Abstract

We investigate the possibilities of light detection and ranging (lidar) techniques to study migration of the damselfly species Calopteryx splendens and C. virgo. Laboratory and testing-range measurements at a distance of 60m were performed using dried, mounted damselfly specimens. Laboratory measurements, including color photography in polarized light and spectroscopy of reflectance and induced fluorescence, reveal that damselflies exhibit reflectance and fluorescence properties that are closely tied to the generation of structural color. Lidar studies on C. splendens of both genders show that gender can be re motely determined, especially for specimens that were marked with Coumarin 102 and Rhodamine 6G dyes. The results obtained in this study will be useful for future field experiments, and provide guidelines for studying damselflies in their natural habitat using lidar to survey the air above the river surface. The findings will be applicable for many other insect species and should, therefore, bring new insights into migration and movement patterns of insects in general.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

Ø. Farsund, G. Rustad, I. Kåsen, and T. V. Haavardsholm, “Required spectral resolution for bioaerosol detection algorithms using standoff laser induced fluorescence measurements,” IEEE Sens. J. 6 (2009).

T. P. Gosden and E. I. Svensson, “Density-dependent male mating harassment, female resistance and male mimicry,” Am. Nat. 173, 709-721 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

T. D. Schultz, C. N. Anderson, and L. B. Symes, “The conspicuousness of colour cues in male pond damselflies depends on ambient light and visual system,” Anim. Behav. 76, 1357-1364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. E. A. Stephens, A. M. Barrington, V. A. Bush, N. M. Fletcher, V. Mitchell, and J. D. M. Suckling, “Evaluation of dyes for marking painted apple moths (Teia anartoides Walker, Lep. Lymantriidae) used in a sterile insect release program,” Aust. J. Entomol. 47, 131-136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Deutsch, J. J. Tewksbury, R. B. Huey, K. S. Sheldon, C. K. Ghalambor, D. C. Haak, and P. R. Martin, “Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 6668-6672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Luna-Bárcenas, B. Gonzalez-Campos, E. A. Elizalde-Peña, E. Vivaldo-Lima, J. F. Louvier-Hernández, Y. V. Vorobiev, and J. González-Hernández, “FEMO modelling of optical properties of natural biopolymers chitin and chitosan,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 5, 3736-3739 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

J. F. Jacobs, G. J. M. Koper, and W. N. J. Ursem, “UV protective coatings: a botanical approach,” Prog. Org. Coatings 58, 166-171 (2007).

J. A. Noyes, P. Vukusic, and I. R. Hooper, “Experimental method for reliably establishing the refractive index of buprestid beetle exocuticle,” Opt. Express 15, 4351-4358 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, S. Beirle, T. Deutschmann, M. Grzegorski, and U. Platt, “Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in the red spectral range,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 69-79(2007).

D. Garant, S. E. Forde, and A. P. Hendry, “The multifarious effects of dispersal and gene flow on contemporary adaptation,” Funct. Ecol. 21, 434-443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Campero, F. Ollevier, and R. Stoks, “Ecological relevance and sensitivity depending on the exposure time for two biomarkers,” Environ. Toxicol. 22, 572-581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hoffman, A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, J. A. Shaw, and J. L. Carlsten, “Range-resolved optical detection of honeybees by use of wing-beat modulation of scattered light for locating land mines,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3007-3012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

2005 (5)

L. Q. Wu, R. Ghodssi, Y. A. Elabd, and G. F. Payne, “Biomimectic pattern transfer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 189-195(2005).
[CrossRef]

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Cubeddu, and S. Svanberg, “In vivo absorption spectroscopy of tumor sensitizers using femtosecond white light,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2213-2220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Hickling, D. B. Roy, J. K. Hill, and C. D. Thomas, “A northward shift of range margins in British Odonata,” Glob. Change Biol. 11, 502-506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, D. L. Dunkle, P. W. Nugent, L. H. Spangler, J. J. Bromenshank, C. B. Henderson, J. H. Churnside, and J. J. Wilson, “Polarization lidar measurements of honey bees in flight for locating land mines,” Opt. Express 13, 5853-5863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Abrahamsson, T. Svensson, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, “Time and wavelength resolved spectroscopy of turbid media using light continuum generated in a crystal fibre,” Opt. Express 12, 4103-4112(2004).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Svensson, L. Kristoffersen, K. Oskarsson, and S. Bensch, “Molecular population divergence and sexual selection on morphology in the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens),” Heredity 93, 423-433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales,” Proc. R. Soc. Biol. Sci. 271, 237-239 (2004).

R. O. Prum, J. A. Cole, and R. H. Torres, “Blue integumentary structural colours in dragonflies (Odonata) are not produced by incoherent Tyndall scattering,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3999-4009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

S. A. Gauthreaux Jr. and C. G. Belser, “Radar ornithology and biological conservation,” The Auk 120, 266-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chapman, D. R. Reynolds, and A. D. Smith, “Vertical-looking radar: a new tool for monitoring high-altitude insect migration,” BioScience 53, 503-511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, “Versatile mobile lidar system for environmental monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3583-3594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Piper, “A novel technique for the individual marking of smaller insects,” Entomol. Exper. Appl. 106, 155-157(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, Y. Fujii, and N. Okamoto, “Photophysics of structural color in the morpho butterflies,” Forma 17, 103-121 (2002).

M. D. Ginzel and L. M. Hanks, “Evaluation of synthetic hydrocarbons for mark-recapture studies on the red milkweed beetle,” Journal of chemical ecology 28, 1037-1043 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Palanco, J. M. Baena, and J. J. Laserna, “Open-path laser-induced plasma spectrometry for remote analytical measurements on solid surfaces,” Spectrochim. Acta B 57, 591-599(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

P. Weibring, Th. Johansson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, B. Sundnér, V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, and L. Pantani, “Fluorescence lidar imaging of historical monuments,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6111-6120(2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Hagler and C. G. Jackson, “Methods for marking insects: current techniques and future prospects,” Annu. Rev. Entomol. 46, 511-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, “Now you see it--now you don't,” Nature 410, 36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

S. N. Gorba, A. Keselb, and J. Bergera, “Microsculpture of the wing surface in Odonata: evidence for cuticular wax covering,” Arthropod Struct. Dev. 29, 129-135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Gustafsson, S. Pålsson, and S. Svanberg, “Compact fiber-optic fluorosensor using a continuous-wave violet diode laser and an integrated spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 71, 3004-3006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Rantala, J. Koskimäki, J. Suhonen, J. Taskinen, and K. Tynkkynen, “Immunocompetence, developmental stability and wing spot size in Calopteryx splendens,” Proc. R. Soc. B 267, 2453-2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Case and M. L. Taper, “Interspecific competition, environmental gradients, gene flow, and the coevolution of species' borders,” Am. Nat. 155, 583-605 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

C. N. Parmesan, C. Ryrholm, C. Steganescu, J. K. Hill, C. D. Thomas, B. Descimon, B. Huntley, L. Kaila, J. Kullberg, T. Tammaru, W. J. Tennent, J. A. Thomas, and M. Warren, “Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming,” Nature 399, 579-583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sowinska, B. Cunin, F. Heisel, and J. A. Miehé, “New UV-A laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for near-field remote sensing of vegetation: characteristics and performances,” Proc. SPIE 3707, 91-102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Srinivasarao, “Nano-optics in the biological world: beetles, butterflies, birds, and moths,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1935-1961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. Wallinder, H. Edner, P. Ragnarson, and S. Svanberg, “Vertically sounding ozone LIDAR system based on a KrF excimer laser,” Phys. Scr. 55, 714-718 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Lohmeier, S. M. Sekelsky, J. M. Firda, G. A. Sadowy, and R. E. McIntosh, “Classification of particles in stratiform clouds using the 33 and 95 GHz polarimetric cloud profiling radar system (CPRS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 256-270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

H. Edner, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, R. Ferrara, B. E. Maserti, and R. Bargagli, “Atmospheric mercury mapping in a cinnabar mining area,” Sci. Total Environ. 1331-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, “Raman LIDAR system for the measurement of water-vapor and aerosols in the earths atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, and P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119-130 (1992).

1990 (1)

G. De Marchi, “Precopulatory reproductive isolation and wing colour dimorphism in Calopteryx splendens females in southern Italy (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae),” Odonatologica 19, 243-250 (1990).

1987 (1)

J. M. Gallas and M. Eisner, “Fluorescence of melanin--dependence upon excitation wavelength and concentration,” Photochem. Photobiol. 45, 595-600 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Von R. Bloch, B. Bruderer, and P. Steiner, “Flugverhalten nächtlich ziehender Vögel--Radardaten über den Zug verschiedener auf einem Alpenpass,” Die Vodelwarte 31, 119-146 (1981).

1972 (1)

S. Fizeau-Braesch, “Pigments and color changes,” Annu. Rev. Entomol. 17, 403-424 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

Lord Rayleigh, “The iridescant colours of birds and insects,” Proc. R. Soc. A Biol. Sci. 128, 624-641 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Abrahamsson, Ch.

Ackermann, R.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

af Klinteberg, C.

C. af Klinteberg, A. Pifferi, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Cubeddu, and S. Svanberg, “In vivo absorption spectroscopy of tumor sensitizers using femtosecond white light,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2213-2220 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, C. N.

T. D. Schultz, C. N. Anderson, and L. B. Symes, “The conspicuousness of colour cues in male pond damselflies depends on ambient light and visual system,” Anim. Behav. 76, 1357-1364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Andreasson, M.

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baena, J. M.

S. Palanco, J. M. Baena, and J. J. Laserna, “Open-path laser-induced plasma spectrometry for remote analytical measurements on solid surfaces,” Spectrochim. Acta B 57, 591-599(2002).
[CrossRef]

Bargagli, R.

H. Edner, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, R. Ferrara, B. E. Maserti, and R. Bargagli, “Atmospheric mercury mapping in a cinnabar mining area,” Sci. Total Environ. 1331-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barrington, A. M.

A. E. A. Stephens, A. M. Barrington, V. A. Bush, N. M. Fletcher, V. Mitchell, and J. D. M. Suckling, “Evaluation of dyes for marking painted apple moths (Teia anartoides Walker, Lep. Lymantriidae) used in a sterile insect release program,” Aust. J. Entomol. 47, 131-136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bazzani, M.

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, and P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119-130 (1992).

Beirle, S.

T. Wagner, S. Beirle, T. Deutschmann, M. Grzegorski, and U. Platt, “Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in the red spectral range,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 69-79(2007).

Belser, C. G.

S. A. Gauthreaux Jr. and C. G. Belser, “Radar ornithology and biological conservation,” The Auk 120, 266-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bensch, S.

E. I. Svensson, L. Kristoffersen, K. Oskarsson, and S. Bensch, “Molecular population divergence and sexual selection on morphology in the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens),” Heredity 93, 423-433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergera, J.

S. N. Gorba, A. Keselb, and J. Bergera, “Microsculpture of the wing surface in Odonata: evidence for cuticular wax covering,” Arthropod Struct. Dev. 29, 129-135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, Von R.

Von R. Bloch, B. Bruderer, and P. Steiner, “Flugverhalten nächtlich ziehender Vögel--Radardaten über den Zug verschiedener auf einem Alpenpass,” Die Vodelwarte 31, 119-146 (1981).

Breschi, B.

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, and P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119-130 (1992).

Briantais, J. M.

A. Ounis, Z. G. Cerovic, J. M. Briantais, and I. Moya, “DE-FLIDAR: a new remote sensing instrument for estimation of epidermal UV absorption in leaves and canopies,” in Proceedings of European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories (EARSeL)-SIG-Workshop LIDAR, Dresden/FRG (EARSeL, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 196-204.

Bruderer, B.

Von R. Bloch, B. Bruderer, and P. Steiner, “Flugverhalten nächtlich ziehender Vögel--Radardaten über den Zug verschiedener auf einem Alpenpass,” Die Vodelwarte 31, 119-146 (1981).

Brydegaard, M.

M. Wellereuther, M. Brydegaard, and E. Svensson are preparing a manuscript called “Role of female wing colour and male mate choice in premating isolation in allopatric and sympatric populations of damselflies”.

Bush, V. A.

A. E. A. Stephens, A. M. Barrington, V. A. Bush, N. M. Fletcher, V. Mitchell, and J. D. M. Suckling, “Evaluation of dyes for marking painted apple moths (Teia anartoides Walker, Lep. Lymantriidae) used in a sterile insect release program,” Aust. J. Entomol. 47, 131-136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campero, M.

M. Campero, F. Ollevier, and R. Stoks, “Ecological relevance and sensitivity depending on the exposure time for two biomarkers,” Environ. Toxicol. 22, 572-581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carlsten, J. L.

Carsten, J. L.

Case, T. J.

T. J. Case and M. L. Taper, “Interspecific competition, environmental gradients, gene flow, and the coevolution of species' borders,” Am. Nat. 155, 583-605 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cecchi, G.

P. Weibring, Th. Johansson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, B. Sundnér, V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, and L. Pantani, “Fluorescence lidar imaging of historical monuments,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6111-6120(2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, and P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119-130 (1992).

Celander, L.

L. Celander, K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, and S. Svanberg, “Investigation of laser-induced fluorescence with applications to remote sensing of environmental parameters,” Göteborg Institute of Physics Reports GIPR-149 (Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg 1978).

Cerovic, Z. G.

A. Ounis, Z. G. Cerovic, J. M. Briantais, and I. Moya, “DE-FLIDAR: a new remote sensing instrument for estimation of epidermal UV absorption in leaves and canopies,” in Proceedings of European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories (EARSeL)-SIG-Workshop LIDAR, Dresden/FRG (EARSeL, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 196-204.

Chapman, J. W.

J. W. Chapman, D. R. Reynolds, and A. D. Smith, “Vertical-looking radar: a new tool for monitoring high-altitude insect migration,” BioScience 53, 503-511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Churnside, J. H.

Cole, J. A.

R. O. Prum, J. A. Cole, and R. H. Torres, “Blue integumentary structural colours in dragonflies (Odonata) are not produced by incoherent Tyndall scattering,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3999-4009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corbet, P. S.

P. S. Corbet, Behavior and Ecology of Odonata (Harley, 1999).

Cubeddu, R.

Cunin, B.

M. Sowinska, B. Cunin, F. Heisel, and J. A. Miehé, “New UV-A laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for near-field remote sensing of vegetation: characteristics and performances,” Proc. SPIE 3707, 91-102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Marchi, G.

G. De Marchi, “Precopulatory reproductive isolation and wing colour dimorphism in Calopteryx splendens females in southern Italy (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae),” Odonatologica 19, 243-250 (1990).

Descimon, B.

C. N. Parmesan, C. Ryrholm, C. Steganescu, J. K. Hill, C. D. Thomas, B. Descimon, B. Huntley, L. Kaila, J. Kullberg, T. Tammaru, W. J. Tennent, J. A. Thomas, and M. Warren, “Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming,” Nature 399, 579-583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, C. A.

C. A. Deutsch, J. J. Tewksbury, R. B. Huey, K. S. Sheldon, C. K. Ghalambor, D. C. Haak, and P. R. Martin, “Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 6668-6672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deutschmann, T.

T. Wagner, S. Beirle, T. Deutschmann, M. Grzegorski, and U. Platt, “Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in the red spectral range,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 69-79(2007).

Dunkle, D. L.

Edner, H.

P. Weibring, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, “Versatile mobile lidar system for environmental monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3583-3594 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Weibring, Th. Johansson, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, B. Sundnér, V. Raimondi, G. Cecchi, and L. Pantani, “Fluorescence lidar imaging of historical monuments,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6111-6120(2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Wallinder, H. Edner, P. Ragnarson, and S. Svanberg, “Vertically sounding ozone LIDAR system based on a KrF excimer laser,” Phys. Scr. 55, 714-718 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, and E. Wallinder, “Fluorescence lidar multicolor imaging of vegetation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2471-2479 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, R. Ferrara, B. E. Maserti, and R. Bargagli, “Atmospheric mercury mapping in a cinnabar mining area,” Sci. Total Environ. 1331-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Edner, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, M. Bazzani, B. Breschi, G. Cecchi, L. Pantani, B. Radicati, V. Raimondi, D. Tirelli, G. Valmori, and P. Mazzinghi, “Laser-induced fluorescence monitoring of vegetation in Tuscany,” EARSeL Adv. Remote Sens. 1, 119-130 (1992).

Eisner, M.

J. M. Gallas and M. Eisner, “Fluorescence of melanin--dependence upon excitation wavelength and concentration,” Photochem. Photobiol. 45, 595-600 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Elabd, Y. A.

L. Q. Wu, R. Ghodssi, Y. A. Elabd, and G. F. Payne, “Biomimectic pattern transfer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 189-195(2005).
[CrossRef]

Elizalde-Peña, E. A.

G. Luna-Bárcenas, B. Gonzalez-Campos, E. A. Elizalde-Peña, E. Vivaldo-Lima, J. F. Louvier-Hernández, Y. V. Vorobiev, and J. González-Hernández, “FEMO modelling of optical properties of natural biopolymers chitin and chitosan,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 5, 3736-3739 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farsund, Ø.

Ø. Farsund, G. Rustad, I. Kåsen, and T. V. Haavardsholm, “Required spectral resolution for bioaerosol detection algorithms using standoff laser induced fluorescence measurements,” IEEE Sens. J. 6 (2009).

Feld, M. S.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, R.

H. Edner, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, R. Ferrara, B. E. Maserti, and R. Bargagli, “Atmospheric mercury mapping in a cinnabar mining area,” Sci. Total Environ. 1331-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

Firda, J. M.

S. P. Lohmeier, S. M. Sekelsky, J. M. Firda, G. A. Sadowy, and R. E. McIntosh, “Classification of particles in stratiform clouds using the 33 and 95 GHz polarimetric cloud profiling radar system (CPRS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 256-270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fizeau-Braesch, S.

S. Fizeau-Braesch, “Pigments and color changes,” Annu. Rev. Entomol. 17, 403-424 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, N. M.

A. E. A. Stephens, A. M. Barrington, V. A. Bush, N. M. Fletcher, V. Mitchell, and J. D. M. Suckling, “Evaluation of dyes for marking painted apple moths (Teia anartoides Walker, Lep. Lymantriidae) used in a sterile insect release program,” Aust. J. Entomol. 47, 131-136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Folestad, S.

Forde, S. E.

D. Garant, S. E. Forde, and A. P. Hendry, “The multifarious effects of dispersal and gene flow on contemporary adaptation,” Funct. Ecol. 21, 434-443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fredriksson, K.

K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, K. Nyström, S. Svanberg, and B. Öström, “Underwater laser-radar experiments for bathymetry and fish-school detection,” Göteborg Institute of Physics Reports GIPR-162 (Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 1978).

K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, K. Nyström, S. Svanberg, and B. Öström, “Marine laser probing: results of a field test,” Meddelanden från Havsfiskelaboratoriet No. 245 (Swedish Department of Fishery, Stockholm, 1979).

L. Celander, K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, and S. Svanberg, “Investigation of laser-induced fluorescence with applications to remote sensing of environmental parameters,” Göteborg Institute of Physics Reports GIPR-149 (Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg 1978).

Fujii, T.

Fujii, Y.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, Y. Fujii, and N. Okamoto, “Photophysics of structural color in the morpho butterflies,” Forma 17, 103-121 (2002).

Gallas, J. M.

J. M. Gallas and M. Eisner, “Fluorescence of melanin--dependence upon excitation wavelength and concentration,” Photochem. Photobiol. 45, 595-600 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Galle, B.

L. Celander, K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, and S. Svanberg, “Investigation of laser-induced fluorescence with applications to remote sensing of environmental parameters,” Göteborg Institute of Physics Reports GIPR-149 (Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg 1978).

K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, K. Nyström, S. Svanberg, and B. Öström, “Marine laser probing: results of a field test,” Meddelanden från Havsfiskelaboratoriet No. 245 (Swedish Department of Fishery, Stockholm, 1979).

K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, K. Nyström, S. Svanberg, and B. Öström, “Underwater laser-radar experiments for bathymetry and fish-school detection,” Göteborg Institute of Physics Reports GIPR-162 (Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 1978).

Garant, D.

D. Garant, S. E. Forde, and A. P. Hendry, “The multifarious effects of dispersal and gene flow on contemporary adaptation,” Funct. Ecol. 21, 434-443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gauthreaux, S. A.

S. A. Gauthreaux Jr. and C. G. Belser, “Radar ornithology and biological conservation,” The Auk 120, 266-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghalambor, C. K.

C. A. Deutsch, J. J. Tewksbury, R. B. Huey, K. S. Sheldon, C. K. Ghalambor, D. C. Haak, and P. R. Martin, “Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 6668-6672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghodssi, R.

L. Q. Wu, R. Ghodssi, Y. A. Elabd, and G. F. Payne, “Biomimectic pattern transfer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 189-195(2005).
[CrossRef]

Ginzel, M. D.

M. D. Ginzel and L. M. Hanks, “Evaluation of synthetic hydrocarbons for mark-recapture studies on the red milkweed beetle,” Journal of chemical ecology 28, 1037-1043 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gjessing, D. T.

D. T. Gjessing, Target Adaptive Matched Illumination Radar: Principles and Applications (Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1986).

Gonzalez-Campos, B.

G. Luna-Bárcenas, B. Gonzalez-Campos, E. A. Elizalde-Peña, E. Vivaldo-Lima, J. F. Louvier-Hernández, Y. V. Vorobiev, and J. González-Hernández, “FEMO modelling of optical properties of natural biopolymers chitin and chitosan,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 5, 3736-3739 (2008).
[CrossRef]

González-Hernández, J.

G. Luna-Bárcenas, B. Gonzalez-Campos, E. A. Elizalde-Peña, E. Vivaldo-Lima, J. F. Louvier-Hernández, Y. V. Vorobiev, and J. González-Hernández, “FEMO modelling of optical properties of natural biopolymers chitin and chitosan,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 5, 3736-3739 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gorba, S. N.

S. N. Gorba, A. Keselb, and J. Bergera, “Microsculpture of the wing surface in Odonata: evidence for cuticular wax covering,” Arthropod Struct. Dev. 29, 129-135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gosden, T. P.

T. P. Gosden and E. I. Svensson, “Density-dependent male mating harassment, female resistance and male mimicry,” Am. Nat. 173, 709-721 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goto, N.

Grönlund, R.

Grzegorski, M.

T. Wagner, S. Beirle, T. Deutschmann, M. Grzegorski, and U. Platt, “Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in the red spectral range,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 69-79(2007).

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, U.

U. Gustafsson, S. Pålsson, and S. Svanberg, “Compact fiber-optic fluorosensor using a continuous-wave violet diode laser and an integrated spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Intrum. 71, 3004-3006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haak, D. C.

C. A. Deutsch, J. J. Tewksbury, R. B. Huey, K. S. Sheldon, C. K. Ghalambor, D. C. Haak, and P. R. Martin, “Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 6668-6672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haavardsholm, T. V.

Ø. Farsund, G. Rustad, I. Kåsen, and T. V. Haavardsholm, “Required spectral resolution for bioaerosol detection algorithms using standoff laser induced fluorescence measurements,” IEEE Sens. J. 6 (2009).

Hagler, J. R.

J. R. Hagler and C. G. Jackson, “Methods for marking insects: current techniques and future prospects,” Annu. Rev. Entomol. 46, 511-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanks, L. M.

M. D. Ginzel and L. M. Hanks, “Evaluation of synthetic hydrocarbons for mark-recapture studies on the red milkweed beetle,” Journal of chemical ecology 28, 1037-1043 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hannen, P. J.

J. C. Toomay and P. J. Hannen, Radar Principles for the Non-Specialist, 3rd ed. (SciTech, 2004).

Harsdorf, S.

S. Harsdorf, M. Janssen, R. Reuter, B. Wachowic, and R. Willkomm, “Lidar as part of an ROV-based sensor network for the detection of chemical pollutants on the seafloor,” in Oceans '98 Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 3, pp. 1250-1253.

Heisel, F.

M. Sowinska, B. Cunin, F. Heisel, and J. A. Miehé, “New UV-A laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for near-field remote sensing of vegetation: characteristics and performances,” Proc. SPIE 3707, 91-102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, C. B.

Hendry, A. P.

D. Garant, S. E. Forde, and A. P. Hendry, “The multifarious effects of dispersal and gene flow on contemporary adaptation,” Funct. Ecol. 21, 434-443 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hickling, R.

R. Hickling, D. B. Roy, J. K. Hill, and C. D. Thomas, “A northward shift of range margins in British Odonata,” Glob. Change Biol. 11, 502-506 (2005).
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Hilfert-Rüppel, D.

G. Rüppel, D. Hilfert-Rüppel, G. Rehfeldt, and C. Schütte, Die Prachtlibellen Europas, Die neue Brehm-Bücherei Bd. 654 (Westarp Wissenschaften, 2005).

Hill, J. K.

R. Hickling, D. B. Roy, J. K. Hill, and C. D. Thomas, “A northward shift of range margins in British Odonata,” Glob. Change Biol. 11, 502-506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Parmesan, C. Ryrholm, C. Steganescu, J. K. Hill, C. D. Thomas, B. Descimon, B. Huntley, L. Kaila, J. Kullberg, T. Tammaru, W. J. Tennent, J. A. Thomas, and M. Warren, “Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming,” Nature 399, 579-583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, D. S.

Hooper, I. R.

Hostetler, C. A.

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A. E. A. Stephens, A. M. Barrington, V. A. Bush, N. M. Fletcher, V. Mitchell, and J. D. M. Suckling, “Evaluation of dyes for marking painted apple moths (Teia anartoides Walker, Lep. Lymantriidae) used in a sterile insect release program,” Aust. J. Entomol. 47, 131-136 (2008).
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C. N. Parmesan, C. Ryrholm, C. Steganescu, J. K. Hill, C. D. Thomas, B. Descimon, B. Huntley, L. Kaila, J. Kullberg, T. Tammaru, W. J. Tennent, J. A. Thomas, and M. Warren, “Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming,” Nature 399, 579-583 (1999).
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M. Wellereuther, M. Brydegaard, and E. Svensson are preparing a manuscript called “Role of female wing colour and male mate choice in premating isolation in allopatric and sympatric populations of damselflies”.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Males of C. virgo have almost completely melanized wings, whereas males of C. splendens have melanized wing patches. The wings of C. virgo females are brown, while the wings of C. splendens females are typically green.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup for color imaging and whole-body polarized reflectance studies. Samples are observed either with a color camera (RGB) or a spectrometer (Spect.) at low angle ( α = 15 ° ) through a linear polarizer (P1). Collimated white illumination is provided by a tungsten filament lamp (F) which can be polarized in parallel or perpendicularly to P1 using P2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of damselflies in polarized light. Photographs a and c, indicated with ∥, are photographed with parallel polarizers. Photographs b and d, indicated with ⊢, show the depolarized light amplified by a factor of 5 to make it visible to the reader. Subtraction gives us the two figures to the outermost right, where structural colors remain.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarized and depolarized whole-body reflectance measurements of C. splendens males and females. The blue and green reflectance features, respectively, disappear when polarizers are crossed. (Note the different scales.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup for fiber point measurements. Either a UV laser line or white light is passed into the bifurcated probe. The sample geometry is maintained constant between the measurements. A long-pass GG400 filter prevents blooming in the spectrometer (Spec.).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between reflectance and fluorescence spectra. In general, all measurements performed in this study suggest a positive correlation between fluorescence emission and reflectance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Setup for test-range experiments. Insects were mounted on thin clean aluminum threads and were detected toward a bright sky background. (b) The versatile mobile lidar provides pulsed light continuously from 200 nm to 4 μm . (c) The UV laser light induces broad fluorescent light in the wax or chitin, which is, in turn, partly reflected in the nanosphere array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Elastic lidar recording of mounted damselflies; the transmitted wavelength is 355 nm . Data are from a single laser pulse and the echoes arises from two fixed specimens (C. splendens female and male respectively) separated by 20 m . Fluorescence time series recording were also performed but are not presented in this paper.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized fluorescence spectra for 266 and 355 nm excitation; in both cases, imprints of the structural color are observed. Data from 20 laser shots were averaged.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fluorescence spectra for 355 nm excitation for dye-marked females and males of C. splendens. Strong dye fluorescence bands are seen with slight modifications due to structural colors. Data from 20 laser shots were averaged.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calopteryx splendens male/female contrast in autofluorescence and when using dye-enhanced fluorescence. Bars show standard deviation for a total of 20 shots. The overlap in autofluorescence is interpreted as lack of signal rather than lack of physical difference of the samples.

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