Abstract

We report a double feedback loop for the improvement of the carrier-envelope phase stabilization of a chirped mirror based femtosecond laser oscillator. By combining the control of the Ti:sapphire crystal temperature and the modulation of the pump power, the carrier envelope offset frequency, fCEO, was locked for close to 20 h, which is much longer than the typical phase stabilization time with only pump power modulation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 30 femtosecond lasers,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.
  4. V. Roudnev, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Controlling HD+ and H2+ dissociation with the carrier-envelope phase difference of an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163601 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hansch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Yu, K. Hong, H. Choi, J. Sung, I. Choi, D. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. Kim, and C. Nam, “Precise and long-term stabilization of carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique,” Opt. Express 15, 8203-8211 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Lee, Y. Lee, J. Park, T. Yu, and C. Nam, “Long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 16, 12624-12631(2008).
    [PubMed]
  13. R. Ell, J. R. Birge, M. Araghchini, and F. X. Kartner, “Carrier-envelope phase control by a composite plate,” Opt. Express 14, 5829-5837 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Moon, H. Wang, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Advances in carrier-envelope phase stabilization of grating-based chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. E. Thomas, S. K. Andersson, R. M. Sova, and R. I. Joseph, “Frequency and temperature dependence of the refractive index of sapphire,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 235-249(1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moon, H. Wang, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Advances in carrier-envelope phase stabilization of grating-based chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, Y. Lee, J. Park, T. Yu, and C. Nam, “Long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser by the direct locking method,” Opt. Express 16, 12624-12631(2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hansch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. Roudnev, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Controlling HD+ and H2+ dissociation with the carrier-envelope phase difference of an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. E. Thomas, S. K. Andersson, R. M. Sova, and R. I. Joseph, “Frequency and temperature dependence of the refractive index of sapphire,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 235-249(1998).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, S. K.

M. E. Thomas, S. K. Andersson, R. M. Sova, and R. I. Joseph, “Frequency and temperature dependence of the refractive index of sapphire,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 235-249(1998).
[CrossRef]

Anis, F.

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hansch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araghchini, M.

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birge, J. R.

Carnes, K. D.

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moon, H. Wang, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Advances in carrier-envelope phase stabilization of grating-based chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 30 femtosecond lasers,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Chen, S.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chini, M.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moon, H. Wang, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Advances in carrier-envelope phase stabilization of grating-based chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 30 femtosecond lasers,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Choi, H.

Choi, I.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ell, R.

Esry, B. D.

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Roudnev, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Controlling HD+ and H2+ dissociation with the carrier-envelope phase difference of an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 30 femtosecond lasers,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Fuji, T.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hansch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaire, B.

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbertson, S.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moon, H. Wang, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Advances in carrier-envelope phase stabilization of grating-based chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 30 femtosecond lasers,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Gohle, C.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hansch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hansch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, K.

Hua, J. J.

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzhak, I. B.

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Roudnev, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Controlling HD+ and H2+ dissociation with the carrier-envelope phase difference of an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, N. G.

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joseph, R. I.

M. E. Thomas, S. K. Andersson, R. M. Sova, and R. I. Joseph, “Frequency and temperature dependence of the refractive index of sapphire,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 235-249(1998).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

Khan, S. D.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 30 femtosecond lasers,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

Kim, J.

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, D.

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hansch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Lee, Y.

Lehnert, W.

Mashiko, H.

E. Moon, H. Wang, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Advances in carrier-envelope phase stabilization of grating-based chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 30 femtosecond lasers,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Mckenna, J.

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, E.

E. Moon, H. Wang, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Advances in carrier-envelope phase stabilization of grating-based chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, C. M.

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C.

Park, J.

Parke, E.

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hansch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roudnev, V.

V. Roudnev, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Controlling HD+ and H2+ dissociation with the carrier-envelope phase difference of an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayler, A. M.

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, M.

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sova, R. M.

M. E. Thomas, S. K. Andersson, R. M. Sova, and R. I. Joseph, “Frequency and temperature dependence of the refractive index of sapphire,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 235-249(1998).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sung, J.

Tempea, G.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hansch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. E.

M. E. Thomas, S. K. Andersson, R. M. Sova, and R. I. Joseph, “Frequency and temperature dependence of the refractive index of sapphire,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 235-249(1998).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hansch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacher, M.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moon, H. Wang, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Advances in carrier-envelope phase stabilization of grating-based chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 30 femtosecond lasers,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 30 femtosecond lasers,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hansch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332-334 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T.

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

M. E. Thomas, S. K. Andersson, R. M. Sova, and R. I. Joseph, “Frequency and temperature dependence of the refractive index of sapphire,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 235-249(1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

E. Moon, H. Wang, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Advances in carrier-envelope phase stabilization of grating-based chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacher, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, C. Gohle, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of optical waveforms,” New J. Phys. 7, 116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

V. Roudnev, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Controlling HD+ and H2+ dissociation with the carrier-envelope phase difference of an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 163601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mckenna, A. M. Sayler, F. Anis, B. Gaire, N. G. Johnson, E. Parke, J. J. Hua, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, Z. Chang, K. D. Carnes, B. D. Esry, and I. B. Itzhak, “Enhancing high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2+ beams with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614-1617(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 30 femtosecond lasers,” submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the octave-spanning oscillator and double feedback control loops. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; L, pump lens; OC, broadband output-coupler on a fused-silica wedge; WP, wedge pair; PD, photodiode; APD, avalanche photodiode; LP filter, low pass filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relationship of beat signal f CEO and temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) 20 h CEP stabilization achieved by employing the double feedback loop; the black curve shows the AOM driving voltage output; the red curve shows the temperature of the chiller; (b) Phase error during the process of CEP stabilization, and the rms of the CEP error is 420 mrad .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase-noise power spectral density (PSD) and integrated CE-phase error calculated from Δ φ RMS = [ 2 ( 1 / τ obs ) S φ ( ν ) d ν ] 1 / 2 . S φ ( ν ) , power spectral density; Δ φ RMS , root mean square (RMS) fluctuations in the carrier-envelope phase; τ obs , observation time.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f CEO = f rep L d n d λ ,
d f CEO d T = f rep ω 0 2 L 2 π c d 2 n ( ω , T ) d ω d T + d f rep d T ω 0 2 L 2 π c d n ( ω , T ) d ω = f rep ω 0 2 L 2 π c d 2 n ( ω , T ) d ω d T + d n ( ω , T ) d T ω 0 2 L 2 π c 2 d n ( ω , T ) d ω ,

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