Abstract

We compare the performance, stability and microstructure of Si/Gd multilayers containing thin barrier layers of W, B4C, or SiNx, and determine that multilayers containing 0.6nm thick W barrier layers at each interface provide the best compromise between high peak reflectance in the extreme ultraviolet near λ=60nm and good stability upon heating. The Si/W/Gd films have sharper interfaces and also show vastly superior thermal stability relative to Si/Gd multilayers without barrier layers. We find that these structures have relatively small compressive film stresses, and show good temporal stability thus far. We measured a peak reflectance of 29.7% at λ=62.5nm, and a spectral bandpass of Δλ=9nm (FWHM), for an optimized Si/W/Gd multilayer having a period d=32.0nm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. L. Windt, “IMD--software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. A 82, 172-175 (1909).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, and C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si X-ray multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120-3122(1992).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

2004

1998

D. L. Windt, “IMD--software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, and C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si X-ray multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120-3122(1992).
[CrossRef]

1909

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. A 82, 172-175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Artzner, G. E.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Au, B.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bellotti, J. A.

Brown, C. M.

Brunaud, J.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Catura, R. C.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Celler, G. K.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, and C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si X-ray multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120-3122(1992).
[CrossRef]

Chauvineau, J. P.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clette, F.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cugnon, P.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Defise, J. M.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Delaboudinière, J. P.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dere, K. P.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Donguy, S.

Gabriel, A. H.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gurman, J. B.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hochdez, J. F.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Howard, R. A.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hull, R.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, and C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si X-ray multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120-3122(1992).
[CrossRef]

Jamar, C.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

Kola, R. R.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, and C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si X-ray multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120-3122(1992).
[CrossRef]

Kreplin, R.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lemen, J. R.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marioge, J. P.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maucherat, A.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Michels, D. J.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Millier, F.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moses, J. D.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neupert, W. M.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rochus, P.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

Shing, L.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, X. Y.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stern, R. A.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. A 82, 172-175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Van Dessel, E. L.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Volkert, C. A.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, and C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si X-ray multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120-3122(1992).
[CrossRef]

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, and C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si X-ray multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120-3122(1992).
[CrossRef]

Weir, B. E.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, and C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si X-ray multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120-3122(1992).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, and C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si X-ray multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120-3122(1992).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys.

D. L. Windt, “IMD--software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826-3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. R. Soc. A

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[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys.

J. P. Delaboudinière, G. E. Artzner, J. Brunaud, A. H. Gabriel, J. F. Hochdez, F. Millier, X. Y. Song, B. Au, K. P. Dere, R. A. Howard, R. Kreplin, D. J. Michels, J. D. Moses, J. M. Defise, C. Jamar, P. Rochus, J. P. Chauvineau, J. P. Marioge, R. C. Catura, J. R. Lemen, L. Shing, R. A. Stern, J. B. Gurman, W. M. Neupert, A. Maucherat, F. Clette, P. Cugnon, and E. L. Van Dessel, “EIT: extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope for the SoHO mission,” Sol. Phys. 162, 291-312 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured normal-incidence reflectance of Si/Gd multilayers containing W, B 4 C and Si N x barrier layers as marked.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured normal-incidence reflectance for (a) Si/Gd, (b) Si/W/Gd, (c)  Si / B 4 C / Gd , and (d)  Si / Si N x / Gd multilayers that have been annealed for 1 h in air at 100 ° C , 200 ° C , and 300 ° C , as marked.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

HRTEM images of as-deposited Si/Gd (left) and Si/W/Gd (right) multilayers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

HRTEM images of Si/Gd (left) and Si/W/Gd (right) multilayers after annealing for 1 h at 300 ° C .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Film stress measured as a function of temperature for Si/Gd and Si/W/Gd multilayers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured peak reflectance as a function of the W barrier layer thickness at the Gd-on-Si and the Si-on-Gd interfaces, W 1 and W 2 , respectively. The small filled rectangles indicate the points at which measurements were made, while the smooth contours were computed using bilinear interpolation between these points.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured film stress as a function of the W barrier layer thickness at the Gd-on-Si and the Si-on-Gd interfaces, W 1 and W 2 , respectively. The small filled rectangles indicate the points at which measurements were made, while the smooth contours were computed using bilinear interpolation between these points.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured normal-incidence reflectance for Si/W/Gd multilayers that have been annealed for 1 h in air at 100 ° C , 200 ° C , and 300 ° C , as marked. The films in (a) have barrier layer thickness W 1 = 0.6 nm and W 2 = 0.3 nm , while the films in (b) have W 1 = W 2 = 0.6 nm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reflectance versus wavelength of Si/W/Gd multilayers as a function of multilayer period d over the range d = 25.6 44.8 nm , as indicated.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Peak reflectance measured periodically as a function of time for Si/Gd, Si/W/Gd, Si / B 4 C / Gd , and Si / Si N x / Gd multilayers as indicated.

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