Abstract

We report absolute frequency measurements of the molecular iodine R(34) 20-0 a1, a10, and a15 hyperfine transitions, and the P(144) 23-0 a1 hyperfine transition at 560nm with a frequency comb. The light source is based on an all-solid-state frequency quadrupled laser system. A frequency stability of 4×1012 is achieved over a 100s integration time when the light source is frequency stabilized to the R(34) 20-0 a1 line. The pressure and power broadening dependences of the R(34) 20-0 a10 line are also investigated.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-P. Wallerand, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, and M. Zucco, “Absolute frequency measurement of molecular iodine lines at 514.7 nm, interrogated by a frequency-doubled Yb-doped fiber laser,” Metrologia 43, 294-298 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009

2007

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025-1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Wallerand, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, and M. Zucco, “Absolute frequency measurement of molecular iodine lines at 514.7 nm, interrogated by a frequency-doubled Yb-doped fiber laser,” Metrologia 43, 294-298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-M. Fang, S. C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56)32-0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 257, 76-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Felder, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2003),” Metrologia 42, 323-325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. du Burck, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, A. N. Goncharov, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Frequency measurement of an Ar+ laser stabilized on narrow lines of molecular iodine at 501.7 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 754-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Knöckel, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision description of the rovibronic structure of the I2 B-X spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 199-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40, 103-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. J. Jones, W. Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 597-601(2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Widely usable interpolation formulae for hyperfine splittings in the I2127 spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31-44(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, L. -S. Ma, and L. Robertsson, “Femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork with instability ≤6.3×10−16 in 1 s,” Opt. Lett. 27, 58-60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

W.-Y. Cheng and J.-T. Shy, “Wavelength standard at 543 nm and the corresponding I2127 hyperfine transitions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 363-369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, and L. Marmet, “Absolute frequency measurement of the He−Ne/I2 standard at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 187, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. R. Simonsen and F. Rose, “Absolute measurement of the hyperfine splittings of six molecular I2127 lines around the He−Ne/I2 wavelength at λ≈633 nm,” Metrologia 37, 651-658 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. D. Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35-0 and P(84)33-0 transitions of I2127 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101-108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lazar, O. Číp, and P. Jedlička, “Tunable extended-cavity diode laser stabilization on iodine at λ=633 nm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3085-3088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. -S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, C. Svelto, E. Bava, and F. Bertinetto, “High-frequency-stability diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with the FM sidebands method and Doppler-free iodine lines at 532 nm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6962-6966 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Talvitie, M. Merimaa, and E. Ikonen, “Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to Doppler-free spectrum of molecular iodine at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 152, 182-188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, “Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra,” Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Razet and S. Picard, “A tabulation of calculations of the hyperfine structure in I2127,” Metrologia 33, 19-27 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32-0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151-154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1989

J.-M. Chartier, S. Fredin-Picard, and L. Robertsson, “Frequency-stabilized 543 nm HeNe laser systems: a new candidate for the realization of the metre?,” Opt. Commun. 74, 87-92 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B-X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867-881(1985).
[CrossRef]

1980

1979

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58-1 line of I2127 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347-352(1979).
[CrossRef]

1936

L. J. Gillespie and L. H. D. Fraser, “The normal vapor pressure of crystalline iodine,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 2260-2263 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, M. V.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

F. du Burck, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, A. N. Goncharov, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Frequency measurement of an Ar+ laser stabilized on narrow lines of molecular iodine at 501.7 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 754-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

An, J.

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

P. C. Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. D. Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie and R. L. Byer, “Laser heterodyne spectroscopy of I2127 hyperfine structure near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1990-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Barwood, G. P.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, “Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra,” Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bava, E.

Bernard, J. E.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, and L. Marmet, “Absolute frequency measurement of the He−Ne/I2 standard at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 187, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, B.

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bertinetto, F.

Bloch, D.

Bodermann, B.

H. Knöckel, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision description of the rovibronic structure of the I2 B-X spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 199-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Widely usable interpolation formulae for hyperfine splittings in the I2127 spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31-44(2002).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Chardonnet, C.

F. du Burck, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, A. N. Goncharov, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Frequency measurement of an Ar+ laser stabilized on narrow lines of molecular iodine at 501.7 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 754-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, A.

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, J. -M.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, J.-M.

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Chartier, S. Fredin-Picard, and L. Robertsson, “Frequency-stabilized 543 nm HeNe laser systems: a new candidate for the realization of the metre?,” Opt. Commun. 74, 87-92 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

R. J. Jones, W. Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 597-601(2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. Y.

R. J. Jones, W. Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 597-601(2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.-Y.

Chevillard, J.

S. Gerstenkorn, J. Verges, and J. Chevillard, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 11000 cm−1-14000 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1982.

Cíp, O.

Daussy, C.

F. du Burck, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, A. N. Goncharov, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Frequency measurement of an Ar+ laser stabilized on narrow lines of molecular iodine at 501.7 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 754-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

du Burck, F.

F. du Burck, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, A. N. Goncharov, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Frequency measurement of an Ar+ laser stabilized on narrow lines of molecular iodine at 501.7 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 754-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ducloy, M.

Dumke, R.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025-1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C. S.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, “Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra,” Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, M.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32-0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151-154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.-M.

H.-M. Fang, S. C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56)32-0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 257, 76-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Felder, R.

R. Felder, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2003),” Metrologia 42, 323-325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foth, H. J.

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58-1 line of I2127 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347-352(1979).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, L. H. D.

L. J. Gillespie and L. H. D. Fraser, “The normal vapor pressure of crystalline iodine,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 2260-2263 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Fredin-Picard, S.

J.-M. Chartier, S. Fredin-Picard, and L. Robertsson, “Frequency-stabilized 543 nm HeNe laser systems: a new candidate for the realization of the metre?,” Opt. Commun. 74, 87-92 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Galzerano, G.

Geppert, C.

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B-X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867-881(1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Gerstenkorn, J. Verges, and J. Chevillard, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 11000 cm−1-14000 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1982.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 14000 cm−1-15600 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1978.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 15600 cm−1-17000 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1977.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 17500 cm−1-20000 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1977.

Gill, P.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, “Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra,” Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, L. J.

L. J. Gillespie and L. H. D. Fraser, “The normal vapor pressure of crystalline iodine,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 2260-2263 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Giusfredi, G.

P. C. Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. D. Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goncharov, A. N.

F. du Burck, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, A. N. Goncharov, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Frequency measurement of an Ar+ laser stabilized on narrow lines of molecular iodine at 501.7 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 754-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025-1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gwinner, G.

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hald, J.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. J. Jones, W. Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 597-601(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. -S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32-0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151-154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henningsen, J.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

Holman, K. W.

R. J. Jones, W. Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 597-601(2002).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F.-L.

F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, M. Yasuda, and A. Onae, “Doppler-free spectroscopy of molecular iodine using a frequency-stable light source at 578 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 1652-1659 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35-0 and P(84)33-0 transitions of I2127 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101-108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hosaka, K.

Huber, G.

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ikonen, E.

H. Talvitie, M. Merimaa, and E. Ikonen, “Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to Doppler-free spectrum of molecular iodine at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 152, 182-188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

Inguscio, M.

P. C. Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. D. Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, J.

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35-0 and P(84)33-0 transitions of I2127 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101-108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, S.

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jedlicka, P.

Jones, R. J.

R. J. Jones, W. Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 597-601(2002).
[CrossRef]

Jungner, P. A.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32-0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151-154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Karpuk, S.

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knöckel, H.

H. Knöckel, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision description of the rovibronic structure of the I2 B-X spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 199-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Widely usable interpolation formulae for hyperfine splittings in the I2127 spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31-44(2002).
[CrossRef]

Krìn, P.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Labot, J.

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lazar, J.

Liu, T.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025-1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, O.

F. du Burck, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, A. N. Goncharov, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Frequency measurement of an Ar+ laser stabilized on narrow lines of molecular iodine at 501.7 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 754-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025-1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B-X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867-881(1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 14000 cm−1-15600 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1978.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 15600 cm−1-17000 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1977.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 17500 cm−1-20000 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1977.

Ma, L. S.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. -S.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, L. -S. Ma, and L. Robertsson, “Femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork with instability ≤6.3×10−16 in 1 s,” Opt. Lett. 27, 58-60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. -S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

J.-P. Wallerand, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, and M. Zucco, “Absolute frequency measurement of molecular iodine lines at 514.7 nm, interrogated by a frequency-doubled Yb-doped fiber laser,” Metrologia 43, 294-298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Madej, A. A.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, and L. Marmet, “Absolute frequency measurement of the He−Ne/I2 standard at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 187, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marmet, L.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, and L. Marmet, “Absolute frequency measurement of the He−Ne/I2 standard at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 187, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Merimaa, M.

H. Talvitie, M. Merimaa, and E. Ikonen, “Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to Doppler-free spectrum of molecular iodine at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 152, 182-188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miski-Oglu, N.

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Natale, P. D.

P. C. Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. D. Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Y.

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nörtershäuser, W.

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, C.

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nyholm, K.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

Pastor, P. C.

P. C. Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. D. Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Picard, S.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. -S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Razet and S. Picard, “A tabulation of calculations of the hyperfine structure in I2127,” Metrologia 33, 19-27 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40, 103-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raj, R. K.

Razet, A.

A. Razet and S. Picard, “A tabulation of calculations of the hyperfine structure in I2127,” Metrologia 33, 19-27 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, S.

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

J.-P. Wallerand, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, and M. Zucco, “Absolute frequency measurement of molecular iodine lines at 514.7 nm, interrogated by a frequency-doubled Yb-doped fiber laser,” Metrologia 43, 294-298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, L. -S. Ma, and L. Robertsson, “Femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork with instability ≤6.3×10−16 in 1 s,” Opt. Lett. 27, 58-60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. -S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Chartier, S. Fredin-Picard, and L. Robertsson, “Frequency-stabilized 543 nm HeNe laser systems: a new candidate for the realization of the metre?,” Opt. Commun. 74, 87-92 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez-Llorente, F.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, “Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra,” Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rose, F.

H. R. Simonsen and F. Rose, “Absolute measurement of the hyperfine splittings of six molecular I2127 lines around the He−Ne/I2 wavelength at λ≈633 nm,” Metrologia 37, 651-658 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosenman, G.

P. C. Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. D. Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, W. R. C.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, “Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra,” Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saathoff, G.

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sansonetti, C. J.

Shen, S.

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shy, J.-T.

H.-M. Fang, S. C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56)32-0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 257, 76-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W.-Y. Cheng and J.-T. Shy, “Wavelength standard at 543 nm and the corresponding I2127 hyperfine transitions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 363-369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siemsen, K. J.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, and L. Marmet, “Absolute frequency measurement of the He−Ne/I2 standard at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 187, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

H. R. Simonsen and F. Rose, “Absolute measurement of the hyperfine splittings of six molecular I2127 lines around the He−Ne/I2 wavelength at λ≈633 nm,” Metrologia 37, 651-658 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, J. J.

Spieweck, F.

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58-1 line of I2127 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347-352(1979).
[CrossRef]

Stejskal, A.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025-1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suh, H. S.

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, C.

Swartz, S.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32-0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151-154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Talvitie, H.

H. Talvitie, M. Merimaa, and E. Ikonen, “Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to Doppler-free spectrum of molecular iodine at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 152, 182-188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. L.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Tiemann, E.

H. Knöckel, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision description of the rovibronic structure of the I2 B-X spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 199-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Widely usable interpolation formulae for hyperfine splittings in the I2127 spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31-44(2002).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Dierendonck, R.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velchev, I.

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verges, J.

S. Gerstenkorn, J. Verges, and J. Chevillard, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 11000 cm−1-14000 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1982.

Wallerand, J.-P.

J.-P. Wallerand, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, and M. Zucco, “Absolute frequency measurement of molecular iodine lines at 514.7 nm, interrogated by a frequency-doubled Yb-doped fiber laser,” Metrologia 43, 294-298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. du Burck, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, A. N. Goncharov, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Frequency measurement of an Ar+ laser stabilized on narrow lines of molecular iodine at 501.7 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 754-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waltman, S.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32-0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151-154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025-1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

H.-M. Fang, S. C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56)32-0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 257, 76-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. H.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025-1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. C.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuda, M.

Ye, J.

R. J. Jones, W. Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 597-601(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. -S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32-0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151-154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zeppini, P.

P. C. Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. D. Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025-1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. N.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025-1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, M.

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zucco, M.

J.-P. Wallerand, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, and M. Zucco, “Absolute frequency measurement of molecular iodine lines at 514.7 nm, interrogated by a frequency-doubled Yb-doped fiber laser,” Metrologia 43, 294-298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

R. J. Jones, W. Y. Cheng, K. W. Holman, L. Chen, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Absolute-frequency measurement of the iodine-based length standard at 514.67 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 597-601(2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98), 58-1 line of I2127 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347-352(1979).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Widely usable interpolation formulae for hyperfine splittings in the I2127 spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31-44(2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Knöckel, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision description of the rovibronic structure of the I2 B-X spectrum,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 199-209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32-0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151-154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. -S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544-549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J. -M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, P. Balling, P. Krìn, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, M. V. Alonso, G. Xu, S. L. Tan, K. Nyholm, J. Henningsen, J. Hald, W. R. C. Rowley, G. P. Barwood, and R. Windeler, “Absolute frequency measurement of the R(12)26-0 and R(106)28-0 transitions in I2127at λ=543 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 876-880(2006).
[CrossRef]

F. du Burck, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, A. N. Goncharov, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, and J.-P. Wallerand, “Frequency measurement of an Ar+ laser stabilized on narrow lines of molecular iodine at 501.7 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 754-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

L. J. Gillespie and L. H. D. Fraser, “The normal vapor pressure of crystalline iodine,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 2260-2263 (1936).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. (Paris)

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B-X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867-881(1985).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, Y. H. Wang, T. Liu, A. Stejskal, Y. N. Zhao, R. Dumke, Q. H. Gong, and L. J. Wang, “Exact frequency comb mode number determination in precision optical frequency measurements,” Laser Phys. 17, 1025-1028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

A. Razet and S. Picard, “A tabulation of calculations of the hyperfine structure in I2127,” Metrologia 33, 19-27 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, Y. Ni, J. Qian, Z. Liu, C. Shi, J. An, L. Wang, S. Iwasaki, J. Ishikawa, F.-L. Hong, H. S. Suh, J. Labot, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with I2127 at λ≈633 nm (1997),” Metrologia 38, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Simonsen and F. Rose, “Absolute measurement of the hyperfine splittings of six molecular I2127 lines around the He−Ne/I2 wavelength at λ≈633 nm,” Metrologia 37, 651-658 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Wallerand, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, and M. Zucco, “Absolute frequency measurement of molecular iodine lines at 514.7 nm, interrogated by a frequency-doubled Yb-doped fiber laser,” Metrologia 43, 294-298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40, 103-133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Felder, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2003),” Metrologia 42, 323-325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35-0 and P(84)33-0 transitions of I2127 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101-108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Chartier, S. Fredin-Picard, and L. Robertsson, “Frequency-stabilized 543 nm HeNe laser systems: a new candidate for the realization of the metre?,” Opt. Commun. 74, 87-92 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. D. Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453-458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, and L. Marmet, “Absolute frequency measurement of the He−Ne/I2 standard at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 187, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, S. Karpuk, C. Novotny, G. Huber, M. Zimmermann, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and G. Gwinner, “Iodine hyperfine structure and absolute frequency measurements at 565, 576, and 585 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 282-290 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, F. Rodríguez-Llorente, and W. R. C. Rowley, “Frequency-stabilized diode lasers in the visible region using Doppler-free iodine spectra,” Opt. Commun. 132, 94-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Reinhardt, B. Bernhardt, C. Geppert, R. Holzwarth, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, N. Miski-Oglu, W. Nörtershäuser, C. Novotny, and Th. Udem, “Absolute frequency measurements and comparisons in iodine at 735 nm and 772 nm,” Opt. Commun. 274, 354-360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-M. Fang, S. C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56)32-0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 257, 76-83 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Talvitie, M. Merimaa, and E. Ikonen, “Frequency stabilization of a diode laser to Doppler-free spectrum of molecular iodine at 633 nm,” Opt. Commun. 152, 182-188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

IodineSpec4, Iodine Spectrum Calculating Software, TOPTICA.

The data for the various recommended radiations are updated on the BIPM website (www.bipm.org/en/publications/mep.html).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 14000 cm−1-15600 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1978.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 15600 cm−1-17000 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1977.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 17500 cm−1-20000 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1977.

S. Gerstenkorn, J. Verges, and J. Chevillard, “Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption de la Molecule D'Iode, 11000 cm−1-14000 cm−1,” Laboratoire Aim Cotton, CNRS II, 91405 Orsay, France, 1982.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. FC, fiber coupler; PBS, polarization beam splitter; λ / 2 , half-wave plate; λ / 4 , quarter-wave plate; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; EOM, electro-optic modulator; APD, avalanche photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency measurements over 10 sessions at a cold finger temperature of 12 ° C . The error bars indicate 2 σ standard uncertainties over 300 s . (a) The R(34) 20-0 a 1 line. The mean value is ( 536 038 709 689 ± 8 ) kHz . (b) The R(34) 20-0 a 10 line. The mean value is ( 536 039 286 747 ± 23 ) kHz . (c) The R(34) 20-0 a 15 line. The mean value is ( 536 039 576 169 ± 17 ) kHz . (d) The P(144) 23-0 a 1 line. The mean value is ( 536 040 895 095 ± 142 ) kHz .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Curve with circles: Allan deviation of the measured beat frequency between the laser that is locked to the R(34) 20-0 a 1 line and the frequency comb that is locked to the Cs clock. Curve with squares: Allan deviation of the free-running laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement setup for scanning the iodine Doppler-free spectra through third harmonic saturation absorption spectroscopy. This setup is also used to investigate the pressure and power broadening dependence of the R(34) 20-0 a 10 line. VA, variable attenuator; PD1, PD2, photodiodes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Hyperfine structure pattern of the R(34) 20-0 a 1 a 15 lines. The positions of a 1 , a 10 , and a 15 are marked. (b) Hyperfine structure pattern of the P(144) 23-0 a 1 a 15 lines. The positions of the a lines are marked. The lines are mixed with the R(53) 28-3 b 1 b 21 lines. The positions of the b lines are marked.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

R(34) 20-0 a 10 linewidth versus vapor pressure of the iodine cell. The pump power is fixed at 11.3 mW . The inset shows the measured peak amplitude of the third-derivative signal versus modulation amplitude (symbols) and the fitted curves (solid curves) at different vapor pressures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

R(34) 20-0 a 10 linewidth versus pump power. The cold finger temperature of the iodine cell is fixed at 12 ° C . The inset shows the measured peak amplitude of the third-derivative signal versus modulation amplitude (symbols) and the fitted curves (solid curves) at different pump powers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Selected Hyperfine Transition Frequencies of the R(34) 20-0 and P(144) 23-0 Lines

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f iodine = f pump + f probe 2 .
f laser = N f r + f 0 + f b .
h ( d m ) = c P 1 δ 2 d m + P 2 δ d m 2 + P 3 d m 3 P 4 δ 3 + P 5 δ 2 d m + P 6 δ d m 2 + P 7 d m 3 .
log ( p ) = 3512.830 T 2.013 log ( T ) + 18.37971 ,
γ = γ ( 1 + 1 + P / P s ) ,

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