Abstract

A periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal waveguide has been used to produce up to 200μW of mid-infrared light around 3081cm1 with a wide tunability range of 35cm1. Two commercial near-infrared diode lasers at 1.064μm (pump) and 1.583μm (signal) are mixed in a nonlinear optical crystal to achieve difference frequency generation. The 48mm long directly-bonded quasi-phase-matched (QPM) PPLN waveguide shows a conversion efficiency of 12.3%W1. Applications in trace gas detection have been demonstrated for ethene, using multipass absorption coupled with wavelength modulation spectroscopy, and cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a lock-in detection scheme: bandwidth reduced sensitivities of αmin=8×109 and 1.6×108cm1Hz1/2(2σ), respectively, have been achieved.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “3.5 μm high-resolution gas sensing employing a LiNbO3 QPM-DFG waveguide module,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 517-525 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. H. Deng, X. M. Gao, Z. S. Cao, W. D. Chen, Y. Q. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Gong, “Widely phase-matched tunable difference-frequency generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1686-1692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P.-M. Flaud and J. Orphal, “A continuous-wave difference-frequency generation laser operating in the mid-infrared (3-5 μm) region for accurate line intensity measurements,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 322-331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, K. Magari, T. Umeki, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 2.3 μm-band difference frequency generation in quasiphase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguide using index dispersion control,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, K. Mansour, Y. M. Qiu, A. Soibel, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, “Distributed feedback mid-IR Interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1074-1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, J. Cousin, E. Poullet, J. Burie, D. Boucher, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared laser sources based on difference frequency generation” [“Sources lasers continues dans l'infrarouge par génération de différence de fréquences”], Compt. Rend. Phys. 8, 1129-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cao, X. Gao, L. Deng, W. D. Chen, Y. Yuan, W. Zhang, and Z. Gong, “A difference frequency generation spectrometer and its detection of atmospheric N2O,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 68, 74-77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Munday, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Mid-infrared generation and spectroscopy with a PPLN ridge waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 437-442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 437-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, T. Yanagawa, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, T. Umeki, K. Yoshino, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Diode-laser based 3 mW DFG at 3.4 μm from wavelength conversion module using direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 42, 988-989 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Vogler and M. W. Sigrist, “Near-infrared laser based cavity ringdown spectroscopy for applications in petrochemical industry,” Appl. Phys B 85, 349-354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 335-341(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazurenka, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Cavity ring-down and cavity enhanced spectroscopy using diode lasers,” Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 101, 100-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, “A 3.5 mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 μm for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. M. Parkes, R. E. Lindley, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Combining preconcentration of air samples with cavity ring-down spectroscopy for detection of trace volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere,” Anal. Chem. 76, 7329-7335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Clark, L. Corner, W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Islam, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Difference frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate and its use in the detection of atmospheric methane,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399, 102-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Giovannoni, “Genetic regulation of fruit development and ripening,” Plant Cell Physiol. 16, S170-S180 (2004).

A. M. Parkes, R. E. Lindley, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Absorption cross-sections and pressure broadening of rotational lines in the ν5+ν9 band of ethene measured by diode laser cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 5313-5317(2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, C. Fort, J. A. Mitchell, and L. W. Hollberg, “Difference-frequency generation in PPLN at 4.25 μm: an analysis of sensitivity limits for DFG spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 747-750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Henningsen and H. Simonsen, “Quantitative wavelength-modulation spectroscopy without certified gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Derwent, T. J. Davies, M. Delaney, G. J. Dollard, R. A. Field, P. Dumitrean, P. D. Nason, B. M. R. Jones, and S. A. Pelper, “Analysis and interpretation of the continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom sites during 1996,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 297-312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Cristescu, R. Berkelmans, S. te Lintel Hekkert, B. H. Timmerman, D. H. Parker, and F. J. M. Harren, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of ethene released by UV-induced lipid peroxidation in humans,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 101-107(2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 69, 3763-3769(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

L. Hagerman, W. J. Lonneman, and V. P. Aneja, “Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in the rural southeast United States,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 4017-4038 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1553-1555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

Anderson, J. G.

Anderson, T. N.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aneja, V. P.

L. Hagerman, W. J. Lonneman, and V. P. Aneja, “Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in the rural southeast United States,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 4017-4038 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, K. Magari, T. Umeki, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 2.3 μm-band difference frequency generation in quasiphase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguide using index dispersion control,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, T. Yanagawa, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, T. Umeki, K. Yoshino, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Diode-laser based 3 mW DFG at 3.4 μm from wavelength conversion module using direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 42, 988-989 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 335-341(2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Barron-Jimenez, R.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 69, 3763-3769(1998).
[CrossRef]

Berkelmans, R.

S. M. Cristescu, R. Berkelmans, S. te Lintel Hekkert, B. H. Timmerman, D. H. Parker, and F. J. M. Harren, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of ethene released by UV-induced lipid peroxidation in humans,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 101-107(2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Birke, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, D.

W. Chen, J. Cousin, E. Poullet, J. Burie, D. Boucher, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared laser sources based on difference frequency generation” [“Sources lasers continues dans l'infrarouge par génération de différence de fréquences”], Compt. Rend. Phys. 8, 1129-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. S.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burie, J.

W. Chen, J. Cousin, E. Poullet, J. Burie, D. Boucher, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared laser sources based on difference frequency generation” [“Sources lasers continues dans l'infrarouge par génération de différence de fréquences”], Compt. Rend. Phys. 8, 1129-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

Z. Cao, X. Gao, L. Deng, W. D. Chen, Y. Yuan, W. Zhang, and Z. Gong, “A difference frequency generation spectrometer and its detection of atmospheric N2O,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 68, 74-77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z. S.

L. H. Deng, X. M. Gao, Z. S. Cao, W. D. Chen, Y. Q. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Gong, “Widely phase-matched tunable difference-frequency generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1686-1692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caton, J. A.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, J. Cousin, E. Poullet, J. Burie, D. Boucher, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared laser sources based on difference frequency generation” [“Sources lasers continues dans l'infrarouge par génération de différence de fréquences”], Compt. Rend. Phys. 8, 1129-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. D.

L. H. Deng, X. M. Gao, Z. S. Cao, W. D. Chen, Y. Q. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Gong, “Widely phase-matched tunable difference-frequency generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1686-1692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cao, X. Gao, L. Deng, W. D. Chen, Y. Yuan, W. Zhang, and Z. Gong, “A difference frequency generation spectrometer and its detection of atmospheric N2O,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 68, 74-77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ciaffoni, L.

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “3.5 μm high-resolution gas sensing employing a LiNbO3 QPM-DFG waveguide module,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 517-525 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clark, H. Y.

H. Y. Clark, L. Corner, W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Islam, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Difference frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate and its use in the detection of atmospheric methane,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399, 102-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cockburn, J. W.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corner, L.

H. Y. Clark, L. Corner, W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Islam, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Difference frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate and its use in the detection of atmospheric methane,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399, 102-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Couderi, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Cousin, J.

W. Chen, J. Cousin, E. Poullet, J. Burie, D. Boucher, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared laser sources based on difference frequency generation” [“Sources lasers continues dans l'infrarouge par génération de différence de fréquences”], Compt. Rend. Phys. 8, 1129-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cristescu, S. M.

S. M. Cristescu, R. Berkelmans, S. te Lintel Hekkert, B. H. Timmerman, D. H. Parker, and F. J. M. Harren, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of ethene released by UV-induced lipid peroxidation in humans,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 101-107(2000).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Davies, T. J.

R. G. Derwent, T. J. Davies, M. Delaney, G. J. Dollard, R. A. Field, P. Dumitrean, P. D. Nason, B. M. R. Jones, and S. A. Pelper, “Analysis and interpretation of the continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom sites during 1996,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 297-312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, “A 3.5 mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 μm for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, C. Fort, J. A. Mitchell, and L. W. Hollberg, “Difference-frequency generation in PPLN at 4.25 μm: an analysis of sensitivity limits for DFG spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 747-750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, M.

R. G. Derwent, T. J. Davies, M. Delaney, G. J. Dollard, R. A. Field, P. Dumitrean, P. D. Nason, B. M. R. Jones, and S. A. Pelper, “Analysis and interpretation of the continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom sites during 1996,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 297-312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L.

Z. Cao, X. Gao, L. Deng, W. D. Chen, Y. Yuan, W. Zhang, and Z. Gong, “A difference frequency generation spectrometer and its detection of atmospheric N2O,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 68, 74-77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L. H.

L. H. Deng, X. M. Gao, Z. S. Cao, W. D. Chen, Y. Q. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Gong, “Widely phase-matched tunable difference-frequency generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1686-1692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Denzer, W.

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Munday, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Mid-infrared generation and spectroscopy with a PPLN ridge waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 437-442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Clark, L. Corner, W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Islam, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Difference frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate and its use in the detection of atmospheric methane,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399, 102-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Derwent, R. G.

R. G. Derwent, T. J. Davies, M. Delaney, G. J. Dollard, R. A. Field, P. Dumitrean, P. D. Nason, B. M. R. Jones, and S. A. Pelper, “Analysis and interpretation of the continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom sites during 1996,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 297-312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Dollard, G. J.

R. G. Derwent, T. J. Davies, M. Delaney, G. J. Dollard, R. A. Field, P. Dumitrean, P. D. Nason, B. M. R. Jones, and S. A. Pelper, “Analysis and interpretation of the continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom sites during 1996,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 297-312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dumitrean, P.

R. G. Derwent, T. J. Davies, M. Delaney, G. J. Dollard, R. A. Field, P. Dumitrean, P. D. Nason, B. M. R. Jones, and S. A. Pelper, “Analysis and interpretation of the continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom sites during 1996,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 297-312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Echternach, P. M.

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, K. Mansour, Y. M. Qiu, A. Soibel, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, “Distributed feedback mid-IR Interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1074-1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

Engeln, R.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 69, 3763-3769(1998).
[CrossRef]

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Field, R. A.

R. G. Derwent, T. J. Davies, M. Delaney, G. J. Dollard, R. A. Field, P. Dumitrean, P. D. Nason, B. M. R. Jones, and S. A. Pelper, “Analysis and interpretation of the continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom sites during 1996,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 297-312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, P.-M.

P.-M. Flaud and J. Orphal, “A continuous-wave difference-frequency generation laser operating in the mid-infrared (3-5 μm) region for accurate line intensity measurements,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 322-331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flaudi, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Fort, C.

D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, C. Fort, J. A. Mitchell, and L. W. Hollberg, “Difference-frequency generation in PPLN at 4.25 μm: an analysis of sensitivity limits for DFG spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 747-750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, G.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, “A 3.5 mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 μm for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

Z. Cao, X. Gao, L. Deng, W. D. Chen, Y. Yuan, W. Zhang, and Z. Gong, “A difference frequency generation spectrometer and its detection of atmospheric N2O,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 68, 74-77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, J. Cousin, E. Poullet, J. Burie, D. Boucher, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared laser sources based on difference frequency generation” [“Sources lasers continues dans l'infrarouge par génération de différence de fréquences”], Compt. Rend. Phys. 8, 1129-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X. M.

L. H. Deng, X. M. Gao, Z. S. Cao, W. D. Chen, Y. Q. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Gong, “Widely phase-matched tunable difference-frequency generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1686-1692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giovannoni, J. J.

J. J. Giovannoni, “Genetic regulation of fruit development and ripening,” Plant Cell Physiol. 16, S170-S180 (2004).

Giusfredi, G.

D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, C. Fort, J. A. Mitchell, and L. W. Hollberg, “Difference-frequency generation in PPLN at 4.25 μm: an analysis of sensitivity limits for DFG spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 747-750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z.

Z. Cao, X. Gao, L. Deng, W. D. Chen, Y. Yuan, W. Zhang, and Z. Gong, “A difference frequency generation spectrometer and its detection of atmospheric N2O,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 68, 74-77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z. B.

L. H. Deng, X. M. Gao, Z. S. Cao, W. D. Chen, Y. Q. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Gong, “Widely phase-matched tunable difference-frequency generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1686-1692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gord, J. R.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, R.

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[CrossRef]

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L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “3.5 μm high-resolution gas sensing employing a LiNbO3 QPM-DFG waveguide module,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 517-525 (2009).
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R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, K. Mansour, Y. M. Qiu, A. Soibel, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, “Distributed feedback mid-IR Interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1074-1078 (2007).
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D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, C. Fort, J. A. Mitchell, and L. W. Hollberg, “Difference-frequency generation in PPLN at 4.25 μm: an analysis of sensitivity limits for DFG spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 747-750 (2000).
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W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Munday, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Mid-infrared generation and spectroscopy with a PPLN ridge waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 437-442 (2007).
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H. Y. Clark, L. Corner, W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Islam, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Difference frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate and its use in the detection of atmospheric methane,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399, 102-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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H. Y. Clark, L. Corner, W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Islam, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Difference frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate and its use in the detection of atmospheric methane,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399, 102-108 (2004).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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R. G. Derwent, T. J. Davies, M. Delaney, G. J. Dollard, R. A. Field, P. Dumitrean, P. D. Nason, B. M. R. Jones, and S. A. Pelper, “Analysis and interpretation of the continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom sites during 1996,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 297-312 (2000).
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Jundt, D. H.

Kennedy, K.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031106 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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Lindley, R. E.

A. M. Parkes, R. E. Lindley, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Combining preconcentration of air samples with cavity ring-down spectroscopy for detection of trace volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere,” Anal. Chem. 76, 7329-7335 (2004).
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L. Hagerman, W. J. Lonneman, and V. P. Aneja, “Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in the rural southeast United States,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 4017-4038 (1997).
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R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 185-197 (2006).
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P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, “A 3.5 mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 μm for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
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Magari, K.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, K. Magari, T. Umeki, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 2.3 μm-band difference frequency generation in quasiphase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguide using index dispersion control,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033102 (2007).
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O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, T. Yanagawa, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, T. Umeki, K. Yoshino, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Diode-laser based 3 mW DFG at 3.4 μm from wavelength conversion module using direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 42, 988-989 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malara, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, “A 3.5 mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 μm for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, K. Mansour, Y. M. Qiu, A. Soibel, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, “Distributed feedback mid-IR Interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1074-1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, C. Fort, J. A. Mitchell, and L. W. Hollberg, “Difference-frequency generation in PPLN at 4.25 μm: an analysis of sensitivity limits for DFG spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 747-750 (2000).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J. A.

D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, C. Fort, J. A. Mitchell, and L. W. Hollberg, “Difference-frequency generation in PPLN at 4.25 μm: an analysis of sensitivity limits for DFG spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 747-750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, H.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, T. Yanagawa, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, T. Umeki, K. Yoshino, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Diode-laser based 3 mW DFG at 3.4 μm from wavelength conversion module using direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 42, 988-989 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 335-341(2005).
[CrossRef]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. E.

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, K. Mansour, Y. M. Qiu, A. Soibel, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, “Distributed feedback mid-IR Interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1074-1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munday, M.

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Munday, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Mid-infrared generation and spectroscopy with a PPLN ridge waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 437-442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mürtz, M.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 437-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Myers, L. E.

Nason, P. D.

R. G. Derwent, T. J. Davies, M. Delaney, G. J. Dollard, R. A. Field, P. Dumitrean, P. D. Nason, B. M. R. Jones, and S. A. Pelper, “Analysis and interpretation of the continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom sites during 1996,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 297-312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, K. Magari, T. Umeki, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 2.3 μm-band difference frequency generation in quasiphase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguide using index dispersion control,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, T. Yanagawa, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, T. Umeki, K. Yoshino, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Diode-laser based 3 mW DFG at 3.4 μm from wavelength conversion module using direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 42, 988-989 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 335-341(2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nishida, NTT Electronics Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa, 243-0198 Japan (personal communication, 2009).

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

P.-M. Flaud and J. Orphal, “A continuous-wave difference-frequency generation laser operating in the mid-infrared (3-5 μm) region for accurate line intensity measurements,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 322-331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Orr-Ewing, A. J.

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “3.5 μm high-resolution gas sensing employing a LiNbO3 QPM-DFG waveguide module,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 517-525 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. M. Cristescu, R. Berkelmans, S. te Lintel Hekkert, B. H. Timmerman, D. H. Parker, and F. J. M. Harren, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of ethene released by UV-induced lipid peroxidation in humans,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 101-107(2000).
[CrossRef]

Parkes, A. M.

A. M. Parkes, R. E. Lindley, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Absorption cross-sections and pressure broadening of rotational lines in the ν5+ν9 band of ethene measured by diode laser cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 5313-5317(2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Parkes, R. E. Lindley, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Combining preconcentration of air samples with cavity ring-down spectroscopy for detection of trace volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere,” Anal. Chem. 76, 7329-7335 (2004).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “3.5 μm high-resolution gas sensing employing a LiNbO3 QPM-DFG waveguide module,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 517-525 (2009).
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W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Munday, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Mid-infrared generation and spectroscopy with a PPLN ridge waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 437-442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazurenka, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Cavity ring-down and cavity enhanced spectroscopy using diode lasers,” Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 101, 100-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Clark, L. Corner, W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Islam, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Difference frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate and its use in the detection of atmospheric methane,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399, 102-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poullet, E.

W. Chen, J. Cousin, E. Poullet, J. Burie, D. Boucher, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared laser sources based on difference frequency generation” [“Sources lasers continues dans l'infrarouge par génération de différence de fréquences”], Compt. Rend. Phys. 8, 1129-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, K. Mansour, Y. M. Qiu, A. Soibel, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, “Distributed feedback mid-IR Interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1074-1078 (2007).
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S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031106 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “3.5 μm high-resolution gas sensing employing a LiNbO3 QPM-DFG waveguide module,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 517-525 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Munday, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Mid-infrared generation and spectroscopy with a PPLN ridge waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 437-442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazurenka, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Cavity ring-down and cavity enhanced spectroscopy using diode lasers,” Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 101, 100-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Clark, L. Corner, W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Islam, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Difference frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate and its use in the detection of atmospheric methane,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399, 102-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 185-197 (2006).
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W. Chen, J. Cousin, E. Poullet, J. Burie, D. Boucher, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared laser sources based on difference frequency generation” [“Sources lasers continues dans l'infrarouge par génération de différence de fréquences”], Compt. Rend. Phys. 8, 1129-1150 (2007).
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D. E. Vogler and M. W. Sigrist, “Near-infrared laser based cavity ringdown spectroscopy for applications in petrochemical industry,” Appl. Phys B 85, 349-354 (2006).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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J. Henningsen and H. Simonsen, “Quantitative wavelength-modulation spectroscopy without certified gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 627-633 (2000).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, K. Mansour, Y. M. Qiu, A. Soibel, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, “Distributed feedback mid-IR Interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1074-1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sung,

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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Suzuki, H.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, K. Magari, T. Umeki, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 2.3 μm-band difference frequency generation in quasiphase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguide using index dispersion control,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, T. Yanagawa, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, T. Umeki, K. Yoshino, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Diode-laser based 3 mW DFG at 3.4 μm from wavelength conversion module using direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 42, 988-989 (2006).
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O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
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M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 335-341(2005).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, K. Magari, T. Umeki, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 2.3 μm-band difference frequency generation in quasiphase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguide using index dispersion control,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, T. Yanagawa, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, T. Umeki, K. Yoshino, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Diode-laser based 3 mW DFG at 3.4 μm from wavelength conversion module using direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 42, 988-989 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 335-341(2005).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. M. Cristescu, R. Berkelmans, S. te Lintel Hekkert, B. H. Timmerman, D. H. Parker, and F. J. M. Harren, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of ethene released by UV-induced lipid peroxidation in humans,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 101-107(2000).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
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[CrossRef]

Timmerman, B. H.

S. M. Cristescu, R. Berkelmans, S. te Lintel Hekkert, B. H. Timmerman, D. H. Parker, and F. J. M. Harren, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of ethene released by UV-induced lipid peroxidation in humans,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 101-107(2000).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

W. Chen, J. Cousin, E. Poullet, J. Burie, D. Boucher, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared laser sources based on difference frequency generation” [“Sources lasers continues dans l'infrarouge par génération de différence de fréquences”], Compt. Rend. Phys. 8, 1129-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toth, .

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Umeki, T.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, K. Magari, T. Umeki, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 2.3 μm-band difference frequency generation in quasiphase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguide using index dispersion control,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, T. Yanagawa, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, T. Umeki, K. Yoshino, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Diode-laser based 3 mW DFG at 3.4 μm from wavelength conversion module using direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 42, 988-989 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera,

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Vogler, D. E.

D. E. Vogler and M. W. Sigrist, “Near-infrared laser based cavity ringdown spectroscopy for applications in petrochemical industry,” Appl. Phys B 85, 349-354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walther, T.

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, T.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, K. Magari, T. Umeki, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 2.3 μm-band difference frequency generation in quasiphase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguide using index dispersion control,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, T. Yanagawa, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, T. Umeki, K. Yoshino, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Diode-laser based 3 mW DFG at 3.4 μm from wavelength conversion module using direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 42, 988-989 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R. Q.

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, K. Mansour, Y. M. Qiu, A. Soibel, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, “Distributed feedback mid-IR Interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1074-1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, T. Yanagawa, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, T. Umeki, K. Yoshino, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Diode-laser based 3 mW DFG at 3.4 μm from wavelength conversion module using direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 42, 988-989 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

Z. Cao, X. Gao, L. Deng, W. D. Chen, Y. Yuan, W. Zhang, and Z. Gong, “A difference frequency generation spectrometer and its detection of atmospheric N2O,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 68, 74-77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y. Q.

L. H. Deng, X. M. Gao, Z. S. Cao, W. D. Chen, Y. Q. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Gong, “Widely phase-matched tunable difference-frequency generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1686-1692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. Y.

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Z. Cao, X. Gao, L. Deng, W. D. Chen, Y. Yuan, W. Zhang, and Z. Gong, “A difference frequency generation spectrometer and its detection of atmospheric N2O,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 68, 74-77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. J.

L. H. Deng, X. M. Gao, Z. S. Cao, W. D. Chen, Y. Q. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Gong, “Widely phase-matched tunable difference-frequency generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1686-1692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

A. M. Parkes, R. E. Lindley, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Combining preconcentration of air samples with cavity ring-down spectroscopy for detection of trace volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere,” Anal. Chem. 76, 7329-7335 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C

M. Mazurenka, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Cavity ring-down and cavity enhanced spectroscopy using diode lasers,” Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 101, 100-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys B

D. E. Vogler and M. W. Sigrist, “Near-infrared laser based cavity ringdown spectroscopy for applications in petrochemical industry,” Appl. Phys B 85, 349-354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A. J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “3.5 μm high-resolution gas sensing employing a LiNbO3 QPM-DFG waveguide module,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 517-525 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, “A 3.5 mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 μm for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Barron-Jimenez, J. A. Caton, T. N. Anderson, R. P. Lucht, T. Walther, S. Roy, M. S. Brown, and J. R. Gord, “Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4-4.8 μm spectral region,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 185-197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Munday, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Mid-infrared generation and spectroscopy with a PPLN ridge waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 437-442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 437-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, C. Fort, J. A. Mitchell, and L. W. Hollberg, “Difference-frequency generation in PPLN at 4.25 μm: an analysis of sensitivity limits for DFG spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 747-750 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Henningsen and H. Simonsen, “Quantitative wavelength-modulation spectroscopy without certified gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 627-633 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhang, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, K. Kennedy, A. B. Krysa, and M. Hopkinson, “λ~3.1 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ.

R. G. Derwent, T. J. Davies, M. Delaney, G. J. Dollard, R. A. Field, P. Dumitrean, P. D. Nason, B. M. R. Jones, and S. A. Pelper, “Analysis and interpretation of the continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom sites during 1996,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 297-312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Hagerman, W. J. Lonneman, and V. P. Aneja, “Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in the rural southeast United States,” Atmos. Environ. 31, 4017-4038 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

H. Y. Clark, L. Corner, W. Denzer, G. Hancock, A. Hutchinson, M. Islam, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “Difference frequency generation in periodically poled lithium niobate and its use in the detection of atmospheric methane,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399, 102-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Compt. Rend. Phys.

W. Chen, J. Cousin, E. Poullet, J. Burie, D. Boucher, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared laser sources based on difference frequency generation” [“Sources lasers continues dans l'infrarouge par génération de différence de fréquences”], Compt. Rend. Phys. 8, 1129-1150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, T. Yanagawa, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, T. Umeki, K. Yoshino, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Diode-laser based 3 mW DFG at 3.4 μm from wavelength conversion module using direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 42, 988-989 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. Q. Yang, C. J. Hill, K. Mansour, Y. M. Qiu, A. Soibel, R. E. Muller, and P. M. Echternach, “Distributed feedback mid-IR Interband cascade lasers at thermoelectric cooler temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1074-1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron.

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 335-341(2005).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol.

P.-M. Flaud and J. Orphal, “A continuous-wave difference-frequency generation laser operating in the mid-infrared (3-5 μm) region for accurate line intensity measurements,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 322-331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, K. Magari, T. Umeki, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 2.3 μm-band difference frequency generation in quasiphase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguide using index dispersion control,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birke, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderi, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaudi, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533-572(2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L. H. Deng, X. M. Gao, Z. S. Cao, W. D. Chen, Y. Q. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, and Z. B. Gong, “Widely phase-matched tunable difference-frequency generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1686-1692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

A. M. Parkes, R. E. Lindley, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Absorption cross-sections and pressure broadening of rotational lines in the ν5+ν9 band of ethene measured by diode laser cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 5313-5317(2004).
[CrossRef]

Plant Cell Physiol.

J. J. Giovannoni, “Genetic regulation of fruit development and ripening,” Plant Cell Physiol. 16, S170-S180 (2004).

Proc. SPIE

S. M. Cristescu, R. Berkelmans, S. te Lintel Hekkert, B. H. Timmerman, D. H. Parker, and F. J. M. Harren, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of ethene released by UV-induced lipid peroxidation in humans,” Proc. SPIE 4162, 101-107(2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Intrum.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 69, 3763-3769(1998).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A

Z. Cao, X. Gao, L. Deng, W. D. Chen, Y. Yuan, W. Zhang, and Z. Gong, “A difference frequency generation spectrometer and its detection of atmospheric N2O,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 68, 74-77 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Nishida, NTT Electronics Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa, 243-0198 Japan (personal communication, 2009).

The HITRAN database is available from http://www.hitran.com.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the DFG spectrometer. The signal beam, amplified by an EDFA, and the pump beams are mixed by a polarization-maintaining WDM, prior to the waveguide PPLN DFG module. The idler beam exiting the waveguide is collimated, filtered by the Ge window, and sent either to the cavity (window 1) or to the multipass cell (window 2). In the multipass experiment a 20 kHz sinusoidal modulation produced by the lock-in amp is mixed with a triangular function and sent to the current controller of the signal laser. In the CEAS setup a mechanical chopper, C, is used for the phase-sensitive detection, and a piezoelectric transducer, PZT, is mounted on the input mirror to randomize the mode structure and introduce cavity instabilities. M1, M2, and M3 are gold mirrors (in window 1 M2 is mounted on a 1D translation stage); L1, L2, and L3 are Ca F 2 lenses; D is the HgCdZnTe detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser beam profile measured by moving the detector across the beam using a 2D translational stage. The fitted cross sections along the x and y directions are projected onto the xz and yz planes. A Gaussian width (FWHM) of 2 mm was calculated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linear variation of idler ( 3245 nm ) laser power with the signal ( 1583 nm ) power. Pump power, 27 mW ; crystal temperature, 55.9 ° C . Effective conversion efficiency after the antireflection Ge filter is 8 % W 1 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization of the tuning range of the DFG laser source at different pump wavelengths indicated in the inset key. Each curve was obtained by tuning the signal laser between 1581.425 and 1584.505 nm , keeping the crystal temperature around 56 ° C . The total DFG tuning range is 35 cm 1 , and the FWHM for each profile is 7 cm 1 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature tuning curve showing variation in the phase matching condition for different temperatures of the crystal. The experimental trend (circles) is in good agreement with the simulation for a periodic poling of 30.26 μm (curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption spectrum of the P 0 R ( 14 ) rotational line of 1.29 Torr of a 500 ppmv C 2 H 4 sample in Ar taken with the multipass cell and 2 f WMS. The spectrum shows ro-vibrational lines listed in Table 1 (curve) and the simulated profile for a modulation depth of 2 (circles).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption spectrum of the P 0 R ( 14 ) rotational line of C 2 H 4 prepared as a 21.8 ppmv sample in Ar at 1.8 Torr , taken with the off-axis CEAS technique. Experimental data with a 50 ms time constant (circles), Gaussian fitting for the two absorption lines at 3081.0016 and 3081.0143 cm 1 (dashed curves), and the whole absorption profile (solid curve).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectra of the P 0 R ( 14 ) rotational line of a 21.8 ppmv sample of C 2 H 4 in Ar at different total pressures (0.76, 1.70, 2.78, 4.32, 6.33 Torr ); I and I 0 represent the transmitted intensities with and without absorption losses. From the linear fitting of integrated line areas (inset), a mirror reflectivity of 99.901 ± 0.002 % was determined, which corresponds to a path length of 1010 ± 20 m . A 50 ms time constant to the lock-in amplifier was selected for the displayed acquisitions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectroscopic Parameters for the Ethene and Ethene Isotopologue Rotational Lines P 0 R ( 14 ) , R 6 P ( 10 ) , and Q 3 P ( 10 ) of the ν 9 Fundamental Vibrational Band at 3081.0016 cm 1 a

Equations (2)

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Δ k = 2 π ( n p λ p n s λ s n i λ i 1 Λ ) .
η DFG = 8 π 2 d eff 2 n p n s n i c ε 0 λ i 2 A eff L 2 178.5 % W 1 .

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