Abstract

We use a heterodyne Mach–Zehnder interferometer to simultaneously and simply measure the complex refractive index by only normal incidence on the specimen, instead of using a complicated measurement procedure or instrument that only measures the real or imaginary part of the complex refractive index. To study the tiny variation of the complex refractive index, the small complex refractive-index variation of a rare-concentration magnetic-fluid thin film, due to a weak field of less than 200Oe, was processed by this interferometer. We also present the wavelength trend of the complex refractive index of magnetic fluids to verify the appearance of the slight change in a small wavelength range.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. W. Huang, S. T. Hu, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, J. C. Hung, C. Y. Hong, H. C. Yang, C. H. Chao, and C. F. Lin, “Tunable diffraction of magnetic fluid films and its potential application in coarse wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1867-1869 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543-545 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592-5594(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer by utilizing phase modulation of transmitted light through magnetic fluid films possessing tunable refractive index,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71-75(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Saito, N. Matsumoto, and J. Nishimura, “Measurement of the complex refractive-index spectrum for birefringent and absorptive liquids,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5169-5175(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931-4933(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Inaba, H. Miyajima, H. Takahashi, S. Taketomi, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical absorption in infrared region for magnetic fluid thin film,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 25, 3866-1989 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Measurements of the complex transmission/reflection coefficient of a material using mixed-type common-path heterodyne interferometery,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. . 58, 1878-1885 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. J. Chieh, Y. P. Chen, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Characterization of UV-modulated dielectric constant of ZnO thin films,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 2, 81-84 (2008).
  12. S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204-5206(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, 1960).
  14. R. Dandliker, “Heterodyne holographic interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North Holland, 1980), Vol. XVII.
  15. F. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, G. von Bally, S. Breer, and K. Buse, “A high resolution real-time temporal heterodyne interferometer for refractive index topography,” Opt. Commun. 144, 173-179 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. L. Mitsas and D. I. Siapkas, “Generalized matrix method for analysis of coherent and incoherent reflectance and transmittance of multilayer structures with rough surfaces, interfaces, and finite substrates,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1678-1683(1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. K. Ghodgaonkar, V. V. Varadan, and V. K. Varadan, “Free-space measurement of complex permittivity and complex permeability of magnetic materials at microwave frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 39, 387-394 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. L. Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19, 677-717 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Measurements of the complex transmission/reflection coefficient of a material using mixed-type common-path heterodyne interferometery,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. . 58, 1878-1885 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. J. Chieh, Y. P. Chen, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Characterization of UV-modulated dielectric constant of ZnO thin films,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 2, 81-84 (2008).

2006 (1)

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer by utilizing phase modulation of transmitted light through magnetic fluid films possessing tunable refractive index,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71-75(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543-545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Y. W. Huang, S. T. Hu, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, J. C. Hung, C. Y. Hong, H. C. Yang, C. H. Chao, and C. F. Lin, “Tunable diffraction of magnetic fluid films and its potential application in coarse wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1867-1869 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592-5594(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204-5206(2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931-4933(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

F. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, G. von Bally, S. Breer, and K. Buse, “A high resolution real-time temporal heterodyne interferometer for refractive index topography,” Opt. Commun. 144, 173-179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (2)

D. K. Ghodgaonkar, V. V. Varadan, and V. K. Varadan, “Free-space measurement of complex permittivity and complex permeability of magnetic materials at microwave frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 39, 387-394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. L. Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

N. Inaba, H. Miyajima, H. Takahashi, S. Taketomi, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical absorption in infrared region for magnetic fluid thin film,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 25, 3866-1989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bovier, C.

D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
[CrossRef]

Breer, S.

F. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, G. von Bally, S. Breer, and K. Buse, “A high resolution real-time temporal heterodyne interferometer for refractive index topography,” Opt. Commun. 144, 173-179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

F. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, G. von Bally, S. Breer, and K. Buse, “A high resolution real-time temporal heterodyne interferometer for refractive index topography,” Opt. Commun. 144, 173-179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cabuil, V.

D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. H.

Chao, Y. H.

Chen, C. S.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592-5594(2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931-4933(2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. P.

J. J. Chieh, Y. P. Chen, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Characterization of UV-modulated dielectric constant of ZnO thin films,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 2, 81-84 (2008).

Chieh, J. J.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Measurements of the complex transmission/reflection coefficient of a material using mixed-type common-path heterodyne interferometery,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. . 58, 1878-1885 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chieh, Y. P. Chen, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Characterization of UV-modulated dielectric constant of ZnO thin films,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 2, 81-84 (2008).

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543-545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592-5594(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204-5206(2004).
[CrossRef]

Chikazumi, S.

N. Inaba, H. Miyajima, H. Takahashi, S. Taketomi, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical absorption in infrared region for magnetic fluid thin film,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 25, 3866-1989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dandliker, R.

R. Dandliker, “Heterodyne holographic interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North Holland, 1980), Vol. XVII.

Donatini, F.

D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
[CrossRef]

Fang, K. L.

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer by utilizing phase modulation of transmitted light through magnetic fluid films possessing tunable refractive index,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71-75(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592-5594(2004).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, J. S.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. L. Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ghodgaonkar, D. K.

D. K. Ghodgaonkar, V. V. Varadan, and V. K. Varadan, “Free-space measurement of complex permittivity and complex permeability of magnetic materials at microwave frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 39, 387-394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Measurements of the complex transmission/reflection coefficient of a material using mixed-type common-path heterodyne interferometery,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. . 58, 1878-1885 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chieh, Y. P. Chen, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Characterization of UV-modulated dielectric constant of ZnO thin films,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 2, 81-84 (2008).

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer by utilizing phase modulation of transmitted light through magnetic fluid films possessing tunable refractive index,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71-75(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543-545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, S. T. Hu, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, J. C. Hung, C. Y. Hong, H. C. Yang, C. H. Chao, and C. F. Lin, “Tunable diffraction of magnetic fluid films and its potential application in coarse wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1867-1869 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592-5594(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204-5206(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931-4933(2002).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Measurements of the complex transmission/reflection coefficient of a material using mixed-type common-path heterodyne interferometery,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. . 58, 1878-1885 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chieh, Y. P. Chen, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Characterization of UV-modulated dielectric constant of ZnO thin films,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 2, 81-84 (2008).

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer by utilizing phase modulation of transmitted light through magnetic fluid films possessing tunable refractive index,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71-75(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543-545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592-5594(2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Huang, S. T. Hu, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, J. C. Hung, C. Y. Hong, H. C. Yang, C. H. Chao, and C. F. Lin, “Tunable diffraction of magnetic fluid films and its potential application in coarse wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1867-1869 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204-5206(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931-4933(2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S. T.

Huang, Y. W.

Hung, J. C.

Inaba, N.

N. Inaba, H. Miyajima, H. Takahashi, S. Taketomi, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical absorption in infrared region for magnetic fluid thin film,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 25, 3866-1989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jamon, D.

D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
[CrossRef]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, 1960).

Liao, W.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, 1960).

Lin, C. F.

Matsumoto, N.

Mitsas, C. L.

Miyajima, H.

N. Inaba, H. Miyajima, H. Takahashi, S. Taketomi, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical absorption in infrared region for magnetic fluid thin film,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 25, 3866-1989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, J.

Pu, S.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rickermann, F.

F. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, G. von Bally, S. Breer, and K. Buse, “A high resolution real-time temporal heterodyne interferometer for refractive index topography,” Opt. Commun. 144, 173-179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riehemann, S.

F. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, G. von Bally, S. Breer, and K. Buse, “A high resolution real-time temporal heterodyne interferometer for refractive index topography,” Opt. Commun. 144, 173-179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robert, S.

D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, J. J.

D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
[CrossRef]

Roux, H.

D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

Schiebener, P.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. L. Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sengers, J. M. H. L.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. L. Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Serrughetti, J.

D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
[CrossRef]

Siapkas, D. I.

Straub, J.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. L. Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

N. Inaba, H. Miyajima, H. Takahashi, S. Taketomi, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical absorption in infrared region for magnetic fluid thin film,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 25, 3866-1989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Taketomi, S.

N. Inaba, H. Miyajima, H. Takahashi, S. Taketomi, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical absorption in infrared region for magnetic fluid thin film,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 25, 3866-1989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tse, W. S.

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931-4933(2002).
[CrossRef]

Varadan, V. K.

D. K. Ghodgaonkar, V. V. Varadan, and V. K. Varadan, “Free-space measurement of complex permittivity and complex permeability of magnetic materials at microwave frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 39, 387-394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Varadan, V. V.

D. K. Ghodgaonkar, V. V. Varadan, and V. K. Varadan, “Free-space measurement of complex permittivity and complex permeability of magnetic materials at microwave frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 39, 387-394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

von Bally, G.

F. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, G. von Bally, S. Breer, and K. Buse, “A high resolution real-time temporal heterodyne interferometer for refractive index topography,” Opt. Commun. 144, 173-179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

R. Dandliker, “Heterodyne holographic interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North Holland, 1980), Vol. XVII.

Xia, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Measurements of the complex transmission/reflection coefficient of a material using mixed-type common-path heterodyne interferometery,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. . 58, 1878-1885 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chieh, Y. P. Chen, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Characterization of UV-modulated dielectric constant of ZnO thin films,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 2, 81-84 (2008).

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer by utilizing phase modulation of transmitted light through magnetic fluid films possessing tunable refractive index,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71-75(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543-545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, S. T. Hu, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, J. C. Hung, C. Y. Hong, H. C. Yang, C. H. Chao, and C. F. Lin, “Tunable diffraction of magnetic fluid films and its potential application in coarse wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1867-1869 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592-5594(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204-5206(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931-4933(2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Measurements of the complex transmission/reflection coefficient of a material using mixed-type common-path heterodyne interferometery,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. . 58, 1878-1885 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chieh, Y. P. Chen, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Characterization of UV-modulated dielectric constant of ZnO thin films,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 2, 81-84 (2008).

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer by utilizing phase modulation of transmitted light through magnetic fluid films possessing tunable refractive index,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71-75(2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, J. J. Chieh, Y. H. Chao, S. Y. Yang, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Designing optical-fiber modulators by using magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 30, 543-545 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, S. T. Hu, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, J. C. Hung, C. Y. Hong, H. C. Yang, C. H. Chao, and C. F. Lin, “Tunable diffraction of magnetic fluid films and its potential application in coarse wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1867-1869 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592-5594(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204-5206(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931-4933(2002).
[CrossRef]

Zins, D.

D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204-5206(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Measurement of the refractive index of a magnetic fluid by the retroreflection on the fiber-optic end face,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 171904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. F. Chen, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, W. S. Tse, and H. C. Yang, “Magnetically-modulated refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4931-4933(2002).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5592-5594(2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Measurements of the complex transmission/reflection coefficient of a material using mixed-type common-path heterodyne interferometery,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. . 58, 1878-1885 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Ghodgaonkar, V. V. Varadan, and V. K. Varadan, “Free-space measurement of complex permittivity and complex permeability of magnetic materials at microwave frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 39, 387-394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (2)

D. Jamon, S. Robert, F. Donatini, J. J. Rousseau, C. Bovier, H. Roux, J. Serrughetti, V. Cabuil, and D. Zins, “Optical investigation of γ−Fe2O3 nanoparticle-doped silica gel matrix for birefringent components,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 37, 3803-3806(2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Inaba, H. Miyajima, H. Takahashi, S. Taketomi, and S. Chikazumi, “Magneto-optical absorption in infrared region for magnetic fluid thin film,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 25, 3866-1989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (1)

C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, K. L. Fang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer by utilizing phase modulation of transmitted light through magnetic fluid films possessing tunable refractive index,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 297, 71-75(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. L. Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, “Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, G. von Bally, S. Breer, and K. Buse, “A high resolution real-time temporal heterodyne interferometer for refractive index topography,” Opt. Commun. 144, 173-179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. (1)

J. J. Chieh, Y. P. Chen, C. Y. Hong, S. Y. Yang, H. E. Horng, and H. C. Yang, “Characterization of UV-modulated dielectric constant of ZnO thin films,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 2, 81-84 (2008).

Other (2)

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, 1960).

R. Dandliker, “Heterodyne holographic interferometry,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North Holland, 1980), Vol. XVII.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of the transmission type of stable heterodyne Mach–Zehnder interferometer and the two measurement steps for the complex transmission coefficient: (b) the Si detector for detecting the sample-transmission light and (c) the incidence light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement of the transmission intensity and phase for the complex transmission coefficient at a wavelength of 532 nm of the entire sample, which is composed of the magnetic-fluid thin film with a concentration of 0.68   emu / g and the glass cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Field dependence of the complex refractive index and the complex dielectric constant at wavelengths of 473, 532, and 632.8 nm for the magnetic-fluid thin film with a concentration of 0.68   emu / g .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength dependence of (a) the complex refractive index and the complex dielectric constant for the magnetic-fluid thin film with a concentration of 0.68   emu / g measured by this work, and of (b) the real part of the refractive index for magnetic-fluid thin films with 0.68   emu / g and 0.85   emu / g , as well as the water [14], measured by this work, and the total reflection [12].

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ S 11 S 12 S 21 S 22 ] .
( α a u g t a u g ) 1 [ 1 β a u g r a u g β a u g r a u g 1 ] ,
[ exp ( i ϕ u g ) 0 0 exp ( i ϕ u g ) ] ,
( α u g MF t u g MF ) 1 [ 1 β u g MF r u g MF β u g MF r u g MF 1 ] ,
[ exp ( i ϕ MF ) 0 0 exp ( i ϕ MF ) ] ,
( α MF l g t MF l g ) 1 [ 1 β MF l g r MF l g β MF l g r MF l g 1 ] ,
[ exp ( i ϕ l g ) 0 0 exp ( i ϕ l g ) ] ,
( α l g a t lg a ) 1 [ 1 β lg a r lg a β lg a 1 ] ,
exp ( 1 2 ( 2 π Z λ ) 2 ( N former N latter ) 2 ) ,

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