Abstract

We employed the atomic layer deposition technique to grow Al2O3 films with nominal thicknesses of 400, 300, and 200nm on silicon and soda lime glass substrates. The optical properties of the films were investigated by measuring reflection spectra in the 4001800nm wavelength range, followed by numerical fitting assuming the Sellmeier formula for the refractive index of Al2O3. The films grown on glass substrates possess higher refractive indices as compared to the films on silicon. Optical waveguiding is demonstrated, confirming the feasibility of high-index contrast planar waveguides fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

E. Langereis, J. Keijmel, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Surface chemistry of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of AlO studied by infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Thitsa, Y. Song, and S. Albin, “Effect of oxidation, etching, and thin-film deposition on silicon photonic crystals,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, H351-H356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. B. S. Heil, P. Kudlacek, E. Langereis, R. Engeln, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ reaction mechanism studies of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of AlO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131505(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699-1705(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

R. L. Puurunen, “Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: a case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Hidalgo, Y. Berencen, and J. Rodriguez, “Prism coupling characterization of planar optical waveguides made by silver ion exchange in glass,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 3746(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

P. I. Räisänen, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 films using AlCl3 and Al(OiPr)3 as precursors,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 1415-1418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. J. Kelly and R. D. Arnell, “Magnetron sputtering: a review of recent developments and applications,” Vacuum 56, 159-172(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

A. W. Ott, J. W. Klaus, J. M. Johnson, and S. M. George, “Al3O3 thin film growth on Si (100) using binary reaction sequence chemistry,” Thin Solid Films 292, 135-144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, C. S. Park, S. I. Lee, and M. Y. Lee, “Substrate dependence on the optical properties of Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3604-3606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. T. Hunt, W. B. Carter, and J. K. Cochran, Jr., “Combustion chemical vapor deposition: a novel thin-film deposition technique, “Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 266-268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Toyoda, H. Kumagai, M. Matsumoto, and M. Obara, “Comparison study of Al2O3optical crystalline thin films grown by vapor combination of Al(CH3)3/N2O and Al(CH3)3/H2O2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6137-6140(1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. K. Singh and J. Narayan, “Pulsed-laser evaporation technique for deposition of thin films: Physics and theoretical model,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 8843-8859 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (2)

G. L. Yip and J. Albert, “Characterization of planar optical waveguides by K+-ion exchange in glass,” Opt. Lett. 10, 151-153 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rubin, “Optical constants and bulk optical properties of soda lime silica glasses for windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 12, 275-288 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

Albert, J.

Albin, S.

M. Thitsa, Y. Song, and S. Albin, “Effect of oxidation, etching, and thin-film deposition on silicon photonic crystals,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, H351-H356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699-1705(2006).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

Arnell, R. D.

P. J. Kelly and R. D. Arnell, “Magnetron sputtering: a review of recent developments and applications,” Vacuum 56, 159-172(2000).
[CrossRef]

Berencen, Y.

O. Hidalgo, Y. Berencen, and J. Rodriguez, “Prism coupling characterization of planar optical waveguides made by silver ion exchange in glass,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 3746(2005).
[CrossRef]

Canino, A.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carter, W. B.

A. T. Hunt, W. B. Carter, and J. K. Cochran, Jr., “Combustion chemical vapor deposition: a novel thin-film deposition technique, “Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 266-268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699-1705(2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699-1705(2006).
[CrossRef]

Cochran, J. K.

A. T. Hunt, W. B. Carter, and J. K. Cochran, Jr., “Combustion chemical vapor deposition: a novel thin-film deposition technique, “Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 266-268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

Engeln, R.

S. B. S. Heil, P. Kudlacek, E. Langereis, R. Engeln, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ reaction mechanism studies of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of AlO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131505(2006).
[CrossRef]

Fardad, M. A.

Fauchet, P. M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699-1705(2006).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, E. G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699-1705(2006).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, S. M.

A. W. Ott, J. W. Klaus, J. M. Johnson, and S. M. George, “Al3O3 thin film growth on Si (100) using binary reaction sequence chemistry,” Thin Solid Films 292, 135-144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haurylau, M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699-1705(2006).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, 1991).

Heil, S. B. S.

S. B. S. Heil, P. Kudlacek, E. Langereis, R. Engeln, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ reaction mechanism studies of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of AlO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131505(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hidalgo, O.

O. Hidalgo, Y. Berencen, and J. Rodriguez, “Prism coupling characterization of planar optical waveguides made by silver ion exchange in glass,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 3746(2005).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, A. T.

A. T. Hunt, W. B. Carter, and J. K. Cochran, Jr., “Combustion chemical vapor deposition: a novel thin-film deposition technique, “Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 266-268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Irrera, A.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. M.

A. W. Ott, J. W. Klaus, J. M. Johnson, and S. M. George, “Al3O3 thin film growth on Si (100) using binary reaction sequence chemistry,” Thin Solid Films 292, 135-144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keijmel, J.

E. Langereis, J. Keijmel, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Surface chemistry of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of AlO studied by infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, P. J.

P. J. Kelly and R. D. Arnell, “Magnetron sputtering: a review of recent developments and applications,” Vacuum 56, 159-172(2000).
[CrossRef]

Kessels, W. M. M.

E. Langereis, J. Keijmel, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Surface chemistry of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of AlO studied by infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. S. Heil, P. Kudlacek, E. Langereis, R. Engeln, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ reaction mechanism studies of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of AlO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131505(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, C. S. Park, S. I. Lee, and M. Y. Lee, “Substrate dependence on the optical properties of Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3604-3606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klaus, J. W.

A. W. Ott, J. W. Klaus, J. M. Johnson, and S. M. George, “Al3O3 thin film growth on Si (100) using binary reaction sequence chemistry,” Thin Solid Films 292, 135-144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kudlacek, P.

S. B. S. Heil, P. Kudlacek, E. Langereis, R. Engeln, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ reaction mechanism studies of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of AlO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131505(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, H.

K. Toyoda, H. Kumagai, M. Matsumoto, and M. Obara, “Comparison study of Al2O3optical crystalline thin films grown by vapor combination of Al(CH3)3/N2O and Al(CH3)3/H2O2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6137-6140(1993).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

Langereis, E.

E. Langereis, J. Keijmel, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Surface chemistry of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of AlO studied by infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. S. Heil, P. Kudlacek, E. Langereis, R. Engeln, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ reaction mechanism studies of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of AlO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131505(2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. Y.

Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, C. S. Park, S. I. Lee, and M. Y. Lee, “Substrate dependence on the optical properties of Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3604-3606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. I.

Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, C. S. Park, S. I. Lee, and M. Y. Lee, “Substrate dependence on the optical properties of Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3604-3606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, C. S. Park, S. I. Lee, and M. Y. Lee, “Substrate dependence on the optical properties of Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3604-3606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leskelä, M.

P. I. Räisänen, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 films using AlCl3 and Al(OiPr)3 as precursors,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 1415-1418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ritala and M. Leskelä, in Handbook of Thin Film Materials, H. S. Nalwa, ed. (Academic, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 103-159.

Liscidini, M.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lockwood, D. J.

D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, “Silicon fundamentals for photonics applications,” in Silicon Photonics, Vol. 94 of Top. Appl. Phys. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 1-50.
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, M.

K. Toyoda, H. Kumagai, M. Matsumoto, and M. Obara, “Comparison study of Al2O3optical crystalline thin films grown by vapor combination of Al(CH3)3/N2O and Al(CH3)3/H2O2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6137-6140(1993).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S.

Miritello, M.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

Narayan, J.

R. K. Singh and J. Narayan, “Pulsed-laser evaporation technique for deposition of thin films: Physics and theoretical model,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 8843-8859 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N. A.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1699-1705(2006).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

K. Toyoda, H. Kumagai, M. Matsumoto, and M. Obara, “Comparison study of Al2O3optical crystalline thin films grown by vapor combination of Al(CH3)3/N2O and Al(CH3)3/H2O2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6137-6140(1993).
[CrossRef]

Ott, A. W.

A. W. Ott, J. W. Klaus, J. M. Johnson, and S. M. George, “Al3O3 thin film growth on Si (100) using binary reaction sequence chemistry,” Thin Solid Films 292, 135-144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E.

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Park, C. S.

Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, C. S. Park, S. I. Lee, and M. Y. Lee, “Substrate dependence on the optical properties of Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3604-3606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Patrini, M.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, “Silicon fundamentals for photonics applications,” in Silicon Photonics, Vol. 94 of Top. Appl. Phys. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 1-50.
[CrossRef]

Politi, A.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Puurunen, R. L.

R. L. Puurunen, “Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: a case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Räisänen, P. I.

P. I. Räisänen, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 films using AlCl3 and Al(OiPr)3 as precursors,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 1415-1418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rikken, G.

H. P. Urbach and G. Rikken, “Spontaneous emission from a dielectric slab,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3913-3930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ritala, M.

P. I. Räisänen, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 films using AlCl3 and Al(OiPr)3 as precursors,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 1415-1418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ritala and M. Leskelä, in Handbook of Thin Film Materials, H. S. Nalwa, ed. (Academic, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 103-159.

Rodriguez, J.

O. Hidalgo, Y. Berencen, and J. Rodriguez, “Prism coupling characterization of planar optical waveguides made by silver ion exchange in glass,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 3746(2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, M.

M. Rubin, “Optical constants and bulk optical properties of soda lime silica glasses for windows,” Sol. Energy Mater. 12, 275-288 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sara, R.

Savio, R. L.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seligson, J.

Singh, R. K.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental and calculated reflection spectra for Al 2 O 3 films on (a) silicon and (b) soda lime glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MSE variation with respect to the scaling factor for refractive index and thickness of Al 2 O 3 films on (a) silicon and (b) soda lime glass.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index of Al 2 O 3 films on silicon and soda lime glass.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thicknesses of Al 2 O 3 films on silicon and soda lime glass.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic diagram of experiment and (b) mode excitation for Al 2 O 3 films on soda lime glass at 632.8 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Loss in Al 2 O 3 film waveguides at 632.8 nm .

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Sellmeier Coefficients for Al 2 O 3 Films

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Table 2 Range of Film Thickness, Mean Thickness, and Standard Deviation Obtained from Fit

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Table 3 Experimental and Calculated Effective Refractive Index for Al 2 O 3 Films on Soda Lime Glass at 632.8 nm

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R exp = R Calu ( C 0 + C 1 ( λ C 2 ) ) ,
MSE = 1 N i = 0 N ( R exp i R calc i σ i ) 2 ,
n f ( λ ) = A 0 + A 1 λ 2 λ 2 λ 1 2 ,
n eff = n P · sin ( φ + arcsin ( sin ( θ m ) n P ) ) ,
I = I 0 exp ( α x ) ,
α db = ( 10 / L ) log 10 ( α ) ,

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