Abstract

We have characterized the homogeneity of large-area (>10mm×10mm) CdTe(110) and ZnTe(110) crystals using a raster electro-optic scanning method to assess their usability in two-dimensional electro- optic terahertz (THz) imaging with parallel read out. The spatial variation in the detected THz signal (at 0.2 and 0.645THz, respectively) is due to nonuniform residual birefringence and scattering. For CdTe, this depends critically on the growth method, and has an important contribution from slip planes in the crystals, as is evident in the scanned images. For the highest-quality CdTe(110) crystals investigated, the rms signal variations are less than 15%, comparable to those for ZnTe(110). For electro-optic scanning, we introduce a hybrid measurement system based on a fs Nd:glass laser and a continuous-wave elec tronic THz source.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with range detection by frequency modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150F-1-8 (2009).

D. Molter, M. Theuer, and R. Beigang, “Nanosecond terahertz optical parametric oscillator with a novel quasi phase matching scheme in lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 17, 6623-6628(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

B. Hils, M. D. Thomson, T. Löffler, W. von Spiegel, C. am Weg, H. G. Roskos, P. de Maagt, D. Doyle, and R. D. Geckeler, “Terahertz profilometry at 600 GHz with 0.5 μm depth resolution,” Opt. Express 16, 11289-11293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lisauskas, W. von Spiegel, S. B. Tombet, A. E. Fatimy, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz imaging with GaAs field-effect transistors,” Electron. Lett. 44, 408-409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Highly efficient terahertz electro-optic sampling by material optimization at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5031-5035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

G. Molis, R. Adomavičius, A. Krotkus, K. Bertulis, L. Giniūnas, J. Pocius, and R. Danielius, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system based on femtosecond Yb:KGW laser,” Electron Lett. 43, 190-191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Hattori and M. Sakamoto, “Deformation corrected real-time terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111-1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Towards an active real-time THz camera: first realization of a hybrid system,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654907-1-7(2007).

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a yb-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006-2012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Pradarutti, R. Mueller, G. Matthaeus, C. Brueckner, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, “Multichannel balanced electro-optic detection for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 17652-17660 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. F. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, “Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, “Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 14, 7909-7913 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, C. Brückner, J. Limpert, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electrooptical sampling of ultra-short THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 1060 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 59-62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Berryman and T. Rainsford, “Classification of Terahertz data as a tool for the detection of cancer,” Proc. SPIE 6416, 64160X-1-10 (2006).

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, Z. H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric imaging of a concealed object,” Proc. SPIE 6373, 63730K-1-8 (2006).

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 114-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Loeffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134-S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. Roskos, “Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters,” Opt. Express 13, 5353-5362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

J. Darmo, V. Tamosiunas, G. Fasching, J. Kröll, and K. Unterrainer, “Imaging with a Terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 12, 1879-1884 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Chevalier, P. Dusserre, J. Garandet, and T. Duffar, “Dewetting application to CdTe single crystal growth on earth,” J. Cryst. Growth 261, 590-594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Szeles, “CdZnTe and CdTe materials for x-ray and gamma ray radiation detector applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 241, 783-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Hattori, K. Ohta, R. Rungsawang, and K. Tukamoto, “Phase-sensitive high-speed THz imaging,” J. Phys. D 37, 770-773 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Takahashi, A. Quema, M. Goto, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz radiation mechanism from femtosecond-laser-irradiated InAs(100) surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1259-L1261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by terahertz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996-3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Usami, T. Iwamoto, R. Fukasawa, M. Tani, M. Watanabe, and K. Sakai, “Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3749-3753 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Fochuk, O. Panchuk, P. Feychuk, L. Shcherbak, A. Savitskyi, O. Parfenyuk, M. Ilashchuk, M. Hage-Ali, and P. Siffert, “Indium dopant behaviour in CdTe single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 458, 104-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Hlídek, J. Bok, J. Franc, and R. Grill, “Refractive index of CdTe: spectral and temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1672-1674 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Milani, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Sangiovanni, A. Zappettini, and M. Martinelli, “Two-dimensional mapping of residual stress-induced birefringence in differently-grown semiconductors for optical communication applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 288, 205-208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, X. G. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Improvement of terahertz imaging with a dynamic subtraction technique,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2982-2987 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, “Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Szeles, E. E. Eissler, D. J. Reese, and S. E. Cameron, “Radiation detector performance of CdTe single crystals grown by the conventional vertical Bridgman technique,” Proc. SPIE 3768, 98-106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz imaging via electrooptic effect,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2644-2650(1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069-3071(1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323(1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Rudolph, A. Engel, I. Schentke, and A. Grochocki, “Distribution and genesis of inclusions in CdTe and (Cd,Zn)Te single crystals grown by the Bridgman method and by the travelling heater method,” J. Cryst. Growth 147, 297-304(1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Auslender and S. Hava, “Free carrier contribution to dynamic dielectric function of heavily doped semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 174, 565-574 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. W. Vere, S. Cole, and D. J. Williams, “The origins of twinning in CdTe,” J. Electron Mater. 12, 551-561 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Y. Marfaing, “Models of donor impurity compensation in cadmium telluride,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 12, 211-217 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Adomavicius, R.

G. Molis, R. Adomavičius, A. Krotkus, K. Bertulis, L. Giniūnas, J. Pocius, and R. Danielius, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system based on femtosecond Yb:KGW laser,” Electron Lett. 43, 190-191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alcin, A.

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111-1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Towards an active real-time THz camera: first realization of a hybrid system,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654907-1-7(2007).

Alexander, P.

Alton, J.

am Weg, C.

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with range detection by frequency modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150F-1-8 (2009).

B. Hils, M. D. Thomson, T. Löffler, W. von Spiegel, C. am Weg, H. G. Roskos, P. de Maagt, D. Doyle, and R. D. Geckeler, “Terahertz profilometry at 600 GHz with 0.5 μm depth resolution,” Opt. Express 16, 11289-11293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Towards an active real-time THz camera: first realization of a hybrid system,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654907-1-7(2007).

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111-1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auslender, M.

M. Auslender and S. Hava, “Free carrier contribution to dynamic dielectric function of heavily doped semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 174, 565-574 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, A.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, Z. H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric imaging of a concealed object,” Proc. SPIE 6373, 63730K-1-8 (2006).

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R. B.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, Z. H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric imaging of a concealed object,” Proc. SPIE 6373, 63730K-1-8 (2006).

Barbieri, S.

Beere, H. E.

Beigang, R.

D. Molter, M. Theuer, and R. Beigang, “Nanosecond terahertz optical parametric oscillator with a novel quasi phase matching scheme in lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 17, 6623-6628(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 114-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berryman, M.

M. Berryman and T. Rainsford, “Classification of Terahertz data as a tool for the detection of cancer,” Proc. SPIE 6416, 64160X-1-10 (2006).

Bertulis, K.

G. Molis, R. Adomavičius, A. Krotkus, K. Bertulis, L. Giniūnas, J. Pocius, and R. Danielius, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system based on femtosecond Yb:KGW laser,” Electron Lett. 43, 190-191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bessho, T.

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a yb-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006-2012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Syouji, S. Saito, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, M. Yoshida, and K. Sakai, “THz radiation from CdTe crystal by differential frequency generation under phase-matching conditions at 1000 nm system,” 2005 International Quantum Electronics Conference, 1336-1337 (IEEE, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Bok, J.

P. Hlídek, J. Bok, J. Franc, and R. Grill, “Refractive index of CdTe: spectral and temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1672-1674 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).

Brückner, C.

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, C. Brückner, J. Limpert, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electrooptical sampling of ultra-short THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 1060 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 59-62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brueckner, C.

Cameron, S. E.

C. Szeles, E. E. Eissler, D. J. Reese, and S. E. Cameron, “Radiation detector performance of CdTe single crystals grown by the conventional vertical Bridgman technique,” Proc. SPIE 3768, 98-106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

Chernovsky, A.

D. Zimdars, J. S. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, U. Mass. Dartmouth, N. Dartmouth, Massachusetts, 19 June 2006.

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N. Chevalier, P. Dusserre, J. Garandet, and T. Duffar, “Dewetting application to CdTe single crystal growth on earth,” J. Cryst. Growth 261, 590-594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
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A. W. Vere, S. Cole, and D. J. Williams, “The origins of twinning in CdTe,” J. Electron Mater. 12, 551-561 (1983).
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A. Lisauskas, W. von Spiegel, S. B. Tombet, A. E. Fatimy, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz imaging with GaAs field-effect transistors,” Electron. Lett. 44, 408-409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Danielius, R.

G. Molis, R. Adomavičius, A. Krotkus, K. Bertulis, L. Giniūnas, J. Pocius, and R. Danielius, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system based on femtosecond Yb:KGW laser,” Electron Lett. 43, 190-191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Darmo, J.

de Maagt, P.

Divin, C. J.

Doyle, D.

Duffar, T.

N. Chevalier, P. Dusserre, J. Garandet, and T. Duffar, “Dewetting application to CdTe single crystal growth on earth,” J. Cryst. Growth 261, 590-594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dusserre, P.

N. Chevalier, P. Dusserre, J. Garandet, and T. Duffar, “Dewetting application to CdTe single crystal growth on earth,” J. Cryst. Growth 261, 590-594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dyakonova, N.

A. Lisauskas, W. von Spiegel, S. B. Tombet, A. E. Fatimy, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz imaging with GaAs field-effect transistors,” Electron. Lett. 44, 408-409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eissler, E. E.

C. Szeles, E. E. Eissler, D. J. Reese, and S. E. Cameron, “Radiation detector performance of CdTe single crystals grown by the conventional vertical Bridgman technique,” Proc. SPIE 3768, 98-106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Engel, A.

P. Rudolph, A. Engel, I. Schentke, and A. Grochocki, “Distribution and genesis of inclusions in CdTe and (Cd,Zn)Te single crystals grown by the Bridgman method and by the travelling heater method,” J. Cryst. Growth 147, 297-304(1995).
[CrossRef]

Fasching, G.

Fatimy, A. E.

A. Lisauskas, W. von Spiegel, S. B. Tombet, A. E. Fatimy, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz imaging with GaAs field-effect transistors,” Electron. Lett. 44, 408-409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, Z. H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric imaging of a concealed object,” Proc. SPIE 6373, 63730K-1-8 (2006).

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feychuk, P.

P. Fochuk, O. Panchuk, P. Feychuk, L. Shcherbak, A. Savitskyi, O. Parfenyuk, M. Ilashchuk, M. Hage-Ali, and P. Siffert, “Indium dopant behaviour in CdTe single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 458, 104-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fichter, G.

D. Zimdars, J. S. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, U. Mass. Dartmouth, N. Dartmouth, Massachusetts, 19 June 2006.

Fochuk, P.

P. Fochuk, O. Panchuk, P. Feychuk, L. Shcherbak, A. Savitskyi, O. Parfenyuk, M. Ilashchuk, M. Hage-Ali, and P. Siffert, “Indium dopant behaviour in CdTe single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 458, 104-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Franc, J.

P. Hlídek, J. Bok, J. Franc, and R. Grill, “Refractive index of CdTe: spectral and temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1672-1674 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fukasawa, R.

M. Usami, T. Iwamoto, R. Fukasawa, M. Tani, M. Watanabe, and K. Sakai, “Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3749-3753 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galvanauskas, A.

Garandet, J.

N. Chevalier, P. Dusserre, J. Garandet, and T. Duffar, “Dewetting application to CdTe single crystal growth on earth,” J. Cryst. Growth 261, 590-594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D. E.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, Z. H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric imaging of a concealed object,” Proc. SPIE 6373, 63730K-1-8 (2006).

Geckeler, R. D.

Giniunas, L.

G. Molis, R. Adomavičius, A. Krotkus, K. Bertulis, L. Giniūnas, J. Pocius, and R. Danielius, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system based on femtosecond Yb:KGW laser,” Electron Lett. 43, 190-191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glaab, D.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).

Gladden, L. F.

Goto, M.

H. Takahashi, A. Quema, M. Goto, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz radiation mechanism from femtosecond-laser-irradiated InAs(100) surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1259-L1261 (2003).
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Grill, R.

P. Hlídek, J. Bok, J. Franc, and R. Grill, “Refractive index of CdTe: spectral and temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1672-1674 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Grochocki, A.

P. Rudolph, A. Engel, I. Schentke, and A. Grochocki, “Distribution and genesis of inclusions in CdTe and (Cd,Zn)Te single crystals grown by the Bridgman method and by the travelling heater method,” J. Cryst. Growth 147, 297-304(1995).
[CrossRef]

Hage-Ali, M.

P. Fochuk, O. Panchuk, P. Feychuk, L. Shcherbak, A. Savitskyi, O. Parfenyuk, M. Ilashchuk, M. Hage-Ali, and P. Siffert, “Indium dopant behaviour in CdTe single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 458, 104-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, T.

T. Löffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. Roskos, “Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters,” Opt. Express 13, 5353-5362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Loeffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134-S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, N.

T. Loeffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134-S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by terahertz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996-3998 (2003).
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Hattori, T.

T. Hattori and M. Sakamoto, “Deformation corrected real-time terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261106 (2007).
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T. Hattori, K. Ohta, R. Rungsawang, and K. Tukamoto, “Phase-sensitive high-speed THz imaging,” J. Phys. D 37, 770-773 (2004).
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Hava, S.

M. Auslender and S. Hava, “Free carrier contribution to dynamic dielectric function of heavily doped semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 174, 565-574 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323(1996).
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Helm, H.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, “Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 20, 595-604 (1999).
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C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069-3071(1997).
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Henneberger, R.

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with range detection by frequency modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150F-1-8 (2009).

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hils, B.

B. Hils, M. D. Thomson, T. Löffler, W. von Spiegel, C. am Weg, H. G. Roskos, P. de Maagt, D. Doyle, and R. D. Geckeler, “Terahertz profilometry at 600 GHz with 0.5 μm depth resolution,” Opt. Express 16, 11289-11293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Towards an active real-time THz camera: first realization of a hybrid system,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654907-1-7(2007).

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111-1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirosumi, T.

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a yb-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006-2012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Syouji, S. Saito, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, M. Yoshida, and K. Sakai, “THz radiation from CdTe crystal by differential frequency generation under phase-matching conditions at 1000 nm system,” 2005 International Quantum Electronics Conference, 1336-1337 (IEEE, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Hlídek, P.

P. Hlídek, J. Bok, J. Franc, and R. Grill, “Refractive index of CdTe: spectral and temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1672-1674 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ilashchuk, M.

P. Fochuk, O. Panchuk, P. Feychuk, L. Shcherbak, A. Savitskyi, O. Parfenyuk, M. Ilashchuk, M. Hage-Ali, and P. Siffert, “Indium dopant behaviour in CdTe single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 458, 104-112 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Imai, K.

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
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K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
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Ito, H.

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, T.

M. Usami, T. Iwamoto, R. Fukasawa, M. Tani, M. Watanabe, and K. Sakai, “Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3749-3753 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacob, F.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, X. G. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Improvement of terahertz imaging with a dynamic subtraction technique,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2982-2987 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz imaging via electrooptic effect,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2644-2650(1999).
[CrossRef]

Johns, M. L.

Katzenellenbogen, N.

Kawase, K.

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, “Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knap, W.

A. Lisauskas, W. von Spiegel, S. B. Tombet, A. E. Fatimy, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz imaging with GaAs field-effect transistors,” Electron. Lett. 44, 408-409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kress, M.

T. Loeffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134-S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kröll, J.

Krotkus, A.

G. Molis, R. Adomavičius, A. Krotkus, K. Bertulis, L. Giniūnas, J. Pocius, and R. Danielius, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system based on femtosecond Yb:KGW laser,” Electron Lett. 43, 190-191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 114-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, C. Brückner, J. Limpert, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electrooptical sampling of ultra-short THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 1060 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 59-62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. F. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, “Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lisauskas, A.

A. Lisauskas, W. von Spiegel, S. B. Tombet, A. E. Fatimy, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz imaging with GaAs field-effect transistors,” Electron. Lett. 44, 408-409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).

Liu, C.

Loeffler, T.

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with range detection by frequency modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150F-1-8 (2009).

T. Loeffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134-S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

B. Hils, M. D. Thomson, T. Löffler, W. von Spiegel, C. am Weg, H. G. Roskos, P. de Maagt, D. Doyle, and R. D. Geckeler, “Terahertz profilometry at 600 GHz with 0.5 μm depth resolution,” Opt. Express 16, 11289-11293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Towards an active real-time THz camera: first realization of a hybrid system,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654907-1-7(2007).

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111-1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Towards an active real-time THz camera: first realization of a hybrid system,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654907-1-7(2007).

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A. Syouji, S. Saito, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, M. Yoshida, and K. Sakai, “THz radiation from CdTe crystal by differential frequency generation under phase-matching conditions at 1000 nm system,” 2005 International Quantum Electronics Conference, 1336-1337 (IEEE, 2005).
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G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 114-117 (2006).
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B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Highly efficient terahertz electro-optic sampling by material optimization at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5031-5035 (2008).
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B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, C. Brückner, J. Limpert, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electrooptical sampling of ultra-short THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 1060 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 59-62 (2006).
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A. Syouji, S. Saito, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, M. Yoshida, and K. Sakai, “THz radiation from CdTe crystal by differential frequency generation under phase-matching conditions at 1000 nm system,” 2005 International Quantum Electronics Conference, 1336-1337 (IEEE, 2005).
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P. Fochuk, O. Panchuk, P. Feychuk, L. Shcherbak, A. Savitskyi, O. Parfenyuk, M. Ilashchuk, M. Hage-Ali, and P. Siffert, “Indium dopant behaviour in CdTe single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 458, 104-112 (2001).
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A. Milani, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Sangiovanni, A. Zappettini, and M. Martinelli, “Two-dimensional mapping of residual stress-induced birefringence in differently-grown semiconductors for optical communication applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 288, 205-208 (2000).
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B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Highly efficient terahertz electro-optic sampling by material optimization at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5031-5035 (2008).
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B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, C. Brückner, J. Limpert, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electrooptical sampling of ultra-short THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 1060 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 59-62 (2006).
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H. Takahashi, A. Quema, M. Goto, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz radiation mechanism from femtosecond-laser-irradiated InAs(100) surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1259-L1261 (2003).
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B. Pradarutti, R. Mueller, G. Matthaeus, C. Brueckner, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, “Multichannel balanced electro-optic detection for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 17652-17660 (2007).
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B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, C. Brückner, J. Limpert, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electrooptical sampling of ultra-short THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 1060 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 59-62 (2006).
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A. Lisauskas, W. von Spiegel, S. B. Tombet, A. E. Fatimy, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz imaging with GaAs field-effect transistors,” Electron. Lett. 44, 408-409 (2008).
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T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111-1-3 (2007).
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T. Loeffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134-S141 (2005).
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N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by terahertz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996-3998 (2003).
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A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a yb-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006-2012 (2007).
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H. Takahashi, A. Quema, M. Goto, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz radiation mechanism from femtosecond-laser-irradiated InAs(100) surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1259-L1261 (2003).
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P. Fochuk, O. Panchuk, P. Feychuk, L. Shcherbak, A. Savitskyi, O. Parfenyuk, M. Ilashchuk, M. Hage-Ali, and P. Siffert, “Indium dopant behaviour in CdTe single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 458, 104-112 (2001).
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A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a yb-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006-2012 (2007).
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A. Syouji, S. Saito, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, M. Yoshida, and K. Sakai, “THz radiation from CdTe crystal by differential frequency generation under phase-matching conditions at 1000 nm system,” 2005 International Quantum Electronics Conference, 1336-1337 (IEEE, 2005).
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A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a yb-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006-2012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Syouji, S. Saito, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, M. Yoshida, and K. Sakai, “THz radiation from CdTe crystal by differential frequency generation under phase-matching conditions at 1000 nm system,” 2005 International Quantum Electronics Conference, 1336-1337 (IEEE, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Szeles, C.

C. Szeles, “CdZnTe and CdTe materials for x-ray and gamma ray radiation detector applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 241, 783-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Szeles, E. E. Eissler, D. J. Reese, and S. E. Cameron, “Radiation detector performance of CdTe single crystals grown by the conventional vertical Bridgman technique,” Proc. SPIE 3768, 98-106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, A. Quema, M. Goto, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz radiation mechanism from femtosecond-laser-irradiated InAs(100) surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1259-L1261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamosiunas, V.

Tanaka, K.

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a yb-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006-2012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Syouji, S. Saito, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, M. Yoshida, and K. Sakai, “THz radiation from CdTe crystal by differential frequency generation under phase-matching conditions at 1000 nm system,” 2005 International Quantum Electronics Conference, 1336-1337 (IEEE, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

M. Usami, T. Iwamoto, R. Fukasawa, M. Tani, M. Watanabe, and K. Sakai, “Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3749-3753 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teppe, F.

A. Lisauskas, W. von Spiegel, S. B. Tombet, A. E. Fatimy, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz imaging with GaAs field-effect transistors,” Electron. Lett. 44, 408-409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Theuer, M.

Thomson, M.

T. Löffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. Roskos, “Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters,” Opt. Express 13, 5353-5362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Loeffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134-S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

B. Hils, M. D. Thomson, T. Löffler, W. von Spiegel, C. am Weg, H. G. Roskos, P. de Maagt, D. Doyle, and R. D. Geckeler, “Terahertz profilometry at 600 GHz with 0.5 μm depth resolution,” Opt. Express 16, 11289-11293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by terahertz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996-3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tombet, S. B.

A. Lisauskas, W. von Spiegel, S. B. Tombet, A. E. Fatimy, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz imaging with GaAs field-effect transistors,” Electron. Lett. 44, 408-409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torosyan, G.

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 114-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Triboulet, R.

R. Triboulet, “CdTe and CdZnTe Growth,” in Crystal Growth Technology, H. J. Scheel and T. Fukuda, eds. (Wiley, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

Tukamoto, K.

T. Hattori, K. Ohta, R. Rungsawang, and K. Tukamoto, “Phase-sensitive high-speed THz imaging,” J. Phys. D 37, 770-773 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Highly efficient terahertz electro-optic sampling by material optimization at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5031-5035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, C. Brückner, J. Limpert, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electrooptical sampling of ultra-short THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 1060 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 59-62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 114-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uhd Jepsen, P.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069-3071(1997).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

Usami, M.

M. Usami, T. Iwamoto, R. Fukasawa, M. Tani, M. Watanabe, and K. Sakai, “Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3749-3753 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vere, A. W.

A. W. Vere, S. Cole, and D. J. Williams, “The origins of twinning in CdTe,” J. Electron Mater. 12, 551-561 (1983).
[CrossRef]

von Spiegel, W.

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with range detection by frequency modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150F-1-8 (2009).

A. Lisauskas, W. von Spiegel, S. B. Tombet, A. E. Fatimy, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz imaging with GaAs field-effect transistors,” Electron. Lett. 44, 408-409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Hils, M. D. Thomson, T. Löffler, W. von Spiegel, C. am Weg, H. G. Roskos, P. de Maagt, D. Doyle, and R. D. Geckeler, “Terahertz profilometry at 600 GHz with 0.5 μm depth resolution,” Opt. Express 16, 11289-11293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

M. Usami, T. Iwamoto, R. Fukasawa, M. Tani, M. Watanabe, and K. Sakai, “Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3749-3753 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323(1996).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

D. Zimdars, J. S. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, U. Mass. Dartmouth, N. Dartmouth, Massachusetts, 19 June 2006.

Williams, D. J.

A. W. Vere, S. Cole, and D. J. Williams, “The origins of twinning in CdTe,” J. Electron Mater. 12, 551-561 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, S.

D. Zimdars, J. S. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, U. Mass. Dartmouth, N. Dartmouth, Massachusetts, 19 June 2006.

Williamson, S. L.

Winnewisser, C.

C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069-3071(1997).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worrall, C. H.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. G.

Yoshida, M.

A. Syouji, S. Saito, K. Sakai, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Evaluation of a terahertz wave spectrum and construction of a terahertz wave-sensing system using a yb-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2006-2012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Syouji, S. Saito, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, M. Yoshida, and K. Sakai, “THz radiation from CdTe crystal by differential frequency generation under phase-matching conditions at 1000 nm system,” 2005 International Quantum Electronics Conference, 1336-1337 (IEEE, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Zappettini, A.

A. Milani, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Sangiovanni, A. Zappettini, and M. Martinelli, “Two-dimensional mapping of residual stress-induced birefringence in differently-grown semiconductors for optical communication applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 288, 205-208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Z. Jiang, X. G. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Improvement of terahertz imaging with a dynamic subtraction technique,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2982-2987 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz imaging via electrooptic effect,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2644-2650(1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, Z. H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric imaging of a concealed object,” Proc. SPIE 6373, 63730K-1-8 (2006).

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zimdars, J. S. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, U. Mass. Dartmouth, N. Dartmouth, Massachusetts, 19 June 2006.

Zimmermann, R.

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with range detection by frequency modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150F-1-8 (2009).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, C. Brückner, J. Limpert, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electrooptical sampling of ultra-short THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 1060 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 59-62 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

T. Hattori and M. Sakamoto, “Deformation corrected real-time terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323(1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069-3071(1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by terahertz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996-3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091111-1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1026-1028 (2001).
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K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, and H. Ito, “Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).
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G. Molis, R. Adomavičius, A. Krotkus, K. Bertulis, L. Giniūnas, J. Pocius, and R. Danielius, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system based on femtosecond Yb:KGW laser,” Electron Lett. 43, 190-191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Lisauskas, W. von Spiegel, S. B. Tombet, A. E. Fatimy, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz imaging with GaAs field-effect transistors,” Electron. Lett. 44, 408-409 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz imaging via electrooptic effect,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2644-2650(1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Milli. (1)

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, “Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 20, 595-604 (1999).
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P. Rudolph, A. Engel, I. Schentke, and A. Grochocki, “Distribution and genesis of inclusions in CdTe and (Cd,Zn)Te single crystals grown by the Bridgman method and by the travelling heater method,” J. Cryst. Growth 147, 297-304(1995).
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A. W. Vere, S. Cole, and D. J. Williams, “The origins of twinning in CdTe,” J. Electron Mater. 12, 551-561 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

T. Hattori, K. Ohta, R. Rungsawang, and K. Tukamoto, “Phase-sensitive high-speed THz imaging,” J. Phys. D 37, 770-773 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Takahashi, A. Quema, M. Goto, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Terahertz radiation mechanism from femtosecond-laser-irradiated InAs(100) surface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1259-L1261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (1)

A. Milani, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Sangiovanni, A. Zappettini, and M. Martinelli, “Two-dimensional mapping of residual stress-induced birefringence in differently-grown semiconductors for optical communication applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 288, 205-208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. (1)

P. Fochuk, O. Panchuk, P. Feychuk, L. Shcherbak, A. Savitskyi, O. Parfenyuk, M. Ilashchuk, M. Hage-Ali, and P. Siffert, “Indium dopant behaviour in CdTe single crystals,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 458, 104-112 (2001).
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Opt. Commun. (2)

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Highly efficient terahertz electro-optic sampling by material optimization at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5031-5035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Matthäus, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, G. Torosyan, R. Beigang, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tünnermann, “Surface-emitted THz generation using a compact ultrashort pulse fiber amplifier at 1060 nm,” Opt. Commun. 261, 114-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

T. Löffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. Roskos, “Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters,” Opt. Express 13, 5353-5362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. F. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, “Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 14, 2123-2129 (2006).
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J. Darmo, V. Tamosiunas, G. Fasching, J. Kröll, and K. Unterrainer, “Imaging with a Terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 12, 1879-1884 (2004).
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B. Hils, M. D. Thomson, T. Löffler, W. von Spiegel, C. am Weg, H. G. Roskos, P. de Maagt, D. Doyle, and R. D. Geckeler, “Terahertz profilometry at 600 GHz with 0.5 μm depth resolution,” Opt. Express 16, 11289-11293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Molter, M. Theuer, and R. Beigang, “Nanosecond terahertz optical parametric oscillator with a novel quasi phase matching scheme in lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 17, 6623-6628(2009).
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B. Pradarutti, R. Mueller, G. Matthaeus, C. Brueckner, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, “Multichannel balanced electro-optic detection for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 17652-17660 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chang, C. J. Divin, C. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, “Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 14, 7909-7913 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

M. Usami, T. Iwamoto, R. Fukasawa, M. Tani, M. Watanabe, and K. Sakai, “Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3749-3753 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3853-3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
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C. Szeles, “CdZnTe and CdTe materials for x-ray and gamma ray radiation detector applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 241, 783-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

C. Szeles, E. E. Eissler, D. J. Reese, and S. E. Cameron, “Radiation detector performance of CdTe single crystals grown by the conventional vertical Bridgman technique,” Proc. SPIE 3768, 98-106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Berryman and T. Rainsford, “Classification of Terahertz data as a tool for the detection of cancer,” Proc. SPIE 6416, 64160X-1-10 (2006).

A. M. Sinyukov, A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, Z. H. Michalopoulou, D. Zimdars, and J. F. Federici, “Terahertz interferometric imaging of a concealed object,” Proc. SPIE 6373, 63730K-1-8 (2006).

T. May, C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Towards an active real-time THz camera: first realization of a hybrid system,” Proc. SPIE 6549, 654907-1-7(2007).

C. am Weg, W. von Spiegel, R. Henneberger, R. Zimmermann, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Fast active THz camera with range detection by frequency modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150F-1-8 (2009).

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J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications--explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Loeffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. G. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S134-S141 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. Zimdars, J. S. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, “Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications,” presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, U. Mass. Dartmouth, N. Dartmouth, Massachusetts, 19 June 2006.

A. Lisauskas, U. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolivar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114511 (2009).

A. Syouji, S. Saito, M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, M. Yoshida, and K. Sakai, “THz radiation from CdTe crystal by differential frequency generation under phase-matching conditions at 1000 nm system,” 2005 International Quantum Electronics Conference, 1336-1337 (IEEE, 2005).
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R. Triboulet, “CdTe and CdZnTe Growth,” in Crystal Growth Technology, H. J. Scheel and T. Fukuda, eds. (Wiley, 2003).
[CrossRef]

“II-VI semiconductors for optoelectronics: CdS, CdSe, CdTe,” in Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials, S. Kasap and P. Capper, eds. (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Contour plot of the calculated coherence length of Cd Te ( 110 ) versus THz frequency ( 0.5 3 THz ) and optical wavelength ( 900 1150 nm ) based on refractive index spectral data from the literature [38, 39]. The inner and outer pair of black curves show the 3 and 1 mm border lines, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

THz refractive index and absorption coefficient of two Cd Te ( 110 ) crystals (undoped and In-compensation-doped), including a comparison with literature data [39, 40].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the hybrid THz system, including 2D raster scanning of the large-area EO crystals in the cross-polarizer signal detection arm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

2D raster-scan images of the THz signal for different EO crystals, as detailed in text: undoped and In-compensation-doped 1 mm -thick Cd Te ( 110 ) (C-1 and C-2, respectively, Keystone Crystal Corporation); 2 mm -thick Cd Te ( 110 ) (C-3, Cradley Crystals); 1 mm -thick Cd Te ( 110 ) (C-4, Moltech GmbH); and a 2 mm -thick Zn Te ( 110 ) crystal. (a)–(c) Measurements with 0.645 THz ; (d)–(g) with 0.2 THz . (h) Histogram of relative EO signal strengths for the images in (d)–(g) (data region used for analysis indicated by dashed rectangles).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Residual optical birefringence of the Cd Te ( 110 ) crystal from Cradley Crystals [(c) and (e) in Fig. 4] measured by a con ventional crossed-polarizer setup using the expanded Nd:glass laser beam.

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