Abstract

We have developed a broadband multilayer mirror for photon energies between 35 and 65eV. This extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mirror has an almost flat reflectivity profile at normal incidence, and the average reflectivity is 8%. The bandwidth of this mirror is 30eV centered around 50eV, 1.5 times broader than conventional multilayer mirrors in this energy region. This new mirror can be used in a variety of applications using supercontinuum EUV light sources including attosecond metrology.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605-608(2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10-fs soft x-ray pulse at 42 eV photon energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Oishi, M. Kaku, A. Suda, F. Kannari, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of extreme ultraviolet continuum radiation driven by a sub-10-fs two-color field,” Opt. Express 14, 7230-7237 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohcni, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-x-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiCMg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1047 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, M. Roulliay, F. Bridou, M.-F. Ravet, and A. Jérome, “Study of normal incidence of three-component multilayer mirrors in the range 20-40 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 384-390 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A.-S. Morlens, R. L. Martens, O. Boyko, P. Zeitoum, P. Balcou, k. Varjú, E. Gustafsson, T. Remetter, A. L'Huillier, S. Kazamias, J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, and M.-F. Ravat, “Design and characterization of extreme-ultraviolet broadband mirrors for attosecond science,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1558-1660 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Mashiko, S. Gibertson, C. Li, S. D. Sabih, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, and R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10-10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1988).
  15. J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikcson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “XUV supercontinua supporting pulse durations of sub-one atomic unit of time,” Technical Digest of CLEO/QELS 2009 (OSA, 2009), paper JThB2.

2008 (2)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gibertson, C. Li, S. D. Sabih, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10-fs soft x-ray pulse at 42 eV photon energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohcni, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-x-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiCMg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, M. Roulliay, F. Bridou, M.-F. Ravet, and A. Jérome, “Study of normal incidence of three-component multilayer mirrors in the range 20-40 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 384-390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605-608(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikcson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

Balcou, Ph.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batson, P. J.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikcson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boujdayane, S.

F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyko, O.

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bridou, F.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, M. Roulliay, F. Bridou, M.-F. Ravet, and A. Jérome, “Study of normal incidence of three-component multilayer mirrors in the range 20-40 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44, 384-390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

H. Mashiko, S. Gibertson, C. Li, S. D. Sabih, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “XUV supercontinua supporting pulse durations of sub-one atomic unit of time,” Technical Digest of CLEO/QELS 2009 (OSA, 2009), paper JThB2.

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, and R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10-10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1988).

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delmotte, F.

Denham, P. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikcson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franck, K. D.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikcson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gautier, J.

Gibertson, S.

H. Mashiko, S. Gibertson, C. Li, S. D. Sabih, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbertson, S.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “XUV supercontinua supporting pulse durations of sub-one atomic unit of time,” Technical Digest of CLEO/QELS 2009 (OSA, 2009), paper JThB2.

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikcson, E. M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikcson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohcni, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-x-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiCMg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, and R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10-10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1988).

Gustafsson, E.

Hasegawa, H.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10-fs soft x-ray pulse at 42 eV photon energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, and R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10-10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1988).

Hofsterter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubert, S.

F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
[CrossRef]

Ichimaru, S.

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohcni, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-x-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiCMg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Idir, M.

F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
[CrossRef]

Jerome, A.

F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
[CrossRef]

Jérome, A.

Kaku, M.

Kanai, T.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605-608(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kannari, F.

Kazamias, S.

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleimberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koike, M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikcson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kosuge, A.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605-608(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L'Huillier, A.

Li, C.

H. Mashiko, S. Gibertson, C. Li, S. D. Sabih, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martens, R. L.

Mashiko, H.

H. Mashiko, S. Gibertson, C. Li, S. D. Sabih, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “XUV supercontinua supporting pulse durations of sub-one atomic unit of time,” Technical Digest of CLEO/QELS 2009 (OSA, 2009), paper JThB2.

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Oishi, M. Kaku, A. Suda, F. Kannari, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of extreme ultraviolet continuum radiation driven by a sub-10-fs two-color field,” Opt. Express 14, 7230-7237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10-fs soft x-ray pulse at 42 eV photon energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, E.

H. Mashiko, S. Gibertson, C. Li, S. D. Sabih, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “XUV supercontinua supporting pulse durations of sub-one atomic unit of time,” Technical Digest of CLEO/QELS 2009 (OSA, 2009), paper JThB2.

Morlens, A.-S.

Muller, H. G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10-fs soft x-ray pulse at 42 eV photon energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohcni, T.

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohcni, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-x-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiCMg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, Y.

Papadogiannis, N. A.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perera, R. C. C.

B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, and R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10-10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1988).

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quéré, F.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ravat, M.-F.

Ravet, M. F.

F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
[CrossRef]

Ravet, M.-F.

Remetter, T.

Roulliay, M.

Sabih, S. D.

H. Mashiko, S. Gibertson, C. Li, S. D. Sabih, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekikawa, T.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605-608(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakya, M. M.

H. Mashiko, S. Gibertson, C. Li, S. D. Sabih, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, X.

F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
[CrossRef]

Stagiria, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, W. F.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikcson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suda, A.

Tackaberry, R. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikcson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, E. J.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10-fs soft x-ray pulse at 42 eV photon energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takenaka, H.

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohcni, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-x-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiCMg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troussel, P.

F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikcson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Varjú, k.

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605-608(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, K.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitoum, P.

Zeitoun, Ph.

F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605-608(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohcni, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-x-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiCMg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV France (1)

F. Delmotte, M. F. Ravet, F. Bridou, X. Song, A. Jerome, S. Boujdayane, S. Hubert, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, and P. Troussel, “Dépôt et calibration de multicouches pour l'optique XUV dans la gamme 1030 nm,” J. Phys. IV France 108, 255-258(2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10-fs soft x-ray pulse at 42 eV photon energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gibertson, C. Li, S. D. Sabih, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikcson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, and W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagiria, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443-446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofsterter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleimberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “XUV supercontinua supporting pulse durations of sub-one atomic unit of time,” Technical Digest of CLEO/QELS 2009 (OSA, 2009), paper JThB2.

B. L. Henke, J. C. Davis, E. M. Gullikson, and R. C. C. Perera, “A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10-10,000 eV region,” Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Rep. LBL-26259 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated transmittance of an oxidized Si layer. The oxide is assumed to be 5 nm thick.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Designed multilayer mirror assuming ideal conditions, with (solid curve) and without (dashed curve) a top oxide layer. (b) Calculated reflectivities at incident angles of 0 ° , 20 ° , 30 ° , and 40 ° .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured x-ray diffraction profile (solid curve) compared with the calculated one (dashed curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured reflectivity of the fabricated multilayer mirror (solid curve) compared with the calculated one (dashed curve). The calculated result without oxidation is shown by the dotted curve. The incident angle is 2 ° .

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