Abstract

We describe a high fidelity simulation method for estimating the sky coverage of multiconjugate adaptive optics systems; this method is based upon the split tomography control architecture, and employs an AO simulation postprocessing technique to evaluate system performance with hundreds of randomly generated natural guide star (NGS) asterisms. A novel technique to model the impact of quadratic wavefront aberrations upon the NGS point spread functions is described; this is used to model the variations in system performance with different asterisms, and is crucial for obtaining accurate results with the postprocessing technique. Several design and algorithm improvements help to reduce the residual wavefront error in the tip/tilt and plate scale modes that are controlled using the NGS asterism. These improvements include choosing the right wavefront sensor (WFS) pixel size, optimal pixel weights, and type II control of the plate scale modes.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Le Louarn, N. N. Hubin, and R. Arsenault, “Adaptive optics for second-generation VLT instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 248-259 (2004) .
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conon, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Panchon and Cerro Tololo,” Gemini Document RTP-AO-G0094 (Gemini Observatory, 2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. C. Willott, Univeristy of Ottawa, Department of Physics, 150 Louis Pasteur, MacDonald Hall, Ottawa Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada.
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  19. G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: centroiding versus matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6568-6576 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. M. S. Bessell and J. M. Brett, “JHKLM photometry: standard systems, passbands, and intrinsic colors,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 100, 1134-1151 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2008

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Split atmospheric tomography using laser and natural guide stars,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2427-2435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J.-P. Véran and G. Herriot, “Woofer-tweeter tip-tilt control for NFIRAOS on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 627262721R(2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, B. Ellerbroek, and J.-P. Véran, “Laser guide star multi-conjugate adaptive optics performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope with elongated beacons and matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: centroiding versus matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6568-6576 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Clare, B. L. Ellerbroek, G. Herriot, and J.-P. Véran, “Adaptive optics sky coverage modeling for extremely large telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8964-8978 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Clare and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Sky coverage estimates for adaptive optics systems from computations in Zernike space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 418-426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Le Louarn, N. N. Hubin, and R. Arsenault, “Adaptive optics for second-generation VLT instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 248-259 (2004) .
[CrossRef]

2003

A. C. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, “A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way,” Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

1988

M. S. Bessell and J. M. Brett, “JHKLM photometry: standard systems, passbands, and intrinsic colors,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 100, 1134-1151 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Adkins, S.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Agabi, A.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conon, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Panchon and Cerro Tololo,” Gemini Document RTP-AO-G0094 (Gemini Observatory, 2000).

Andersen, D.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Andersen, NRC HIA, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7, Canada.

Arcidiacono, C.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arriagada, G.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, R.

M. Le Louarn, N. N. Hubin, and R. Arsenault, “Adaptive optics for second-generation VLT instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 248-259 (2004) .
[CrossRef]

Atwood, J.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Avila, R.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conon, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Panchon and Cerro Tololo,” Gemini Document RTP-AO-G0094 (Gemini Observatory, 2000).

Azouit, M.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conon, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Panchon and Cerro Tololo,” Gemini Document RTP-AO-G0094 (Gemini Observatory, 2000).

Baruffolo, A.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bec, M.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

Bellazzini, M.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bessell, M. S.

M. S. Bessell and J. M. Brett, “JHKLM photometry: standard systems, passbands, and intrinsic colors,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 100, 1134-1151 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Biliotti, V.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boccas, M.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouchez, A. H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, C.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bregoli, G.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brett, J. M.

M. S. Bessell and J. M. Brett, “JHKLM photometry: standard systems, passbands, and intrinsic colors,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 100, 1134-1151 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. G.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Busoni, L.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Byrnes, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R. D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, S.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. C. Y.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ciliegi, P.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clare, R.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

Clare, R. M.

Conan, J.-M.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conon, R.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conon, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Panchon and Cerro Tololo,” Gemini Document RTP-AO-G0094 (Gemini Observatory, 2000).

Contos, A. R.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cosentino, G.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Danforth, P. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Derrière, S.

A. C. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, “A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way,” Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diolaiti, E.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

D'Odorico, S.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

d'Orgeville, C.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbers, A.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, B. Ellerbroek, and J.-P. Véran, “Laser guide star multi-conjugate adaptive optics performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope with elongated beacons and matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: centroiding versus matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6568-6576 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ellerbroek, “A high fidelity, physical optics sky coverage simulation tool for laser guide star multi-conjugate and multi-object ao systems,” CFAO Proposal (2008). [Available upon request]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Esposito, S.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farinato, J.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foppiani, I.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, L.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Split atmospheric tomography using laser and natural guide stars,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2427-2435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gilles and B. Ellerbroek, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons: centroiding versus matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6568-6576 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gilles, B. Ellerbroek, and J.-P. Véran, “Laser guide star multi-conjugate adaptive optics performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope with elongated beacons and matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grace, K.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, S. K.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, G.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Clare, B. L. Ellerbroek, G. Herriot, and J.-P. Véran, “Adaptive optics sky coverage modeling for extremely large telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8964-8978 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Véran and G. Herriot, “Woofer-tweeter tip-tilt control for NFIRAOS on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 627262721R(2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Veran and G. Herriot, “Type II woofer-tweeter control for NFIRAOS on TMT,” in OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, to be published).

Hickson, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

Hileman, E.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N. N.

M. Le Louarn, N. N. Hubin, and R. Arsenault, “Adaptive optics for second-generation VLT instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 248-259 (2004) .
[CrossRef]

Innocenti, G.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Irarrazaval, B.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

James, E.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, E. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joyce, D.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karewicz, S.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

Lafon, R. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Louarn, M.

M. Le Louarn, N. N. Hubin, and R. Arsenault, “Adaptive optics for second-generation VLT instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 248-259 (2004) .
[CrossRef]

Le Mignant, D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leckie, B.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, M.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lombini, M.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Looze, D.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, F.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conon, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Panchon and Cerro Tololo,” Gemini Document RTP-AO-G0094 (Gemini Observatory, 2000).

Masciadri, E.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conon, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Panchon and Cerro Tololo,” Gemini Document RTP-AO-G0094 (Gemini Observatory, 2000).

Max, C. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neichel, B.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pennington, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petit, C.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfrommer, T.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Picaud, S.

A. C. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, “A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way,” Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quiros-Pacheco, F.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reylé, C.

A. C. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, “A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way,” Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek and F. Rigaut, “Methods for correcting tilt anisoplanatism in laser-guide-star-based multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2539-2547(2001).
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robin, A. C.

A. C. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, “A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way,” Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, L.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conon, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Panchon and Cerro Tololo,” Gemini Document RTP-AO-G0094 (Gemini Observatory, 2000).

Schreiber, L.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

She, C.-Y.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, M.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

Sinquin, J.-C.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stomski, P. J.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summers, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M. A.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veran, J.-P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Veran and G. Herriot, “Type II woofer-tweeter control for NFIRAOS on TMT,” in OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, to be published).

Véran, J.-P.

R. M. Clare, B. L. Ellerbroek, G. Herriot, and J.-P. Véran, “Adaptive optics sky coverage modeling for extremely large telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8964-8978 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gilles, B. Ellerbroek, and J.-P. Véran, “Laser guide star multi-conjugate adaptive optics performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope with elongated beacons and matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Véran and G. Herriot, “Woofer-tweeter tip-tilt control for NFIRAOS on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 627262721R(2006).
[CrossRef]

Vernin, J.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conon, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Panchon and Cerro Tololo,” Gemini Document RTP-AO-G0094 (Gemini Observatory, 2000).

Wang, L.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welle, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

Willott, C.

C. Willott, Univeristy of Ottawa, Department of Physics, 150 Louis Pasteur, MacDonald Hall, Ottawa Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada.

Wizinowich, P. L.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ziad, A.

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conon, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Panchon and Cerro Tololo,” Gemini Document RTP-AO-G0094 (Gemini Observatory, 2000).

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

A. C. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, “A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way,” Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J.-P. Véran and G. Herriot, “Woofer-tweeter tip-tilt control for NFIRAOS on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 627262721R(2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. Ellerbroek, J.-P. Véran, C.-Y. She, R. Clare, and D. Looze, “Focus errors from tracking sodium layer altitude variations with laser guide star adaptive optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721I(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d'Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Le Louarn, N. N. Hubin, and R. Arsenault, “Adaptive optics for second-generation VLT instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 248-259 (2004) .
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D'Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, B. Ellerbroek, and J.-P. Véran, “Laser guide star multi-conjugate adaptive optics performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope with elongated beacons and matched filtering,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac.

M. S. Bessell and J. M. Brett, “JHKLM photometry: standard systems, passbands, and intrinsic colors,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 100, 1134-1151 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Vernin, A. Agabi, R. Avila, M. Azouit, R. Conon, F. Martin, E. Masciadri, L. Sanchez, and A. Ziad, “1998 Gemini site testing campaign: Cerro Panchon and Cerro Tololo,” Gemini Document RTP-AO-G0094 (Gemini Observatory, 2000).

http://model.obs-besancon.fr/.

C. Willott, Univeristy of Ottawa, Department of Physics, 150 Louis Pasteur, MacDonald Hall, Ottawa Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada.

D. Andersen, NRC HIA, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7, Canada.

B. Ellerbroek, “A high fidelity, physical optics sky coverage simulation tool for laser guide star multi-conjugate and multi-object ao systems,” CFAO Proposal (2008). [Available upon request]

J.-P. Veran and G. Herriot, “Type II woofer-tweeter control for NFIRAOS on TMT,” in OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, to be published).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Split tomography control architecture of NFIRAOS and the associated sky coverage analysis approach.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch of the LGS asterism (orange stars, on a circle of 35 radius), NGS grid (green squares) and 10 science field (blue pluses) for the sky coverage analysis of NFIRAOS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the two methods to implement the influence of residual NGS modes on the NGS WFS PSF. A large amount of the first plate scale mode (mode 3, following tip/tilt) is used to indicate the difference. The top panel illustrates the error introduced by simply shifting the PSF, and the bottom panel includes the effects of the wavefront distortions caused by the quadratic modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top panel: The PSDs of the atmospheric plate scale modes that are used for the servo optimization. The PSDs of the atmospheric tip/tilt and telescope wind shake are also used for the servo optimization of the tip/tilt control loops, as described in Subsection 5C. Bottom panel: Sample servo coefficients. The dashed curves show the original coefficients optimized by always setting noise amplification to 1. The solid curves show the reoptimized coefficients for a typical asterism to limit the noise propagation at high bandwidth. The total loop gain g is significantly reduced at high bandwidth due to the low SNR in this case.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavefront error of reoptimized type II control is reduced in comparison with simple integrator control. The top panel shows the wavefront error in the full set of NGS modes as a function of the sampling frequency for a typical asterism. The bottom panel shows the wavefront error reduction (in quadrature) of the type II control compared against the original approach as a function of sky coverage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of residual wind shake using the new type II controller and the old woofer/tweeter control law.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reduction in wavefront error obtained by making detector pixel size λ H / d instead of λ J / d .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of different pixel processing algorithms.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Top panel: The reduction in tip/tilt wavefront error obtained by demoting the TTF WFS for a sample asterism. Bottom panel: Improved tip/tilt compensation as a function of sky coverage obtained by selectively demoting the TTF WFS for the estimation of global tip/tilt modes. The change in the wavefront error for the plate scale modes is negligible. The J band magnitudes of the 3 NGSs are 17.5, 19.8, and 20.0, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sky coverage results for different conditions. The solid blue curves labeled as “Median” are sky coverage results for the nominal conditions of median seeing and guide star statistics at the Galactic pole. The dashed green curves labeled as “25%” are results under 25% seeing conditions. The dash-dot cyan curves labeled as “ 30 ° GL” are results for guide star statistics at 30 ° Galactic latitude. The dotted magenta curves labeled as “tCoG” are for the thresholded center of gravity pixel processing method instead of the matched filter. The red, thin curves labeled as “Zernike” are the results from the original Zernike-based geometric sky coverage simulation.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Six-Layer Turbulence Profile Typical of Cerro Pachon a

Tables Icon

Table 2 System and Atmospheric Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 3 NFIRAOS NGS Mode Error Budget at Median Sky Coverage a

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m 1 = ( x 0 ; 0 ) , m 2 = ( y 0 ; 0 ) , m 3 = ( [ x 0 2 + y 0 2 ] ; [ x 1 2 + y 1 2 ] / s c 2 ) , m 4 = ( [ x 0 2 y 0 2 ] ; [ x 1 2 y 1 2 ] / s c 2 ) , m 5 = ( [ x 0 y 0 ] ; [ x 1 y 1 ] / s c 2 ) , M = ( m 1 | m 2 | m 3 | m 4 | m 5 ) ,
a = P L a L + a N ,
s N = G N [ H x N x H a N a ] ,
δ a N = M G M s N .
a ^ = arg min G M a s N C N 1 = G M s N ,
G M = ( G M T C N 1 G M ) 1 G M T C N 1 ,
G M G N H a N P L a L = 0
m * = ( H a s c M ) ( H x s c x H a s c P L a L ) ,
( H a s c M ) = ( M T H a s c T W a H a s c M ) 1 M T H a s c T W a ,
a * = P L a L + M m * ,
s N * = G N [ H x N x H a N a * ] ,
δ m = G M ( s N * + G M ( m * m ) + n ) ,
δ m = G M C o G ( I ( θ ; m * m ) + n )
A ( r ; m ) = - 1 [ F [ A ( r ; m * ) ] ] ( r ) e - i k M ( r ) ( m - m * ) ,
PSF ( θ ; m ) = F [ A ( r ; m ) ] ( θ ) 2 ,
H ( s ) = g H int ( s ) H int ( s ) H lead ( s ) ,
H lead ( s ) = 1 + T s 1 + a T s ,
H int ( s ) = ( z z - 1 ) z = e T s s = 1 1 - e - T s s ,

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