Abstract

The Ozone Profiling Atmospheric Lidar is a scanning four-wavelength ultraviolet differential absorption lidar that measures tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Derived profiles from the lidar data include ozone concentration, aerosol extinction, and calibrated aerosol backscatter. Aerosol calibrations assume a clear air region aloft. Other products include cloud base heights, aerosol layer heights, and scans of particulate plumes from aircraft. The aerosol data range from 280m to 12km with 5m range resolution, while the ozone data ranges from 280m to about 1.2km with 100m resolution. In horizontally homogeneous atmospheres, data from multiple-elevation angles is combined to reduce the minimum altitude of the aerosol and ozone profiles to about 20m. The lidar design, the characterization of the photomultiplier tubes, ozone and aerosol analysis techniques, and sample data are described. Also discussed is a double-gating technique to shorten the gated turn-on time of the photomultiplier tubes, and thereby reduce the detection of background light and the outgoing laser pulse.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008

R. J. Hill, W. A. Brewer, and S. C. Tucker, “Platform-motion correction of velocity measured by Doppler lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1369-1382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. S. Darby, S. A. McKeen, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, R. M. Banta, M. J. Post, W. A. Brewer, R. Marchbanks, R. J. Alvarez II, S. E. Peckham, H. Mao, and R. Talbot, “Ozone differences between near-coastal and offshore sites in New England: role of meteorology,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi:10.1029/2007JD008446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazato, T. Nagai, T. Sakai, and Y. Hirose, “Tropospheric ozone differential-absorption lidar using stimulated Raman scattering in carbon dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2269-2279 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, and T. P. Kurosu, “Impact of using different ozone cross sections on ozone profile retrievals from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3571-3578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. Schmid, R. Ferrare, C. Flynn, R. Elleman, D. Covert, A. Strawa, E. Welton, D. Turner, H. Jonsson, J. Redemann, J. Eilers, K. Ricci, A. G. Hallar, M. Clayton, J. Michalsky, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, and J. Barnard, “How well do state-of-the-art techniques measuring the vertical profile of tropospheric aerosol extinction compare?,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD005837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Russo, D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, and R. M. Hoff, “Validation of the Raman lidar algorithm for quantifying aerosol extinction,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7073-7088 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

W. L. Eberhard, W. A. Brewer, and R. L. Wayson, “Lidar observations of jet engine exhaust for air quality,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 482-483 (2005).

2004

W. M. Angevine, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, E. J. Williams, J. Koemer, S. T. K. Miller, R. Talbot, P. E. Johnston, S. A. McKeen, and T. Downs, “Coastal boundary layer influence on pollution transport in New England,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 43, 1425-1437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Tsaknakis, and A. Papayannis, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Investigation of the spatial profile of stimulated Raman scattering beams in D2 and H2 gases using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 71-75(2004).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Quinn, D. J. Coffman, T. S. Bates, E. J. Welton, D. S. Covert, T. L. Miller, J. E. Johnson, S. Maria, L. Russell, R. Arimoto, C. M. Carrico, M. J. Rood, and J. Anderson, “Aerosol optical properties measured on board the Ronald H. Brown during ACE-Asia as a function of aerosol chemical composition and source region,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Feingold, W. L. Eberhard, D. E. Veron, and M. Previdi, “First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1287-1290 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

I. S. McDermid, G. Beyerle, D. A. Haner, and T. Leblanc, “Redesign and improved performance of the tropospheric ozone lidar at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7550-7555 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Darby, R. M. Banta, W. A. Brewer, W. D. Neff, R. D. Marchbanks, B. J. McCarty, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, W. M. Angevine, and E. J. Williams, “Vertical variations in O3 concentrations before and after a gust front passage,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD000996 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Bristow, “Suppression of afterpulsing in photomultipliers by gating the photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4975-4987(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

K. J. Davis, N. Gamage, C. R. Hagelberg, C. Kiemle, D. H. Lenschow, and P. P. Sullivan, “An objective method for deriving atmospheric structure from airborne lidar observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1455-1468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Lenschow, V. G. Wulfmeyer, and C. J. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1330-1347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. Zhao, “Signal-induced fluorescence in photomultipliers in differential absorption lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4639-4648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, and B. Barchunov, “Excimer-laser-based lidar for tropospheric ozone monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1131-1137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Baray, J. Leveau, J. Porteneuve, G. Ancellet, P. Keckhut, F. Posny, and S. Baldy, “Description and evaluation of a tropospheric ozone lidar implemented on an existing lidar in the Southern Subtropics,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6808-6817 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of Stratosphere-Troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. J. Alvarez II, C. J. Senff, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, W. T. Luke, T. B. Watson, P. H. Daum, and N. Gillani, “Comparisons of airborne lidar measurements of ozone with airborne in situ measurements during the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31155-31171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ancellet, and F. Ravetta, “Compact airborne lidar for tropospheric ozone: description and field measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5509-5521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, and R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663-19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

P. Völger, J. Bösenberg, and I. Schult, “Scattering properties of selected model aerosols calculated at uv-wavelengths: implications for DIAL measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 177-187 (1996).

J. M. Wilczak, E. E. Gossard, W. D. Neff, and W. L. Eberhard, “Ground-based remote sensing of the atmospheric boundary layer: 25 years of progress,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 78, 321-349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, and T. Trickl, “A wide-range UV lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145-3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1990

D. A. Haner, and I. S. McDermid, “Stimulated Raman shifting of the Nd:YAG fourth harmonic (266 nm) in H2, HD, and D2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1292-1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Lee, G. K. Schwemmer, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, and C. Prasad, “Gated photomultiplier response characterization for DIAL measurements,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3303-3315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, and G. Mégie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using a Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 832-839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

1984

1983

1981

1973

E. A. Korneeva, and S. G. Savchenkova, “Luminescence of optical glass,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 19, 1145-1147 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R. J.

Alvarez, R. J.

L. S. Darby, S. A. McKeen, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, R. M. Banta, M. J. Post, W. A. Brewer, R. Marchbanks, R. J. Alvarez II, S. E. Peckham, H. Mao, and R. Talbot, “Ozone differences between near-coastal and offshore sites in New England: role of meteorology,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi:10.1029/2007JD008446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez II, C. J. Senff, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, W. T. Luke, T. B. Watson, P. H. Daum, and N. Gillani, “Comparisons of airborne lidar measurements of ozone with airborne in situ measurements during the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31155-31171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez II, J. L. Machol, R. D. Marchbanks, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, C. J. Senff, S. P. Sandberg, and W. A. Brewer, “First tests of the TOPAZ lidar for airborne measurements of tropospheric ozone and aerosol backscatter,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies (National Center for Atmospheric Research, 2006), pp. 8.29-8.30.

C. J. Senff, W. L. Eberhard, R. J. Alvarez II, R. D. Marchbanks, J. L. George, B. J. McCarty, R. M. Banta, A. B. White, W. M. Angevine, E. J. Williams, and K. B. Carpenter, “Vertical structure of ozone over the Gulf of Maine observed during NEAQS 2002: implications for air quality in New England,” in The Proceedings of the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting (American Geophysical Union, 2003), paper A41A-04.

Ancellet, G.

Anderson, J.

P. K. Quinn, D. J. Coffman, T. S. Bates, E. J. Welton, D. S. Covert, T. L. Miller, J. E. Johnson, S. Maria, L. Russell, R. Arimoto, C. M. Carrico, M. J. Rood, and J. Anderson, “Aerosol optical properties measured on board the Ronald H. Brown during ACE-Asia as a function of aerosol chemical composition and source region,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Angevine, W. M.

W. M. Angevine, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, E. J. Williams, J. Koemer, S. T. K. Miller, R. Talbot, P. E. Johnston, S. A. McKeen, and T. Downs, “Coastal boundary layer influence on pollution transport in New England,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 43, 1425-1437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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R. L. Wayson, G. G. Fleming, B. Kim, W. L. Eberhard, W. A. Brewer, J. Draper, J. Pehrson, and R. Johnson, “The use of lidar to characterize aircraft exhaust plumes,” in Proceedings of the AWMA 96th Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Air and Waste Management Association, 2003), p. 69965.

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C. T. Hall, T. G. Thrasher, J. A. Draper, C. A. Holsclaw, R. L. Wayson, B. Y. Kim, and G. G. Fleming, “Environment in the Balance,” in A&WMA's 96th Annual Conference & Exhibition (Air and Waste Management Association, 2003), paper 69574.

R. L. Wayson, G. G. Fleming, B. Kim, W. L. Eberhard, W. A. Brewer, J. Draper, J. Pehrson, and R. Johnson, “The use of lidar to characterize aircraft exhaust plumes,” in Proceedings of the AWMA 96th Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Air and Waste Management Association, 2003), p. 69965.

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B. Schmid, R. Ferrare, C. Flynn, R. Elleman, D. Covert, A. Strawa, E. Welton, D. Turner, H. Jonsson, J. Redemann, J. Eilers, K. Ricci, A. G. Hallar, M. Clayton, J. Michalsky, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, and J. Barnard, “How well do state-of-the-art techniques measuring the vertical profile of tropospheric aerosol extinction compare?,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD005837 (2006).
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R. J. Alvarez II, C. J. Senff, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, W. T. Luke, T. B. Watson, P. H. Daum, and N. Gillani, “Comparisons of airborne lidar measurements of ozone with airborne in situ measurements during the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31155-31171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez II, J. L. Machol, R. D. Marchbanks, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, C. J. Senff, S. P. Sandberg, and W. A. Brewer, “First tests of the TOPAZ lidar for airborne measurements of tropospheric ozone and aerosol backscatter,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies (National Center for Atmospheric Research, 2006), pp. 8.29-8.30.

Y. Zhao, R. D. Marchbanks, C. J. Senff, and H. D. Johnson, “Lidar profiling of ozone and aerosol in the SCOS97-NARSTO Experiment,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA, 1998), pp. 375-378.

C. J. Senff, W. L. Eberhard, R. J. Alvarez II, R. D. Marchbanks, J. L. George, B. J. McCarty, R. M. Banta, A. B. White, W. M. Angevine, E. J. Williams, and K. B. Carpenter, “Vertical structure of ozone over the Gulf of Maine observed during NEAQS 2002: implications for air quality in New England,” in The Proceedings of the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting (American Geophysical Union, 2003), paper A41A-04.

Serafetinides, A. A.

S. Tzortzakis, G. Tsaknakis, and A. Papayannis, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Investigation of the spatial profile of stimulated Raman scattering beams in D2 and H2 gases using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 71-75(2004).
[CrossRef]

Shipley, S. T.

Simeonov, V.

L. de Schoulepnikoff, V. Mitev, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, and H. van den Bergh, “Experimental investigation of high-power single-pass Raman shifters in the ultraviolet with Nd:YAG and KrF lasers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5026-5043 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, and H. v. d. Bergh, “New Raman-shifted sources for ozone DIAL applications,” in Proceedings of the 21st International Laser Radar Conference, L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and G. Vallee, eds. (Defence R&D Canada, 2002), pp. 19-22.

Sioris, C. E.

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, and T. P. Kurosu, “Impact of using different ozone cross sections on ozone profile retrievals from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3571-3578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Siviter, J. H.

Sladkovic, R.

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of Stratosphere-Troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

B. Schmid, R. Ferrare, C. Flynn, R. Elleman, D. Covert, A. Strawa, E. Welton, D. Turner, H. Jonsson, J. Redemann, J. Eilers, K. Ricci, A. G. Hallar, M. Clayton, J. Michalsky, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, and J. Barnard, “How well do state-of-the-art techniques measuring the vertical profile of tropospheric aerosol extinction compare?,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD005837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strawa, A.

B. Schmid, R. Ferrare, C. Flynn, R. Elleman, D. Covert, A. Strawa, E. Welton, D. Turner, H. Jonsson, J. Redemann, J. Eilers, K. Ricci, A. G. Hallar, M. Clayton, J. Michalsky, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, and J. Barnard, “How well do state-of-the-art techniques measuring the vertical profile of tropospheric aerosol extinction compare?,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD005837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P. P.

K. J. Davis, N. Gamage, C. R. Hagelberg, C. Kiemle, D. H. Lenschow, and P. P. Sullivan, “An objective method for deriving atmospheric structure from airborne lidar observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1455-1468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

E. Wallinder, H. Edner, P. Ragnakson, and S. Svanberg, “Vertically sounding ozone lidar system based on a KrF excimer laser,” Phys. Scr. 55, 714-718 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Talbot, R.

L. S. Darby, S. A. McKeen, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, R. M. Banta, M. J. Post, W. A. Brewer, R. Marchbanks, R. J. Alvarez II, S. E. Peckham, H. Mao, and R. Talbot, “Ozone differences between near-coastal and offshore sites in New England: role of meteorology,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi:10.1029/2007JD008446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Angevine, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, E. J. Williams, J. Koemer, S. T. K. Miller, R. Talbot, P. E. Johnston, S. A. McKeen, and T. Downs, “Coastal boundary layer influence on pollution transport in New England,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 43, 1425-1437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thrasher, T. G.

C. T. Hall, T. G. Thrasher, J. A. Draper, C. A. Holsclaw, R. L. Wayson, B. Y. Kim, and G. G. Fleming, “Environment in the Balance,” in A&WMA's 96th Annual Conference & Exhibition (Air and Waste Management Association, 2003), paper 69574.

Trickl, T.

H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of Stratosphere-Troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, and T. Trickl, “A wide-range UV lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145-3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsaknakis, G.

S. Tzortzakis, G. Tsaknakis, and A. Papayannis, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Investigation of the spatial profile of stimulated Raman scattering beams in D2 and H2 gases using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 71-75(2004).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, S. C.

R. J. Hill, W. A. Brewer, and S. C. Tucker, “Platform-motion correction of velocity measured by Doppler lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1369-1382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D.

B. Schmid, R. Ferrare, C. Flynn, R. Elleman, D. Covert, A. Strawa, E. Welton, D. Turner, H. Jonsson, J. Redemann, J. Eilers, K. Ricci, A. G. Hallar, M. Clayton, J. Michalsky, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, and J. Barnard, “How well do state-of-the-art techniques measuring the vertical profile of tropospheric aerosol extinction compare?,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD005837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, G. Tsaknakis, and A. Papayannis, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Investigation of the spatial profile of stimulated Raman scattering beams in D2 and H2 gases using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 71-75(2004).
[CrossRef]

van den Bergh, H.

Veron, D. E.

G. Feingold, W. L. Eberhard, D. E. Veron, and M. Previdi, “First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1287-1290 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I.

I. Veselovskii, and B. Barchunov, “Excimer-laser-based lidar for tropospheric ozone monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1131-1137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Völger, P.

P. Völger, J. Bösenberg, and I. Schult, “Scattering properties of selected model aerosols calculated at uv-wavelengths: implications for DIAL measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 177-187 (1996).

Wallinder, E.

E. Wallinder, H. Edner, P. Ragnakson, and S. Svanberg, “Vertically sounding ozone lidar system based on a KrF excimer laser,” Phys. Scr. 55, 714-718 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watson, T. B.

R. J. Alvarez II, C. J. Senff, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, W. T. Luke, T. B. Watson, P. H. Daum, and N. Gillani, “Comparisons of airborne lidar measurements of ozone with airborne in situ measurements during the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31155-31171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wayson, R. L.

W. L. Eberhard, W. A. Brewer, and R. L. Wayson, “Lidar observations of jet engine exhaust for air quality,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 482-483 (2005).

W. L. Eberhard, W. A. Brewer, and R. L. Wayson, “Lidar observation of jet engine exhaust for air quality,” in Second Symposium on Lidar Applications, Combined Preprints CD-ROM, 85th AMS Annual Meeting (American Meteorological Society, 2005).

W. L. Eberhard, R. L. Wayson, W. A. Brewer, R. D. Marchbanks, B. J. McCarty, A. W. Weickmann, and G. G. Fleming, “Lidar method to measure soot emissions rates from aircraft jet engines,” in Abstract Book, 2006 Internationals Aerosol Conference (American Association for Aerosol Research, 2006), pp. 407-408.

C. T. Hall, T. G. Thrasher, J. A. Draper, C. A. Holsclaw, R. L. Wayson, B. Y. Kim, and G. G. Fleming, “Environment in the Balance,” in A&WMA's 96th Annual Conference & Exhibition (Air and Waste Management Association, 2003), paper 69574.

R. L. Wayson, G. G. Fleming, B. Kim, W. L. Eberhard, W. A. Brewer, J. Draper, J. Pehrson, and R. Johnson, “The use of lidar to characterize aircraft exhaust plumes,” in Proceedings of the AWMA 96th Annual Meeting & Exhibition (Air and Waste Management Association, 2003), p. 69965.

Weickmann, A. M.

R. J. Alvarez II, J. L. Machol, R. D. Marchbanks, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, C. J. Senff, S. P. Sandberg, and W. A. Brewer, “First tests of the TOPAZ lidar for airborne measurements of tropospheric ozone and aerosol backscatter,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies (National Center for Atmospheric Research, 2006), pp. 8.29-8.30.

Weickmann, A. W.

W. L. Eberhard, R. L. Wayson, W. A. Brewer, R. D. Marchbanks, B. J. McCarty, A. W. Weickmann, and G. G. Fleming, “Lidar method to measure soot emissions rates from aircraft jet engines,” in Abstract Book, 2006 Internationals Aerosol Conference (American Association for Aerosol Research, 2006), pp. 407-408.

Welton, E.

B. Schmid, R. Ferrare, C. Flynn, R. Elleman, D. Covert, A. Strawa, E. Welton, D. Turner, H. Jonsson, J. Redemann, J. Eilers, K. Ricci, A. G. Hallar, M. Clayton, J. Michalsky, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, and J. Barnard, “How well do state-of-the-art techniques measuring the vertical profile of tropospheric aerosol extinction compare?,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD005837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Welton, E. J.

P. K. Quinn, D. J. Coffman, T. S. Bates, E. J. Welton, D. S. Covert, T. L. Miller, J. E. Johnson, S. Maria, L. Russell, R. Arimoto, C. M. Carrico, M. J. Rood, and J. Anderson, “Aerosol optical properties measured on board the Ronald H. Brown during ACE-Asia as a function of aerosol chemical composition and source region,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

White, A. B.

L. S. Darby, S. A. McKeen, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, R. M. Banta, M. J. Post, W. A. Brewer, R. Marchbanks, R. J. Alvarez II, S. E. Peckham, H. Mao, and R. Talbot, “Ozone differences between near-coastal and offshore sites in New England: role of meteorology,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi:10.1029/2007JD008446 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Angevine, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, E. J. Williams, J. Koemer, S. T. K. Miller, R. Talbot, P. E. Johnston, S. A. McKeen, and T. Downs, “Coastal boundary layer influence on pollution transport in New England,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 43, 1425-1437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Darby, R. M. Banta, W. A. Brewer, W. D. Neff, R. D. Marchbanks, B. J. McCarty, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, W. M. Angevine, and E. J. Williams, “Vertical variations in O3 concentrations before and after a gust front passage,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD000996 (2002).
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C. J. Senff, W. L. Eberhard, R. J. Alvarez II, R. D. Marchbanks, J. L. George, B. J. McCarty, R. M. Banta, A. B. White, W. M. Angevine, E. J. Williams, and K. B. Carpenter, “Vertical structure of ozone over the Gulf of Maine observed during NEAQS 2002: implications for air quality in New England,” in The Proceedings of the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting (American Geophysical Union, 2003), paper A41A-04.

Whiteman, D. N.

F. Russo, D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, and R. M. Hoff, “Validation of the Raman lidar algorithm for quantifying aerosol extinction,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7073-7088 (2006).
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R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, and R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663-19672 (1998).
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Wilczak, J. M.

J. M. Wilczak, E. E. Gossard, W. D. Neff, and W. L. Eberhard, “Ground-based remote sensing of the atmospheric boundary layer: 25 years of progress,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 78, 321-349 (1996).
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Williams, E. J.

W. M. Angevine, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, E. J. Williams, J. Koemer, S. T. K. Miller, R. Talbot, P. E. Johnston, S. A. McKeen, and T. Downs, “Coastal boundary layer influence on pollution transport in New England,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 43, 1425-1437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Darby, R. M. Banta, W. A. Brewer, W. D. Neff, R. D. Marchbanks, B. J. McCarty, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, W. M. Angevine, and E. J. Williams, “Vertical variations in O3 concentrations before and after a gust front passage,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD000996 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Senff, W. L. Eberhard, R. J. Alvarez II, R. D. Marchbanks, J. L. George, B. J. McCarty, R. M. Banta, A. B. White, W. M. Angevine, E. J. Williams, and K. B. Carpenter, “Vertical structure of ozone over the Gulf of Maine observed during NEAQS 2002: implications for air quality in New England,” in The Proceedings of the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting (American Geophysical Union, 2003), paper A41A-04.

Wright, A. G.

Wulfmeyer, V. G.

D. H. Lenschow, V. G. Wulfmeyer, and C. J. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1330-1347 (2000).
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Zerefos, C.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, “Signal-induced fluorescence in photomultipliers in differential absorption lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4639-4648 (1999).
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Y. Zhao, R. M. Hardesty, and M. J. Post, “Multibeam transmitter for signal dynamic range reduction in incoherent lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7623-7632 (1992).
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Y. Zhao, R. D. Marchbanks, L. Dolislager, C. Senff, W. L. Eberhard, and R. M. Hardesty, “Vertical profiles of ozone concentrations and ozone advection fluxes in Southern California measured by the ETL ozone lidar,” in Proceedings of the 10th Joint Conference on the Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology with the A&WMA (American Meteorological Society, 1998), pp. 200-202.

J. J. Carrol, and Y. Zhao, “Comparison of in situ and DIAL measured vertical tropospheric ozone profiles,” in Third International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften, 1994), pp. 63-65.

Y. Zhao, J. N. Howell, and R. M. Hardesty, “Transportable lidar for the measurement of ozone concentration and flux profiles in the lower troposphere,” in Proceedings of 16th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA, 1992), pp. 185-187.

Y. Zhao, R. D. Marchbanks, C. J. Senff, and H. D. Johnson, “Lidar profiling of ozone and aerosol in the SCOS97-NARSTO Experiment,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference (NASA, 1998), pp. 375-378.

Appl. Opt.

G. J. Megie, G. Ancellet, and J. Pelon, “Lidar measurements of ozone vertical profiles,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3454-3463 (1985).
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J.-L. Baray, J. Leveau, J. Porteneuve, G. Ancellet, P. Keckhut, F. Posny, and S. Baldy, “Description and evaluation of a tropospheric ozone lidar implemented on an existing lidar in the Southern Subtropics,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6808-6817 (1999).
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I. S. McDermid, G. Beyerle, D. A. Haner, and T. Leblanc, “Redesign and improved performance of the tropospheric ozone lidar at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7550-7555 (2002).
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M. H. Proffitt, and A. O. Langford, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar system for day or night measurements of ozone throughout the free troposphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2568-2585 (1997).
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E. V. Browell, A. F. Carter, S. T. Shipley, R. J. Allen, C. F. Butler, M. N. Mayo, J. H. Siviter, Jr., and W. M. Hall, “NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 522-534(1983).
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G. Ancellet, and F. Ravetta, “Compact airborne lidar for tropospheric ozone: description and field measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5509-5521 (1998).
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Y. Zhao, R. M. Hardesty, and M. J. Post, “Multibeam transmitter for signal dynamic range reduction in incoherent lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7623-7632 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. de Schoulepnikoff, V. Mitev, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, and H. van den Bergh, “Experimental investigation of high-power single-pass Raman shifters in the ultraviolet with Nd:YAG and KrF lasers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5026-5043 (1997).
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S. E. Bisson, “Parametric study of an excimer-pumped, nitrogen Raman shifter for lidar applications,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3406-3412 (1995).
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F. Russo, D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, and R. M. Hoff, “Validation of the Raman lidar algorithm for quantifying aerosol extinction,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7073-7088 (2006).
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Y. Zhao, “Signal-induced fluorescence in photomultipliers in differential absorption lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4639-4648 (1999).
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M. P. Bristow, D. H. Bundy, and A. G. Wright, “Signal linearity, gain stability, and gating in photomultipliers: application to differential absorption lidars,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4437-4452 (1995).
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M. P. Bristow, “Suppression of afterpulsing in photomultipliers by gating the photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4975-4987(2002).
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Appl. Phys. B

S. Tzortzakis, G. Tsaknakis, and A. Papayannis, and A. A. Serafetinides, “Investigation of the spatial profile of stimulated Raman scattering beams in D2 and H2 gases using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 71-75(2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, and B. Barchunov, “Excimer-laser-based lidar for tropospheric ozone monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 1131-1137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, and T. P. Kurosu, “Impact of using different ozone cross sections on ozone profile retrievals from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ultraviolet measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 3571-3578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol.

J. M. Wilczak, E. E. Gossard, W. D. Neff, and W. L. Eberhard, “Ground-based remote sensing of the atmospheric boundary layer: 25 years of progress,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 78, 321-349 (1996).
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Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

W. L. Eberhard, W. A. Brewer, and R. L. Wayson, “Lidar observations of jet engine exhaust for air quality,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 482-483 (2005).

Contr. Atmos. Phys.

P. Völger, J. Bösenberg, and I. Schult, “Scattering properties of selected model aerosols calculated at uv-wavelengths: implications for DIAL measurements of tropospheric ozone,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 177-187 (1996).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

G. Feingold, W. L. Eberhard, D. E. Veron, and M. Previdi, “First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1287-1290 (2003).
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W. M. Angevine, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, E. J. Williams, J. Koemer, S. T. K. Miller, R. Talbot, P. E. Johnston, S. A. McKeen, and T. Downs, “Coastal boundary layer influence on pollution transport in New England,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 43, 1425-1437 (2004).
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J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

R. J. Hill, W. A. Brewer, and S. C. Tucker, “Platform-motion correction of velocity measured by Doppler lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1369-1382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Lenschow, V. G. Wulfmeyer, and C. J. Senff, “Measuring second- through fourth-order moments in noisy data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1330-1347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Davis, N. Gamage, C. R. Hagelberg, C. Kiemle, D. H. Lenschow, and P. P. Sullivan, “An objective method for deriving atmospheric structure from airborne lidar observations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1455-1468 (2000).
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G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, and G. Mégie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using a Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6, 832-839 (1989).
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H. Eisele, H. E. Scheel, R. Sladkovic, and T. Trickl, “High-resolution lidar measurements of Stratosphere-Troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 319-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

P. K. Quinn, D. J. Coffman, T. S. Bates, E. J. Welton, D. S. Covert, T. L. Miller, J. E. Johnson, S. Maria, L. Russell, R. Arimoto, C. M. Carrico, M. J. Rood, and J. Anderson, “Aerosol optical properties measured on board the Ronald H. Brown during ACE-Asia as a function of aerosol chemical composition and source region,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, R. Ferrare, C. Flynn, R. Elleman, D. Covert, A. Strawa, E. Welton, D. Turner, H. Jonsson, J. Redemann, J. Eilers, K. Ricci, A. G. Hallar, M. Clayton, J. Michalsky, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, and J. Barnard, “How well do state-of-the-art techniques measuring the vertical profile of tropospheric aerosol extinction compare?,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD005837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez II, C. J. Senff, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Parrish, W. T. Luke, T. B. Watson, P. H. Daum, and N. Gillani, “Comparisons of airborne lidar measurements of ozone with airborne in situ measurements during the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31155-31171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Darby, S. A. McKeen, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, R. M. Banta, M. J. Post, W. A. Brewer, R. Marchbanks, R. J. Alvarez II, S. E. Peckham, H. Mao, and R. Talbot, “Ozone differences between near-coastal and offshore sites in New England: role of meteorology,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, doi:10.1029/2007JD008446 (2007).
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L. S. Darby, R. M. Banta, W. A. Brewer, W. D. Neff, R. D. Marchbanks, B. J. McCarty, C. J. Senff, A. B. White, W. M. Angevine, and E. J. Williams, “Vertical variations in O3 concentrations before and after a gust front passage,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD000996 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, and R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663-19672 (1998).
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R. J. Alvarez II, J. L. Machol, R. D. Marchbanks, A. M. Weickmann, D. C. Law, C. J. Senff, S. P. Sandberg, and W. A. Brewer, “First tests of the TOPAZ lidar for airborne measurements of tropospheric ozone and aerosol backscatter,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies (National Center for Atmospheric Research, 2006), pp. 8.29-8.30.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of OPAL. The wavelengths of the beams are shown in nm. Elements include the laser doubler ( 2 × ) and quadrupler ( 4 × ), the BBO crystal (BBO), beam expanders (BEs), and a solar blind filter (SB). The receiver uses dichroic and narrowband filters to separate the wavelengths in the return signal. Mirrors are black bars, and filters and beam splitters are gray. The final transmit/receive mirror scans in elevation. Shutters to alternately block the near- and far-field beams are not shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Divider network optimized for eight-stage Hamamatsu R2076 and R3479 PMTs. Gating is applied at dynodes 2 and 5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gated PMT response to cw light as a function of incident light level. The PMT signal is flat for lower light levels, but exhibits increased slope for higher light levels. These measurements were made with the high voltage at 1500 V and the gate voltage at 85 V .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PMT signal response to cw light with a double-pulsed PMT gate. The turn-on time from the first gate is the same as if the PMT had only a single gate, but the turn-on time from the second gate is decreased. Vertical scale is expanded.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibrated aerosol backscatter profiles for 12:00, 15 August–12:00, 16 August 2006, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) taken aboard a ship near Houston, Texas during the TexAQS II experiment. Local standard time was six hours later than UTC. The white line at the top of the main aerosol layer indicates the top of the mixed layer during the day and the top of the residual layer at night. Vertical white stripes to the surface are gaps between data files. Shorter white stripes mark regions where the backscatter could not be calculated above clouds.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average aerosol extinction coefficient in two layers using the slant-path method determined from shipboard measurements from the northwestern Atlantic during NEAQS 2004. Missing data mostly represent times of fog or low clouds.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cross section of the enhanced particle backscatter coefficients behind a twin-jet MD83 aircraft during the early part of the takeoff roll. Horizontal distance is from the lidar, and the height (scale greatly expanded) is above the runway.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Aerosol-corrected ozone profiles for the same 24 h period as the aerosol profiles in Fig. 5 (15 and 16 August 2006). Vertical white bars are data gaps between files. Horizontal white bars occur where the DIAL data from one angle does not extend far enough to blend with the next higher angle data.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Vertical profile of ozone rms error due to instrument noise calculated from data taken from 18:00 to 24:00 UTC on 15 August 2006.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of lidar ozone measurements with ozonesonde and in situ measurements taken aboard a ship on 15 August 2006. The ozonesonde launch occurred at 18:03, UTC. During the 20 min integration time of the lidar, the measured atmospheric variability at the surface was ± 3.4 ppb , which represents + / 1 standard deviation (solid horizontal bar). The uncertainties are 1 2 ppb for the in situ measurements and 5 ppb for the ozonesonde [60]. In situ measurements are unpublished data from the NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the ozondesonde trace is courtesy of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Typical Operating Parameters for OPAL

Equations (1)

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α p = 1 2 ( z 2 z 1 ) ln [ B ( θ a , z 2 ) B ( θ b , z 1 ) B ( θ a , z 1 ) B ( θ b , z 2 ) ] / [ 1 sin θ b 1 sin θ a ] α m ,

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