Abstract

Tm-doped 790-nm-pumped silica fiber lasers are excellent candidates for producing emission at <1.95μm, but achieving efficient operation at these wavelengths requires careful attention to fiber design because of the characteristic three-level reabsorption effects. We present a discussion of methods for mitigation of these effects and two high-efficiency systems that are capable of producing up to 70W at <1.92μm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “85 W Tm3+-doped silica fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 687-678 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, “High power, high efficiency monolithic FBG based fiber laser operating at 2 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 64532B (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Slobodtchikov, P. Moulton, G. Frith, and A. Carter, “Efficient, high-power, Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MF2.
  4. D. Shen, J. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient holmium-doped solid-state lasers pumped by a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 46-54 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Wenk, S. Furst, V. Danicke, and D. T. Kunde, “Design and technical concept of a Tm laser scalpel for clinical investigation based on a 60 W, 1.92 μm Tm fiber laser system,” in Advances in Medical Engineering, Vol. 114 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer, 2007), pp. 447-452.
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Agger and J. Povlsen, “Emission and absorption cross section of thulium doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 50-57 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. D. Jackson, “Cross relaxation and energy transfer upconversion processes relevant to the functioning of 2 μm Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 230, 197-203 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Oh, C. Headley, M. J. Andrejco, A. D. Yablon, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Increased amplifier efficiency by matching the area of the doped fiber region with the fundamental fiber mode,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 5-10.
  9. S. Christensen, G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, K. Farley, and K. Tankala, “Efficient and reliable 790 nm-pumped Tm lasers from 1.91 to 2.13 μm,” in Proceedings of the Solid State Diode Laser Technology Review (Directed Energy Professional Society, 2008), pp. 2-5.
  10. K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “High power 2 μm Tm3+-doped fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 36-45 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. D. Jackson and S. Mossman, “Efficiency dependence on the Tm3+ and Al3+ concentrations for Tm3+-doped silica double-clad fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2702-2707 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, “High power, high efficiency monolithic FBG based fiber laser operating at 2 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 64532B (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Agger and J. Povlsen, “Emission and absorption cross section of thulium doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 50-57 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “85 W Tm3+-doped silica fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 687-678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “High power 2 μm Tm3+-doped fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 36-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Shen, J. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient holmium-doped solid-state lasers pumped by a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 46-54 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, “Cross relaxation and energy transfer upconversion processes relevant to the functioning of 2 μm Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 230, 197-203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Agger, S.

Andrejco, M. J.

J. M. Oh, C. Headley, M. J. Andrejco, A. D. Yablon, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Increased amplifier efficiency by matching the area of the doped fiber region with the fundamental fiber mode,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 5-10.

Carter, A.

G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, “High power, high efficiency monolithic FBG based fiber laser operating at 2 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 64532B (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Slobodtchikov, P. Moulton, G. Frith, and A. Carter, “Efficient, high-power, Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MF2.

S. Christensen, G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, K. Farley, and K. Tankala, “Efficient and reliable 790 nm-pumped Tm lasers from 1.91 to 2.13 μm,” in Proceedings of the Solid State Diode Laser Technology Review (Directed Energy Professional Society, 2008), pp. 2-5.

Chen, Y.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, S.

S. Christensen, G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, K. Farley, and K. Tankala, “Efficient and reliable 790 nm-pumped Tm lasers from 1.91 to 2.13 μm,” in Proceedings of the Solid State Diode Laser Technology Review (Directed Energy Professional Society, 2008), pp. 2-5.

Clarkson, W. A.

D. Shen, J. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient holmium-doped solid-state lasers pumped by a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 46-54 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Danicke, V.

S. Wenk, S. Furst, V. Danicke, and D. T. Kunde, “Design and technical concept of a Tm laser scalpel for clinical investigation based on a 60 W, 1.92 μm Tm fiber laser system,” in Advances in Medical Engineering, Vol. 114 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer, 2007), pp. 447-452.
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

J. M. Oh, C. Headley, M. J. Andrejco, A. D. Yablon, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Increased amplifier efficiency by matching the area of the doped fiber region with the fundamental fiber mode,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 5-10.

Farley, K.

S. Christensen, G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, K. Farley, and K. Tankala, “Efficient and reliable 790 nm-pumped Tm lasers from 1.91 to 2.13 μm,” in Proceedings of the Solid State Diode Laser Technology Review (Directed Energy Professional Society, 2008), pp. 2-5.

Farroni, J.

G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, “High power, high efficiency monolithic FBG based fiber laser operating at 2 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 64532B (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Christensen, G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, K. Farley, and K. Tankala, “Efficient and reliable 790 nm-pumped Tm lasers from 1.91 to 2.13 μm,” in Proceedings of the Solid State Diode Laser Technology Review (Directed Energy Professional Society, 2008), pp. 2-5.

Frith, G.

G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, “High power, high efficiency monolithic FBG based fiber laser operating at 2 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 64532B (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “85 W Tm3+-doped silica fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 687-678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “High power 2 μm Tm3+-doped fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 36-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Slobodtchikov, P. Moulton, G. Frith, and A. Carter, “Efficient, high-power, Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MF2.

S. Christensen, G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, K. Farley, and K. Tankala, “Efficient and reliable 790 nm-pumped Tm lasers from 1.91 to 2.13 μm,” in Proceedings of the Solid State Diode Laser Technology Review (Directed Energy Professional Society, 2008), pp. 2-5.

Furst, S.

S. Wenk, S. Furst, V. Danicke, and D. T. Kunde, “Design and technical concept of a Tm laser scalpel for clinical investigation based on a 60 W, 1.92 μm Tm fiber laser system,” in Advances in Medical Engineering, Vol. 114 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer, 2007), pp. 447-452.
[CrossRef]

Galvanauskas, A.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Headley, C.

J. M. Oh, C. Headley, M. J. Andrejco, A. D. Yablon, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Increased amplifier efficiency by matching the area of the doped fiber region with the fundamental fiber mode,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 5-10.

Jackson, S. D.

G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “85 W Tm3+-doped silica fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 687-678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, “Cross relaxation and energy transfer upconversion processes relevant to the functioning of 2 μm Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 230, 197-203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “High power 2 μm Tm3+-doped fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 36-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and S. Mossman, “Efficiency dependence on the Tm3+ and Al3+ concentrations for Tm3+-doped silica double-clad fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2702-2707 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobson, N.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kunde, D. T.

S. Wenk, S. Furst, V. Danicke, and D. T. Kunde, “Design and technical concept of a Tm laser scalpel for clinical investigation based on a 60 W, 1.92 μm Tm fiber laser system,” in Advances in Medical Engineering, Vol. 114 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer, 2007), pp. 447-452.
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “85 W Tm3+-doped silica fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 687-678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “High power 2 μm Tm3+-doped fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 36-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Machewirth, D.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mossman, S.

Moulton, P.

E. Slobodtchikov, P. Moulton, G. Frith, and A. Carter, “Efficient, high-power, Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MF2.

Oh, J. M.

J. M. Oh, C. Headley, M. J. Andrejco, A. D. Yablon, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Increased amplifier efficiency by matching the area of the doped fiber region with the fundamental fiber mode,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 5-10.

Povlsen, J.

Sahu, J.

D. Shen, J. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient holmium-doped solid-state lasers pumped by a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 46-54 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Samson, B.

G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, “High power, high efficiency monolithic FBG based fiber laser operating at 2 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 64532B (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Christensen, G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, K. Farley, and K. Tankala, “Efficient and reliable 790 nm-pumped Tm lasers from 1.91 to 2.13 μm,” in Proceedings of the Solid State Diode Laser Technology Review (Directed Energy Professional Society, 2008), pp. 2-5.

Sanchez, A.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

D. Shen, J. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient holmium-doped solid-state lasers pumped by a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 46-54 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Slobodtchikov, E.

E. Slobodtchikov, P. Moulton, G. Frith, and A. Carter, “Efficient, high-power, Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MF2.

Tankala, K.

G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, “High power, high efficiency monolithic FBG based fiber laser operating at 2 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 64532B (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Christensen, G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, K. Farley, and K. Tankala, “Efficient and reliable 790 nm-pumped Tm lasers from 1.91 to 2.13 μm,” in Proceedings of the Solid State Diode Laser Technology Review (Directed Energy Professional Society, 2008), pp. 2-5.

Torruellas, W.

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wenk, S.

S. Wenk, S. Furst, V. Danicke, and D. T. Kunde, “Design and technical concept of a Tm laser scalpel for clinical investigation based on a 60 W, 1.92 μm Tm fiber laser system,” in Advances in Medical Engineering, Vol. 114 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer, 2007), pp. 447-452.
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A. D.

J. M. Oh, C. Headley, M. J. Andrejco, A. D. Yablon, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Increased amplifier efficiency by matching the area of the doped fiber region with the fundamental fiber mode,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 5-10.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “85 W Tm3+-doped silica fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 41, 687-678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. D. Jackson, “Cross relaxation and energy transfer upconversion processes relevant to the functioning of 2 μm Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 230, 197-203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

K. Tankala, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, D. Machewirth, N. Jacobson, A. Sanchez, A. Galvanauskas, W. Torruellas, and Y. Chen, “New developments in high power eye-safe LMA fibers,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 610206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Frith, D. G. Lancaster, and S. D. Jackson, “High power 2 μm Tm3+-doped fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 36-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, “High power, high efficiency monolithic FBG based fiber laser operating at 2 μm,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 64532B (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Shen, J. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient holmium-doped solid-state lasers pumped by a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 5620, 46-54 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Wenk, S. Furst, V. Danicke, and D. T. Kunde, “Design and technical concept of a Tm laser scalpel for clinical investigation based on a 60 W, 1.92 μm Tm fiber laser system,” in Advances in Medical Engineering, Vol. 114 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer, 2007), pp. 447-452.
[CrossRef]

E. Slobodtchikov, P. Moulton, G. Frith, and A. Carter, “Efficient, high-power, Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper MF2.

J. M. Oh, C. Headley, M. J. Andrejco, A. D. Yablon, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Increased amplifier efficiency by matching the area of the doped fiber region with the fundamental fiber mode,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, 2006), pp. 5-10.

S. Christensen, G. Frith, B. Samson, A. Carter, J. Farroni, K. Farley, and K. Tankala, “Efficient and reliable 790 nm-pumped Tm lasers from 1.91 to 2.13 μm,” in Proceedings of the Solid State Diode Laser Technology Review (Directed Energy Professional Society, 2008), pp. 2-5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the laser system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Slope efficiency of the amplifier stage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser slope efficiency relative to launched power. Inset: slope efficiency relative to absorbed power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Slope efficiencies versus modal overlap.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance of 250 μm Fibers in a Counterpumped 1908 nm Amplifier

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