Abstract

Obtaining higher quantum efficiency and more stable GaAs photocathodes has been an important developmental direction in the investigation of GaAs photocathodes. One significant approach to this problem is to improve the electron diffusion length. We put forward and investigate an exponential doping mode GaAs photocathode. It was proved by theoretical and experimental results that, because the exponential doping structure is in favor of forming a directional constant built-in electric field, the electron diffusion and drift length of the cathode material can accordingly be enhanced. The mathematical expression of the electron diffusion and drift length LDE of an exponential doping photocathode was deduced, and the relationship between the doping coefficient and the electron diffusion and drift length is made certain. This investigation contributes to the understanding of varied doping GaAs photocathodes and provides guidance to optimize the doping structure of GaAs photocathodes for higher quantum efficiency.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Beauvais, J. Chautemps, and P. D. Groot, “LLL TV imaging with GaAs photocathode/CCD detector,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 64A, 267-274 (1995).
  2. H. K. Pollehn, “Performance and reliability of third-generation image intensifiers,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 64A, 61-69 (1995).
  3. W. Enloe, R. Scheldon, L. Reed, and A. Amith, “An electron-bombarded CCD image intensifier with a GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 1655, 41-49 (1992).
  4. T. W. Sinor, J. P. Estrera, D. L. Philips, and M. K. Rector, “Extended blue GaAs image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2551, 130-134 (1995).
  5. J. P. Estrera, E. J. Bender, A. Giordana, J. W. Glesener, M. J. Iosue, P. P. Lin, and T. W. Sinor, “Long lifetime generation IV image intensifiers with unfilmed microchannel plate,” Proc. SPIE 4128, 46-53 (2000).
  6. Y. Z. Liu, Z. C. Wang, and Y. Q. Dong, Electron Emission and Photocathodes (Academic, 1995).
  7. X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, and Y. J. Du, “Influences of performance parameters of GaAs/AlGaAs materials on photoemission,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 201-208 (2003).
  8. X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, and M. Li, “High quantum efficiency GaAs photocathode by gradient doping,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1411-1414 (2005).
  9. J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and Z. Yang, “Theoretical calculation of quantum yield for exponential-doping GaAs photocathode,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 2992-2997 (2007).
  10. J. J. Zou and B. K. Chang, “Gradient doping negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes,” Opt. Eng. 45, 054001(2006).
  11. Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, Y. P. Zeng, and H. Li, “Comparison between gradient-doping GaAs photocathode and uniform-doping photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7035-7039 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. A. Antypas, L. W. James, and J. J. Uebbing, “Operation of III-V semiconductor photocathodes in the semitransparent mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2888-2894 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Z. Liu, J. L. Moll, and W. E. Spicer, “Quantum yield of GaAs semitransparent photocathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 60-62(1970).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Z. Liu, C. D. Hollish, and W. W. Stein, “LPE GaAs/(Ga,Al)As/GaAs transmission photocathodes and a simplified formula for transmission,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5619-5622(1973).
  15. E. K. Liu, B. S. Zhu, and J. S. Luo, Semiconducting Physics (Academic, 2003).
  16. J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, H. L. Chen, and L. Liu, “Variation of quantum yield curves of GaAs photocathodes under illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033126 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. L. Xie, K. Qiu, Z. J. Yin, X. H. Fang, J. L. Chen, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optimization MBE technology growth of AlGaAs/GaAs modulation doped structure,” Micronanoelectronic Technol. 8, 22-25 (2002).
  18. Y. P. Zeng, X. Cao, L. J. Cui, M. Y. Kong, L. Pan, B. Q. Wang, and Z. P. Zhu, “High quality metamophic HEMT grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 210, 227-228(2001).
  19. J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and X. Q. Du, “Activation of gradient doping GaAs photocathodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 401-404 (2005).
  20. J. J. Zou, Z. Yang, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, and B. K. Chang, “Activation experiments and quantum efficiency theory on gradient-doping GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67822R (2007).
  21. A. A. Turnbull and G. B. Evans, “Photoemission from GaAs─Cs─O,” J. Phys. D 1, 155-160 (1968).
  22. D. G. Fisher, “The effect of Cs─O activation temperature on the surface escape probability of NEA (In,Ga) As photocathodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 21, 541-542(1974).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. G. Fu, B. K. Chang, Y. S. Qian, G. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Zong, “The evaluation system of negative electron affinity photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 614-622 (2001).
  24. B. K. Chang, X. Q. Du, L. Liu, Z. Y. Zong, R. G. Fu, and Y. S. Qian, “The automatic recording system of dynamic spectral response and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 209-218(2003).
  25. J. J. Zou, L. Feng, G. Y. Lin, Y. T. Rao, Z. Yang, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “On-line measurement system of GaAs photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67823D(2007).
  26. Y. S. Qian, Z. Y. Zong, and B. K. Chang, “Measurement of spectral response of photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 486-495 (2001).
  27. Z. Y. Zong, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “Analysis of on-line measured spectral responses of NEA photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 623-631 (2001).
  28. Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, H. Wang, and P. Gao, “High-performance MBE GaAs photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 635237 (2006).
  29. I. Kudman and T. Seidel, “Absorption edge in degenerate p-type GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 771-773 (1962).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (5)

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and Z. Yang, “Theoretical calculation of quantum yield for exponential-doping GaAs photocathode,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 2992-2997 (2007).

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, Y. P. Zeng, and H. Li, “Comparison between gradient-doping GaAs photocathode and uniform-doping photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7035-7039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, H. L. Chen, and L. Liu, “Variation of quantum yield curves of GaAs photocathodes under illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Zou, Z. Yang, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, and B. K. Chang, “Activation experiments and quantum efficiency theory on gradient-doping GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67822R (2007).

J. J. Zou, L. Feng, G. Y. Lin, Y. T. Rao, Z. Yang, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “On-line measurement system of GaAs photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67823D(2007).

2006 (2)

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, H. Wang, and P. Gao, “High-performance MBE GaAs photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 635237 (2006).

J. J. Zou and B. K. Chang, “Gradient doping negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes,” Opt. Eng. 45, 054001(2006).

2005 (2)

X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, and M. Li, “High quantum efficiency GaAs photocathode by gradient doping,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1411-1414 (2005).

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and X. Q. Du, “Activation of gradient doping GaAs photocathodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 401-404 (2005).

2003 (2)

X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, and Y. J. Du, “Influences of performance parameters of GaAs/AlGaAs materials on photoemission,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 201-208 (2003).

B. K. Chang, X. Q. Du, L. Liu, Z. Y. Zong, R. G. Fu, and Y. S. Qian, “The automatic recording system of dynamic spectral response and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 209-218(2003).

2002 (1)

Z. L. Xie, K. Qiu, Z. J. Yin, X. H. Fang, J. L. Chen, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optimization MBE technology growth of AlGaAs/GaAs modulation doped structure,” Micronanoelectronic Technol. 8, 22-25 (2002).

2001 (4)

Y. P. Zeng, X. Cao, L. J. Cui, M. Y. Kong, L. Pan, B. Q. Wang, and Z. P. Zhu, “High quality metamophic HEMT grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 210, 227-228(2001).

Y. S. Qian, Z. Y. Zong, and B. K. Chang, “Measurement of spectral response of photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 486-495 (2001).

Z. Y. Zong, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “Analysis of on-line measured spectral responses of NEA photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 623-631 (2001).

R. G. Fu, B. K. Chang, Y. S. Qian, G. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Zong, “The evaluation system of negative electron affinity photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 614-622 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. P. Estrera, E. J. Bender, A. Giordana, J. W. Glesener, M. J. Iosue, P. P. Lin, and T. W. Sinor, “Long lifetime generation IV image intensifiers with unfilmed microchannel plate,” Proc. SPIE 4128, 46-53 (2000).

1995 (3)

T. W. Sinor, J. P. Estrera, D. L. Philips, and M. K. Rector, “Extended blue GaAs image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2551, 130-134 (1995).

Y. Beauvais, J. Chautemps, and P. D. Groot, “LLL TV imaging with GaAs photocathode/CCD detector,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 64A, 267-274 (1995).

H. K. Pollehn, “Performance and reliability of third-generation image intensifiers,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 64A, 61-69 (1995).

1992 (1)

W. Enloe, R. Scheldon, L. Reed, and A. Amith, “An electron-bombarded CCD image intensifier with a GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 1655, 41-49 (1992).

1974 (1)

D. G. Fisher, “The effect of Cs─O activation temperature on the surface escape probability of NEA (In,Ga) As photocathodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 21, 541-542(1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Y. Z. Liu, C. D. Hollish, and W. W. Stein, “LPE GaAs/(Ga,Al)As/GaAs transmission photocathodes and a simplified formula for transmission,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5619-5622(1973).

1970 (2)

G. A. Antypas, L. W. James, and J. J. Uebbing, “Operation of III-V semiconductor photocathodes in the semitransparent mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2888-2894 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Liu, J. L. Moll, and W. E. Spicer, “Quantum yield of GaAs semitransparent photocathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 60-62(1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. A. Turnbull and G. B. Evans, “Photoemission from GaAs─Cs─O,” J. Phys. D 1, 155-160 (1968).

1962 (1)

I. Kudman and T. Seidel, “Absorption edge in degenerate p-type GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 771-773 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Amith, A.

W. Enloe, R. Scheldon, L. Reed, and A. Amith, “An electron-bombarded CCD image intensifier with a GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 1655, 41-49 (1992).

Antypas, G. A.

G. A. Antypas, L. W. James, and J. J. Uebbing, “Operation of III-V semiconductor photocathodes in the semitransparent mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2888-2894 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Beauvais, Y.

Y. Beauvais, J. Chautemps, and P. D. Groot, “LLL TV imaging with GaAs photocathode/CCD detector,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 64A, 267-274 (1995).

Bender, E. J.

J. P. Estrera, E. J. Bender, A. Giordana, J. W. Glesener, M. J. Iosue, P. P. Lin, and T. W. Sinor, “Long lifetime generation IV image intensifiers with unfilmed microchannel plate,” Proc. SPIE 4128, 46-53 (2000).

Cao, X.

Y. P. Zeng, X. Cao, L. J. Cui, M. Y. Kong, L. Pan, B. Q. Wang, and Z. P. Zhu, “High quality metamophic HEMT grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 210, 227-228(2001).

Chang, B. K.

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, H. L. Chen, and L. Liu, “Variation of quantum yield curves of GaAs photocathodes under illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and Z. Yang, “Theoretical calculation of quantum yield for exponential-doping GaAs photocathode,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 2992-2997 (2007).

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, Y. P. Zeng, and H. Li, “Comparison between gradient-doping GaAs photocathode and uniform-doping photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7035-7039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Zou, Z. Yang, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, and B. K. Chang, “Activation experiments and quantum efficiency theory on gradient-doping GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67822R (2007).

J. J. Zou, L. Feng, G. Y. Lin, Y. T. Rao, Z. Yang, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “On-line measurement system of GaAs photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67823D(2007).

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, H. Wang, and P. Gao, “High-performance MBE GaAs photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 635237 (2006).

J. J. Zou and B. K. Chang, “Gradient doping negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes,” Opt. Eng. 45, 054001(2006).

X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, and M. Li, “High quantum efficiency GaAs photocathode by gradient doping,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1411-1414 (2005).

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and X. Q. Du, “Activation of gradient doping GaAs photocathodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 401-404 (2005).

X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, and Y. J. Du, “Influences of performance parameters of GaAs/AlGaAs materials on photoemission,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 201-208 (2003).

B. K. Chang, X. Q. Du, L. Liu, Z. Y. Zong, R. G. Fu, and Y. S. Qian, “The automatic recording system of dynamic spectral response and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 209-218(2003).

R. G. Fu, B. K. Chang, Y. S. Qian, G. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Zong, “The evaluation system of negative electron affinity photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 614-622 (2001).

Z. Y. Zong, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “Analysis of on-line measured spectral responses of NEA photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 623-631 (2001).

Y. S. Qian, Z. Y. Zong, and B. K. Chang, “Measurement of spectral response of photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 486-495 (2001).

Chautemps, J.

Y. Beauvais, J. Chautemps, and P. D. Groot, “LLL TV imaging with GaAs photocathode/CCD detector,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 64A, 267-274 (1995).

Chen, H. L.

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, H. L. Chen, and L. Liu, “Variation of quantum yield curves of GaAs photocathodes under illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. L.

Z. L. Xie, K. Qiu, Z. J. Yin, X. H. Fang, J. L. Chen, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optimization MBE technology growth of AlGaAs/GaAs modulation doped structure,” Micronanoelectronic Technol. 8, 22-25 (2002).

Cui, L. J.

Y. P. Zeng, X. Cao, L. J. Cui, M. Y. Kong, L. Pan, B. Q. Wang, and Z. P. Zhu, “High quality metamophic HEMT grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 210, 227-228(2001).

Dong, Y. Q.

Y. Z. Liu, Z. C. Wang, and Y. Q. Dong, Electron Emission and Photocathodes (Academic, 1995).

Du, X. Q.

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and X. Q. Du, “Activation of gradient doping GaAs photocathodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 401-404 (2005).

X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, and M. Li, “High quantum efficiency GaAs photocathode by gradient doping,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1411-1414 (2005).

X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, and Y. J. Du, “Influences of performance parameters of GaAs/AlGaAs materials on photoemission,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 201-208 (2003).

B. K. Chang, X. Q. Du, L. Liu, Z. Y. Zong, R. G. Fu, and Y. S. Qian, “The automatic recording system of dynamic spectral response and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 209-218(2003).

Du, Y. J.

X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, and Y. J. Du, “Influences of performance parameters of GaAs/AlGaAs materials on photoemission,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 201-208 (2003).

Enloe, W.

W. Enloe, R. Scheldon, L. Reed, and A. Amith, “An electron-bombarded CCD image intensifier with a GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 1655, 41-49 (1992).

Estrera, J. P.

J. P. Estrera, E. J. Bender, A. Giordana, J. W. Glesener, M. J. Iosue, P. P. Lin, and T. W. Sinor, “Long lifetime generation IV image intensifiers with unfilmed microchannel plate,” Proc. SPIE 4128, 46-53 (2000).

T. W. Sinor, J. P. Estrera, D. L. Philips, and M. K. Rector, “Extended blue GaAs image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2551, 130-134 (1995).

Evans, G. B.

A. A. Turnbull and G. B. Evans, “Photoemission from GaAs─Cs─O,” J. Phys. D 1, 155-160 (1968).

Fang, X. H.

Z. L. Xie, K. Qiu, Z. J. Yin, X. H. Fang, J. L. Chen, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optimization MBE technology growth of AlGaAs/GaAs modulation doped structure,” Micronanoelectronic Technol. 8, 22-25 (2002).

Feng, L.

J. J. Zou, L. Feng, G. Y. Lin, Y. T. Rao, Z. Yang, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “On-line measurement system of GaAs photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67823D(2007).

Fisher, D. G.

D. G. Fisher, “The effect of Cs─O activation temperature on the surface escape probability of NEA (In,Ga) As photocathodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 21, 541-542(1974).
[CrossRef]

Fu, R. G.

B. K. Chang, X. Q. Du, L. Liu, Z. Y. Zong, R. G. Fu, and Y. S. Qian, “The automatic recording system of dynamic spectral response and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 209-218(2003).

R. G. Fu, B. K. Chang, Y. S. Qian, G. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Zong, “The evaluation system of negative electron affinity photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 614-622 (2001).

Gao, P.

J. J. Zou, Z. Yang, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, and B. K. Chang, “Activation experiments and quantum efficiency theory on gradient-doping GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67822R (2007).

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, Y. P. Zeng, and H. Li, “Comparison between gradient-doping GaAs photocathode and uniform-doping photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7035-7039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, H. Wang, and P. Gao, “High-performance MBE GaAs photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 635237 (2006).

Giordana, A.

J. P. Estrera, E. J. Bender, A. Giordana, J. W. Glesener, M. J. Iosue, P. P. Lin, and T. W. Sinor, “Long lifetime generation IV image intensifiers with unfilmed microchannel plate,” Proc. SPIE 4128, 46-53 (2000).

Glesener, J. W.

J. P. Estrera, E. J. Bender, A. Giordana, J. W. Glesener, M. J. Iosue, P. P. Lin, and T. W. Sinor, “Long lifetime generation IV image intensifiers with unfilmed microchannel plate,” Proc. SPIE 4128, 46-53 (2000).

Groot, P. D.

Y. Beauvais, J. Chautemps, and P. D. Groot, “LLL TV imaging with GaAs photocathode/CCD detector,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 64A, 267-274 (1995).

Hollish, C. D.

Y. Z. Liu, C. D. Hollish, and W. W. Stein, “LPE GaAs/(Ga,Al)As/GaAs transmission photocathodes and a simplified formula for transmission,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5619-5622(1973).

Iosue, M. J.

J. P. Estrera, E. J. Bender, A. Giordana, J. W. Glesener, M. J. Iosue, P. P. Lin, and T. W. Sinor, “Long lifetime generation IV image intensifiers with unfilmed microchannel plate,” Proc. SPIE 4128, 46-53 (2000).

James, L. W.

G. A. Antypas, L. W. James, and J. J. Uebbing, “Operation of III-V semiconductor photocathodes in the semitransparent mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2888-2894 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. H.

Z. L. Xie, K. Qiu, Z. J. Yin, X. H. Fang, J. L. Chen, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optimization MBE technology growth of AlGaAs/GaAs modulation doped structure,” Micronanoelectronic Technol. 8, 22-25 (2002).

Kong, M. Y.

Y. P. Zeng, X. Cao, L. J. Cui, M. Y. Kong, L. Pan, B. Q. Wang, and Z. P. Zhu, “High quality metamophic HEMT grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 210, 227-228(2001).

Kudman, I.

I. Kudman and T. Seidel, “Absorption edge in degenerate p-type GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 771-773 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, M.

X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, and M. Li, “High quantum efficiency GaAs photocathode by gradient doping,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1411-1414 (2005).

Lin, G. Y.

J. J. Zou, L. Feng, G. Y. Lin, Y. T. Rao, Z. Yang, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “On-line measurement system of GaAs photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67823D(2007).

Lin, P. P.

J. P. Estrera, E. J. Bender, A. Giordana, J. W. Glesener, M. J. Iosue, P. P. Lin, and T. W. Sinor, “Long lifetime generation IV image intensifiers with unfilmed microchannel plate,” Proc. SPIE 4128, 46-53 (2000).

Liu, E. K.

E. K. Liu, B. S. Zhu, and J. S. Luo, Semiconducting Physics (Academic, 2003).

Liu, L.

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, H. L. Chen, and L. Liu, “Variation of quantum yield curves of GaAs photocathodes under illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Chang, X. Q. Du, L. Liu, Z. Y. Zong, R. G. Fu, and Y. S. Qian, “The automatic recording system of dynamic spectral response and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 209-218(2003).

Liu, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Liu, C. D. Hollish, and W. W. Stein, “LPE GaAs/(Ga,Al)As/GaAs transmission photocathodes and a simplified formula for transmission,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5619-5622(1973).

Y. Z. Liu, J. L. Moll, and W. E. Spicer, “Quantum yield of GaAs semitransparent photocathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 60-62(1970).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Liu, Z. C. Wang, and Y. Q. Dong, Electron Emission and Photocathodes (Academic, 1995).

Luo, J. S.

E. K. Liu, B. S. Zhu, and J. S. Luo, Semiconducting Physics (Academic, 2003).

Moll, J. L.

Y. Z. Liu, J. L. Moll, and W. E. Spicer, “Quantum yield of GaAs semitransparent photocathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 60-62(1970).
[CrossRef]

Pan, L.

Y. P. Zeng, X. Cao, L. J. Cui, M. Y. Kong, L. Pan, B. Q. Wang, and Z. P. Zhu, “High quality metamophic HEMT grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 210, 227-228(2001).

Philips, D. L.

T. W. Sinor, J. P. Estrera, D. L. Philips, and M. K. Rector, “Extended blue GaAs image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2551, 130-134 (1995).

Pollehn, H. K.

H. K. Pollehn, “Performance and reliability of third-generation image intensifiers,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 64A, 61-69 (1995).

Qian, Y. S.

J. J. Zou, L. Feng, G. Y. Lin, Y. T. Rao, Z. Yang, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “On-line measurement system of GaAs photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67823D(2007).

B. K. Chang, X. Q. Du, L. Liu, Z. Y. Zong, R. G. Fu, and Y. S. Qian, “The automatic recording system of dynamic spectral response and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 209-218(2003).

R. G. Fu, B. K. Chang, Y. S. Qian, G. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Zong, “The evaluation system of negative electron affinity photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 614-622 (2001).

Z. Y. Zong, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “Analysis of on-line measured spectral responses of NEA photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 623-631 (2001).

Y. S. Qian, Z. Y. Zong, and B. K. Chang, “Measurement of spectral response of photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 486-495 (2001).

Qiao, J. L.

J. J. Zou, Z. Yang, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, and B. K. Chang, “Activation experiments and quantum efficiency theory on gradient-doping GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67822R (2007).

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, Y. P. Zeng, and H. Li, “Comparison between gradient-doping GaAs photocathode and uniform-doping photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7035-7039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, K.

Z. L. Xie, K. Qiu, Z. J. Yin, X. H. Fang, J. L. Chen, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optimization MBE technology growth of AlGaAs/GaAs modulation doped structure,” Micronanoelectronic Technol. 8, 22-25 (2002).

Rao, Y. T.

J. J. Zou, L. Feng, G. Y. Lin, Y. T. Rao, Z. Yang, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “On-line measurement system of GaAs photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67823D(2007).

Rector, M. K.

T. W. Sinor, J. P. Estrera, D. L. Philips, and M. K. Rector, “Extended blue GaAs image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2551, 130-134 (1995).

Reed, L.

W. Enloe, R. Scheldon, L. Reed, and A. Amith, “An electron-bombarded CCD image intensifier with a GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 1655, 41-49 (1992).

Scheldon, R.

W. Enloe, R. Scheldon, L. Reed, and A. Amith, “An electron-bombarded CCD image intensifier with a GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 1655, 41-49 (1992).

Seidel, T.

I. Kudman and T. Seidel, “Absorption edge in degenerate p-type GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 771-773 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sinor, T. W.

J. P. Estrera, E. J. Bender, A. Giordana, J. W. Glesener, M. J. Iosue, P. P. Lin, and T. W. Sinor, “Long lifetime generation IV image intensifiers with unfilmed microchannel plate,” Proc. SPIE 4128, 46-53 (2000).

T. W. Sinor, J. P. Estrera, D. L. Philips, and M. K. Rector, “Extended blue GaAs image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2551, 130-134 (1995).

Spicer, W. E.

Y. Z. Liu, J. L. Moll, and W. E. Spicer, “Quantum yield of GaAs semitransparent photocathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 60-62(1970).
[CrossRef]

Stein, W. W.

Y. Z. Liu, C. D. Hollish, and W. W. Stein, “LPE GaAs/(Ga,Al)As/GaAs transmission photocathodes and a simplified formula for transmission,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5619-5622(1973).

Turnbull, A. A.

A. A. Turnbull and G. B. Evans, “Photoemission from GaAs─Cs─O,” J. Phys. D 1, 155-160 (1968).

Uebbing, J. J.

G. A. Antypas, L. W. James, and J. J. Uebbing, “Operation of III-V semiconductor photocathodes in the semitransparent mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2888-2894 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B. Q.

Y. P. Zeng, X. Cao, L. J. Cui, M. Y. Kong, L. Pan, B. Q. Wang, and Z. P. Zhu, “High quality metamophic HEMT grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 210, 227-228(2001).

Wang, G. H.

R. G. Fu, B. K. Chang, Y. S. Qian, G. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Zong, “The evaluation system of negative electron affinity photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 614-622 (2001).

Wang, H.

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, H. Wang, and P. Gao, “High-performance MBE GaAs photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 635237 (2006).

Wang, Z. C.

Y. Z. Liu, Z. C. Wang, and Y. Q. Dong, Electron Emission and Photocathodes (Academic, 1995).

Xie, Z. L.

Z. L. Xie, K. Qiu, Z. J. Yin, X. H. Fang, J. L. Chen, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optimization MBE technology growth of AlGaAs/GaAs modulation doped structure,” Micronanoelectronic Technol. 8, 22-25 (2002).

Yang, Z.

J. J. Zou, Z. Yang, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, and B. K. Chang, “Activation experiments and quantum efficiency theory on gradient-doping GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67822R (2007).

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and Z. Yang, “Theoretical calculation of quantum yield for exponential-doping GaAs photocathode,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 2992-2997 (2007).

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, Y. P. Zeng, and H. Li, “Comparison between gradient-doping GaAs photocathode and uniform-doping photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7035-7039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Zou, L. Feng, G. Y. Lin, Y. T. Rao, Z. Yang, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “On-line measurement system of GaAs photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67823D(2007).

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, H. Wang, and P. Gao, “High-performance MBE GaAs photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 635237 (2006).

Yin, Z. J.

Z. L. Xie, K. Qiu, Z. J. Yin, X. H. Fang, J. L. Chen, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optimization MBE technology growth of AlGaAs/GaAs modulation doped structure,” Micronanoelectronic Technol. 8, 22-25 (2002).

Zeng, Y. P.

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, Y. P. Zeng, and H. Li, “Comparison between gradient-doping GaAs photocathode and uniform-doping photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7035-7039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Zeng, X. Cao, L. J. Cui, M. Y. Kong, L. Pan, B. Q. Wang, and Z. P. Zhu, “High quality metamophic HEMT grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 210, 227-228(2001).

Zhu, B. S.

E. K. Liu, B. S. Zhu, and J. S. Luo, Semiconducting Physics (Academic, 2003).

Zhu, Z. P.

Y. P. Zeng, X. Cao, L. J. Cui, M. Y. Kong, L. Pan, B. Q. Wang, and Z. P. Zhu, “High quality metamophic HEMT grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 210, 227-228(2001).

Zong, Z. Y.

B. K. Chang, X. Q. Du, L. Liu, Z. Y. Zong, R. G. Fu, and Y. S. Qian, “The automatic recording system of dynamic spectral response and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 209-218(2003).

R. G. Fu, B. K. Chang, Y. S. Qian, G. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Zong, “The evaluation system of negative electron affinity photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 614-622 (2001).

Y. S. Qian, Z. Y. Zong, and B. K. Chang, “Measurement of spectral response of photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 486-495 (2001).

Z. Y. Zong, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “Analysis of on-line measured spectral responses of NEA photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 623-631 (2001).

Zou, J. J.

J. J. Zou, L. Feng, G. Y. Lin, Y. T. Rao, Z. Yang, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “On-line measurement system of GaAs photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67823D(2007).

J. J. Zou, Z. Yang, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, and B. K. Chang, “Activation experiments and quantum efficiency theory on gradient-doping GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67822R (2007).

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, H. L. Chen, and L. Liu, “Variation of quantum yield curves of GaAs photocathodes under illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, Y. P. Zeng, and H. Li, “Comparison between gradient-doping GaAs photocathode and uniform-doping photocathode,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7035-7039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and Z. Yang, “Theoretical calculation of quantum yield for exponential-doping GaAs photocathode,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 2992-2997 (2007).

J. J. Zou and B. K. Chang, “Gradient doping negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes,” Opt. Eng. 45, 054001(2006).

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, H. Wang, and P. Gao, “High-performance MBE GaAs photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 635237 (2006).

X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, and M. Li, “High quantum efficiency GaAs photocathode by gradient doping,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1411-1414 (2005).

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and X. Q. Du, “Activation of gradient doping GaAs photocathodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 401-404 (2005).

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, and M. Li, “High quantum efficiency GaAs photocathode by gradient doping,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25, 1411-1414 (2005).

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and Z. Yang, “Theoretical calculation of quantum yield for exponential-doping GaAs photocathode,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 2992-2997 (2007).

Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. (2)

Y. Beauvais, J. Chautemps, and P. D. Groot, “LLL TV imaging with GaAs photocathode/CCD detector,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 64A, 267-274 (1995).

H. K. Pollehn, “Performance and reliability of third-generation image intensifiers,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 64A, 61-69 (1995).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Z. Liu, J. L. Moll, and W. E. Spicer, “Quantum yield of GaAs semitransparent photocathodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 60-62(1970).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

D. G. Fisher, “The effect of Cs─O activation temperature on the surface escape probability of NEA (In,Ga) As photocathodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 21, 541-542(1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

I. Kudman and T. Seidel, “Absorption edge in degenerate p-type GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 771-773 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Liu, C. D. Hollish, and W. W. Stein, “LPE GaAs/(Ga,Al)As/GaAs transmission photocathodes and a simplified formula for transmission,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5619-5622(1973).

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, H. L. Chen, and L. Liu, “Variation of quantum yield curves of GaAs photocathodes under illumination,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033126 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Antypas, L. W. James, and J. J. Uebbing, “Operation of III-V semiconductor photocathodes in the semitransparent mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2888-2894 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. P. Zeng, X. Cao, L. J. Cui, M. Y. Kong, L. Pan, B. Q. Wang, and Z. P. Zhu, “High quality metamophic HEMT grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 210, 227-228(2001).

J. Phys. D (1)

A. A. Turnbull and G. B. Evans, “Photoemission from GaAs─Cs─O,” J. Phys. D 1, 155-160 (1968).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. J. Zou, B. K. Chang, and X. Q. Du, “Activation of gradient doping GaAs photocathodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 401-404 (2005).

Micronanoelectronic Technol. (1)

Z. L. Xie, K. Qiu, Z. J. Yin, X. H. Fang, J. L. Chen, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optimization MBE technology growth of AlGaAs/GaAs modulation doped structure,” Micronanoelectronic Technol. 8, 22-25 (2002).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. J. Zou and B. K. Chang, “Gradient doping negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes,” Opt. Eng. 45, 054001(2006).

Proc. SPIE (11)

W. Enloe, R. Scheldon, L. Reed, and A. Amith, “An electron-bombarded CCD image intensifier with a GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 1655, 41-49 (1992).

T. W. Sinor, J. P. Estrera, D. L. Philips, and M. K. Rector, “Extended blue GaAs image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2551, 130-134 (1995).

J. P. Estrera, E. J. Bender, A. Giordana, J. W. Glesener, M. J. Iosue, P. P. Lin, and T. W. Sinor, “Long lifetime generation IV image intensifiers with unfilmed microchannel plate,” Proc. SPIE 4128, 46-53 (2000).

J. J. Zou, Z. Yang, J. L. Qiao, P. Gao, and B. K. Chang, “Activation experiments and quantum efficiency theory on gradient-doping GaAs photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67822R (2007).

X. Q. Du, B. K. Chang, and Y. J. Du, “Influences of performance parameters of GaAs/AlGaAs materials on photoemission,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 201-208 (2003).

R. G. Fu, B. K. Chang, Y. S. Qian, G. H. Wang, and Z. Y. Zong, “The evaluation system of negative electron affinity photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 614-622 (2001).

B. K. Chang, X. Q. Du, L. Liu, Z. Y. Zong, R. G. Fu, and Y. S. Qian, “The automatic recording system of dynamic spectral response and its applications,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 209-218(2003).

J. J. Zou, L. Feng, G. Y. Lin, Y. T. Rao, Z. Yang, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “On-line measurement system of GaAs photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 6782, 67823D(2007).

Y. S. Qian, Z. Y. Zong, and B. K. Chang, “Measurement of spectral response of photocathodes and its application,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 486-495 (2001).

Z. Y. Zong, Y. S. Qian, and B. K. Chang, “Analysis of on-line measured spectral responses of NEA photocathodes,” Proc. SPIE 4580, 623-631 (2001).

Z. Yang, B. K. Chang, J. J. Zou, H. Wang, and P. Gao, “High-performance MBE GaAs photocathode,” Proc. SPIE 6352, 635237 (2006).

Other (2)

E. K. Liu, B. S. Zhu, and J. S. Luo, Semiconducting Physics (Academic, 2003).

Y. Z. Liu, Z. C. Wang, and Y. Q. Dong, Electron Emission and Photocathodes (Academic, 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electric potential and field within the ED GaAs cathode; relationship between (a) x and V ( x ) and (b) x and E ( x ) .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Band structure of the ED GaAs photocathode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

L D E - versus - A curves corresponding to different values of L D .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Doping structure diagram of GaAs photocathode grown by MBE: (a) sample 1 of UD structure and (b) sample 2 of ED structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimental spectral response curves for GaAs photocathode samples; (b) experimental (solid lines) and theoretical (dashed lines) quantum yield curves for GaAs photocathode samples.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption coefficient for sample 2 at 300 K .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of L D E Corresponding to the Different L D for A = 1.44 μm 1

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fitted Performance Parameters of Two Cathode Samples

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N ( x ) = N 0 exp ( A x ) ,
E ( x ) = d V ( x ) d x = k 0 T A q ,
D n d 2 Δ n ( x ) d x 2 = Δ n ( x ) τ ,
n t = D n 2 n x 2 μ n | E | n x μ n n | E | x Δ n τ + g n ,
D n d 2 Δ n d x 2 μ n | E | d Δ n d x Δ n τ = 0.
Δ n = ( Δ n ) 0 exp ( x / L D E ) ,
L D E = 1 2 ( L E 2 + 4 L D 2 + L E ) .
L D E = 1 2 ( A 2 L D 4 + 4 L D 2 + A L D 2 ) .
Y ( h ν ) = P · ( 1 R ) 1 + 1 / α h ν L D ( r     mode ) ,

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