G. Yoon, S. M. Kang, S. W. Kim, and D. H. Yoon, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO:Ca composite thin films for TEOLED cathode,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5445-5448 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. S. Jung, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions,” Thin Solid Films 467, 36-42 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide film microstructure and optical constants,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394-397 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 95-101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).
  17. M. Losurdo, D. Barreca, and P. Capezzuto, “Interrelation between nanostructure and optical properties of oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 151-152, 2-8 (1992).
  18. H. El. Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201, 138-145 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Qi, “Preparation, microstructure and photoelectrical properties of new Ag-ITO composite films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Anhui University, 2007), pp. 1-99.
  20. B. S. Chiou and J. H. Tsai, “Antireflective coating for ITO films deposited on glass substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 10, 491-495 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. I. Kim, S. H. Cho, S. R. Choi, J. H. Lee, H. H. Yoon, M. C. Oh, J. H. Jang, and P. K. Song, “Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications,” Thin Solid Films 514, 4041-4064 (2009)..
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

W. S. Jung, S. G. Yoon, S. M. Kang, S. W. Kim, and D. H. Yoon, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO:Ca composite thin films for TEOLED cathode,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5445-5448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Minami, “Present status of transparent conducting oxide thin-film development for indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substitutes,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5822-5828 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

B. Zhang, X. P. Dong, X. F. Xu, X. J. Wang, and J. S. Wu, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO:Zr transparent conducting films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 10, 264-269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohnoa, T. Kawahara, M. Murasugi, H. Tanaka, T. Kawai, and S. Kohiki, “Magnetic and electric properties of Fe-doped ITO thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 310, e717-e719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 95-101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. S. Jung, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions,” Thin Solid Films 467, 36-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

E. Bertran, C. Corbella, M. Vives, A. Pinyol, C. Person, and I. Porqueras, “RF sputtering deposition of Ag/ITO coatings at room temperature,” Solid State Ionics 165, 139-148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. El. Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201, 138-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Han, D. Kim, J.-S. Cho, S. K. Koh, and Y. S. Song, “Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film deposition by ion beam sputtering,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 65, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

B. S. Chiou and J. H. Tsai, “Antireflective coating for ITO films deposited on glass substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 10, 491-495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from x-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films 345, 273-277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide film microstructure and optical constants,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 308, 1-7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Losurdo, D. Barreca, and P. Capezzuto, “Interrelation between nanostructure and optical properties of oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 151-152, 2-8 (1992).

1990 (1)

S. Ishibashi, Y. Higuchi, Y. Ota, and K. Nakamura, “Low resistivity indium-tin oxide transparent conductive films. I. Effect of introducing H2O gas or H2 gas during direct current magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1399-1405(1990).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

Barreca, D.

M. Losurdo, D. Barreca, and P. Capezzuto, “Interrelation between nanostructure and optical properties of oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 151-152, 2-8 (1992).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

Benamar, E.

H. El. Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201, 138-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bertran, E.

E. Bertran, C. Corbella, M. Vives, A. Pinyol, C. Person, and I. Porqueras, “RF sputtering deposition of Ag/ITO coatings at room temperature,” Solid State Ionics 165, 139-148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capezzuto, P.

M. Losurdo, D. Barreca, and P. Capezzuto, “Interrelation between nanostructure and optical properties of oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 151-152, 2-8 (1992).

Chen, B. J.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 95-101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. P.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 95-101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, B. S.

B. S. Chiou and J. H. Tsai, “Antireflective coating for ITO films deposited on glass substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 10, 491-495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.-S.

Y. Han, D. Kim, J.-S. Cho, S. K. Koh, and Y. S. Song, “Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film deposition by ion beam sputtering,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 65, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

S. I. Kim, S. H. Cho, S. R. Choi, J. H. Lee, H. H. Yoon, M. C. Oh, J. H. Jang, and P. K. Song, “Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications,” Thin Solid Films 514, 4041-4064 (2009)..
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. R.

S. I. Kim, S. H. Cho, S. R. Choi, J. H. Lee, H. H. Yoon, M. C. Oh, J. H. Jang, and P. K. Song, “Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications,” Thin Solid Films 514, 4041-4064 (2009)..
[CrossRef]

Corbella, C.

E. Bertran, C. Corbella, M. Vives, A. Pinyol, C. Person, and I. Porqueras, “RF sputtering deposition of Ag/ITO coatings at room temperature,” Solid State Ionics 165, 139-148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Costellamo, J. E.

J. E. Costellamo, Handbook of Display Technology (Academic, 1992).

Dong, X. P.

B. Zhang, X. P. Dong, X. F. Xu, X. J. Wang, and J. S. Wu, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO:Zr transparent conducting films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 10, 264-269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ennaoui, A.

H. El. Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201, 138-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hakam, A.

H. El. Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201, 138-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Y. Han, D. Kim, J.-S. Cho, S. K. Koh, and Y. S. Song, “Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film deposition by ion beam sputtering,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 65, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, Y.

S. Ishibashi, Y. Higuchi, Y. Ota, and K. Nakamura, “Low resistivity indium-tin oxide transparent conductive films. I. Effect of introducing H2O gas or H2 gas during direct current magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1399-1405(1990).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, S.

S. Ishibashi, Y. Higuchi, Y. Ota, and K. Nakamura, “Low resistivity indium-tin oxide transparent conductive films. I. Effect of introducing H2O gas or H2 gas during direct current magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1399-1405(1990).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. H.

S. I. Kim, S. H. Cho, S. R. Choi, J. H. Lee, H. H. Yoon, M. C. Oh, J. H. Jang, and P. K. Song, “Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications,” Thin Solid Films 514, 4041-4064 (2009)..
[CrossRef]

Jung, W. S.

W. S. Jung, S. G. Yoon, S. M. Kang, S. W. Kim, and D. H. Yoon, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO:Ca composite thin films for TEOLED cathode,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5445-5448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. S.

Y. S. Jung, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions,” Thin Solid Films 467, 36-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. M.

W. S. Jung, S. G. Yoon, S. M. Kang, S. W. Kim, and D. H. Yoon, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO:Ca composite thin films for TEOLED cathode,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5445-5448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawahara, T.

T. Ohnoa, T. Kawahara, M. Murasugi, H. Tanaka, T. Kawai, and S. Kohiki, “Magnetic and electric properties of Fe-doped ITO thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 310, e717-e719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, T.

T. Ohnoa, T. Kawahara, M. Murasugi, H. Tanaka, T. Kawai, and S. Kohiki, “Magnetic and electric properties of Fe-doped ITO thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 310, e717-e719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M.

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from x-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films 345, 273-277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 308, 1-7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Y. Han, D. Kim, J.-S. Cho, S. K. Koh, and Y. S. Song, “Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film deposition by ion beam sputtering,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 65, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. I.

S. I. Kim, S. H. Cho, S. R. Choi, J. H. Lee, H. H. Yoon, M. C. Oh, J. H. Jang, and P. K. Song, “Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications,” Thin Solid Films 514, 4041-4064 (2009)..
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

W. S. Jung, S. G. Yoon, S. M. Kang, S. W. Kim, and D. H. Yoon, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO:Ca composite thin films for TEOLED cathode,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5445-5448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koh, S. K.

Y. Han, D. Kim, J.-S. Cho, S. K. Koh, and Y. S. Song, “Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film deposition by ion beam sputtering,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 65, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kohiki, S.

T. Ohnoa, T. Kawahara, M. Murasugi, H. Tanaka, T. Kawai, and S. Kohiki, “Magnetic and electric properties of Fe-doped ITO thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 310, e717-e719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, A. K.

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from x-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films 345, 273-277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 308, 1-7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

S. I. Kim, S. H. Cho, S. R. Choi, J. H. Lee, H. H. Yoon, M. C. Oh, J. H. Jang, and P. K. Song, “Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications,” Thin Solid Films 514, 4041-4064 (2009)..
[CrossRef]

Lim, T. S.

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from x-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films 345, 273-277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 308, 1-7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Losurdo, M.

M. Losurdo, D. Barreca, and P. Capezzuto, “Interrelation between nanostructure and optical properties of oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 151-152, 2-8 (1992).

Minami, T.

T. Minami, “Present status of transparent conducting oxide thin-film development for indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substitutes,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5822-5828 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murasugi, M.

T. Ohnoa, T. Kawahara, M. Murasugi, H. Tanaka, T. Kawai, and S. Kohiki, “Magnetic and electric properties of Fe-doped ITO thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 310, e717-e719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

S. Ishibashi, Y. Higuchi, Y. Ota, and K. Nakamura, “Low resistivity indium-tin oxide transparent conductive films. I. Effect of introducing H2O gas or H2 gas during direct current magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1399-1405(1990).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. C.

S. I. Kim, S. H. Cho, S. R. Choi, J. H. Lee, H. H. Yoon, M. C. Oh, J. H. Jang, and P. K. Song, “Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications,” Thin Solid Films 514, 4041-4064 (2009)..
[CrossRef]

Ohnoa, T.

T. Ohnoa, T. Kawahara, M. Murasugi, H. Tanaka, T. Kawai, and S. Kohiki, “Magnetic and electric properties of Fe-doped ITO thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 310, e717-e719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ota, Y.

S. Ishibashi, Y. Higuchi, Y. Ota, and K. Nakamura, “Low resistivity indium-tin oxide transparent conductive films. I. Effect of introducing H2O gas or H2 gas during direct current magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1399-1405(1990).
[CrossRef]

Person, C.

E. Bertran, C. Corbella, M. Vives, A. Pinyol, C. Person, and I. Porqueras, “RF sputtering deposition of Ag/ITO coatings at room temperature,” Solid State Ionics 165, 139-148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pinyol, A.

E. Bertran, C. Corbella, M. Vives, A. Pinyol, C. Person, and I. Porqueras, “RF sputtering deposition of Ag/ITO coatings at room temperature,” Solid State Ionics 165, 139-148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Porqueras, I.

E. Bertran, C. Corbella, M. Vives, A. Pinyol, C. Person, and I. Porqueras, “RF sputtering deposition of Ag/ITO coatings at room temperature,” Solid State Ionics 165, 139-148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qi, C.

C. Qi, “Preparation, microstructure and photoelectrical properties of new Ag-ITO composite films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Anhui University, 2007), pp. 1-99.

Rami, M.

H. El. Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201, 138-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rhaleb, H. El.

H. El. Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201, 138-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roger, J. P.

H. El. Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201, 138-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, K. H.

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from x-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films 345, 273-277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 308, 1-7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, P. K.

S. I. Kim, S. H. Cho, S. R. Choi, J. H. Lee, H. H. Yoon, M. C. Oh, J. H. Jang, and P. K. Song, “Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications,” Thin Solid Films 514, 4041-4064 (2009)..
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. S.

Y. Han, D. Kim, J.-S. Cho, S. K. Koh, and Y. S. Song, “Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film deposition by ion beam sputtering,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 65, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. Q.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 95-101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 95-101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 95-101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Synowicki, R. A.

R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide film microstructure and optical constants,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

T. Ohnoa, T. Kawahara, M. Murasugi, H. Tanaka, T. Kawai, and S. Kohiki, “Magnetic and electric properties of Fe-doped ITO thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 310, e717-e719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tay, B. K.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 95-101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. H.

B. S. Chiou and J. H. Tsai, “Antireflective coating for ITO films deposited on glass substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 10, 491-495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vives, M.

E. Bertran, C. Corbella, M. Vives, A. Pinyol, C. Person, and I. Porqueras, “RF sputtering deposition of Ag/ITO coatings at room temperature,” Solid State Ionics 165, 139-148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

B. Zhang, X. P. Dong, X. F. Xu, X. J. Wang, and J. S. Wu, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO:Zr transparent conducting films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 10, 264-269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. S.

B. Zhang, X. P. Dong, X. F. Xu, X. J. Wang, and J. S. Wu, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO:Zr transparent conducting films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 10, 264-269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. X.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 95-101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. F.

B. Zhang, X. P. Dong, X. F. Xu, X. J. Wang, and J. S. Wu, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO:Zr transparent conducting films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 10, 264-269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 95-101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yanrong, L.

L. Yanrong and H. Zhengzhong, Introduction to the Electric Materials (Tsinghua U. Publishing, 2001).

Yoon, D. H.

W. S. Jung, S. G. Yoon, S. M. Kang, S. W. Kim, and D. H. Yoon, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO:Ca composite thin films for TEOLED cathode,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5445-5448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H. H.

S. I. Kim, S. H. Cho, S. R. Choi, J. H. Lee, H. H. Yoon, M. C. Oh, J. H. Jang, and P. K. Song, “Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications,” Thin Solid Films 514, 4041-4064 (2009)..
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. G.

W. S. Jung, S. G. Yoon, S. M. Kang, S. W. Kim, and D. H. Yoon, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO:Ca composite thin films for TEOLED cathode,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5445-5448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, X. P. Dong, X. F. Xu, X. J. Wang, and J. S. Wu, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO:Zr transparent conducting films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 10, 264-269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhengzhong, H.

L. Yanrong and H. Zhengzhong, Introduction to the Electric Materials (Tsinghua U. Publishing, 2001).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

H. El. Rhaleb, E. Benamar, M. Rami, J. P. Roger, A. Hakam, and A. Ennaoui, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 201, 138-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (1)

T. Ohnoa, T. Kawahara, M. Murasugi, H. Tanaka, T. Kawai, and S. Kohiki, “Magnetic and electric properties of Fe-doped ITO thin films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 310, e717-e719 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

B. S. Chiou and J. H. Tsai, “Antireflective coating for ITO films deposited on glass substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 10, 491-495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

S. Ishibashi, Y. Higuchi, Y. Ota, and K. Nakamura, “Low resistivity indium-tin oxide transparent conductive films. I. Effect of introducing H2O gas or H2 gas during direct current magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1399-1405(1990).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. (1)

B. Zhang, X. P. Dong, X. F. Xu, X. J. Wang, and J. S. Wu, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO:Zr transparent conducting films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 10, 264-269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells (1)

Y. Han, D. Kim, J.-S. Cho, S. K. Koh, and Y. S. Song, “Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film deposition by ion beam sputtering,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 65, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Ionics (1)

E. Bertran, C. Corbella, M. Vives, A. Pinyol, C. Person, and I. Porqueras, “RF sputtering deposition of Ag/ITO coatings at room temperature,” Solid State Ionics 165, 139-148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

M. Losurdo, D. Barreca, and P. Capezzuto, “Interrelation between nanostructure and optical properties of oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 151-152, 2-8 (1992).

Thin Solid Films (8)

W. S. Jung, S. G. Yoon, S. M. Kang, S. W. Kim, and D. H. Yoon, “Electrical and optical properties of ITO:Ca composite thin films for TEOLED cathode,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5445-5448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Jung, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on the optical constants of indium tin oxide films deposited under various sputtering conditions,” Thin Solid Films 467, 36-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of indium tin oxide film microstructure and optical constants,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 394-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510, 95-101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Kim, S. H. Cho, S. R. Choi, J. H. Lee, H. H. Yoon, M. C. Oh, J. H. Jang, and P. K. Song, “Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications,” Thin Solid Films 514, 4041-4064 (2009)..
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Dependence of the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide thin films on grain size and grain orientation determined from x-ray diffraction techniques,” Thin Solid Films 345, 273-277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Minami, “Present status of transparent conducting oxide thin-film development for indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substitutes,” Thin Solid Films 516, 5822-5828 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kulkarni, K. H. Schulz, T. S. Lim, and M. Khan, “Electrical, optical and structural characteristics of indium-tin-oxide thin films deposited on glass and polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 308, 1-7 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. E. Costellamo, Handbook of Display Technology (Academic, 1992).

L. Yanrong and H. Zhengzhong, Introduction to the Electric Materials (Tsinghua U. Publishing, 2001).

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

C. Qi, “Preparation, microstructure and photoelectrical properties of new Ag-ITO composite films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Anhui University, 2007), pp. 1-99.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Graded model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance spectra of all samples and typical contrast of target and simulated data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive indices of all samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index n as a function of annealing temperature at 400, 500, 600, 700, and 760 nm wavelength positions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Antireflective coating model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extinction coefficients k of all samples in the 300 400 nm wavelength range.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Extinction coefficients k of all samples in the 400 800 nm wavelength range.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitting Results of the Samples

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f ( ψ , Δ ) = f ( n 0 , n F , n S , φ 0 , λ , d ) ,
j = 1 m f j ε j ε ε j + Y ε = 0 ,
ϵ = ϵ ( 1 + j = 1 m A j 2 ( E center ) j 2 E ( E i v ) ω p 2 E ( E + i v ) ) ,
2 n 2 d = λ 2 · ( 2 k + 1 ) , k = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 .

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