Abstract

We present the design of the monolithic achromatic nulling interference coronagraph (MANIC), a nulling interferometer consisting of optically contacted prisms and a symmetric beam splitter. The optic is designed to enable the direct detection of nearby Jupiter-like exoplanets, and may be extended to enable Earth-like system detection. The monolithic nature of the optic improves on the current state-of-the-art in nulling interferometers by providing built-in alignment and stability, as well as a reduction in size and mass. These qualities make the MANIC extremely robust and simple to integrate, and an excellent candidate for space-based applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (4)

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, É. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L′-band imaging,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Lafrenière, C. Marois, R. Doyon, and T. Barman, “HST/NICMOS detection of HR 8799 b in 1998,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 694, L148-L152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Destree and T. P. Snow, “Unidentified features in the ultraviolet spectrum of X Per,” Astrophys. J. 697, 684-692(2009).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Gappinger, R. T. Diaz, A. Ksendzov, P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, K. M. Liewer, F. M. Loya, S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and J. K. Wallace, “Experimental evaluation of achromatic phase shifters for mid-infrared starlight suppression,” Appl. Opt. 48, 868-880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (9)

A. V. Tavrov, J. Nishikawa, M. Tamura, L. Abe, K. Yokochi, T. Kurokawa, and M. Takeda, “Achromatic interfero-coronagraph with two common-path interferometers in tandem,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4915-4926 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, “Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth,” Science 322, 1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, T. Fusco, D. Mouillet, M. Langlois, C. Moutou, and K. Dohlen, “End-to-end simulation of AO-assisted coronagraphic differential imaging: estimation of performance for SPHERE,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156E(2008).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Bouchez, R. G. Dekany, J. R. Angione, C. Baranec, M. C. Britton, K. Bui, R. S. Burruss, J. L. Cromer, S. R. Guiwits, J. R. Henning, J. Hickey, D. L. McKenna, A. M. Moore, J. E. Roberts, T. Q. Trinh, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and V. Velur, “The PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system for Palomar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Kasper, J.-L. Beuzit, C. Verinaud, N. Yaitskova, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, R. G. Gratton, N. Hubin, F. Kerber, R. Roelfsema, H. M. Schmid, N. A. Thatte, K. Dohlen, M. Feldt, L. Venema, and S. Wolf, “EPICS: the exoplanet imager for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151S (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, R. Soummer, L. Poyneer, and B. Bauman, “An end-to-end polychromatic Fresnel propagation model of GPI,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151T (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Martinez, A. Boccaletti, M. Kasper, C. Cavarroc, N. Yaitskova, T. Fusco, and C. Vérinaud, “Comparison of coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging in the context of extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 492, 289-300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Rao, J. K. Wallace, R. Samuele, S. Chakrabarti, T. Cook, B. Hicks, P. Jung, B. Lane, B. M. Levine, C. Mendillo, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, and J. B. Stewart, “Path length control in a nulling coronagraph with a MEMS deformable mirror and a calibration interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880B2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (5)

B. F. Lane, M. W. Muterspaugh, and M. Shao, “Calibrating an interferometric null,” Astrophys. J. 648, 1276-1284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167, 81-99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Ren and E. Serabyn, “Estimated performance of a symmetric nulling coronagraph for exoplanet imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653X (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397-403(2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

O. Guyon, “Imaging faint sources within a speckle halo with synchronous interferometric speckle subtraction,” Astrophys. J. 615, 562-572 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Koudelka and J. H. Burge, “Fabrication of cube beamsplitters for white light interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5252, 17-25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

M. G. Littman, M. Carr, J. Leighton, E. Burke, D. N. Spergel, and N. J. Kasdin, “Phase and amplitude control ability using spatial light modulators and zero path length difference Michelson interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 405-412(2003).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Ford, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, G. D. Illingworth, M. Sirianni, A. R. Martel, G. R. Meurer, W. J. McCann, P. C. Sullivan, F. Bartko, N. Benitez, J. Blakeslee, R. Bouwens, T. Broadhurst, R. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, D. Campbell, E. S. Cheng, P. D. Feldman, M. Franx, D. A. Golimowski, C. Gronwall, R. A. Kimble, J. E. Krist, M. P. Lesser, D. Magee, G. Miley, M. Postman, M. D. Rafal, P. Rosati, W. B. Sparks, H. D. Tran, Z. I. Tsvetanov, P. Volmer, R. L. White, and R. A. Woodruff, “Overview of the advanced camera for surveys on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 81-94(2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler, C. R. Englert, J. G. Cardon, R. R. Conway, C. M. Brown, and J. Wimperis, “Robust monolithic ultraviolet interferometer for the SHIMMER instrument on STPSat-1,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2829-2834 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

E. R. Benton and E. V. Benton, “Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 184, 255-294 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Watchorn, F. L. Roesler, J. M. Harlander, K. A. Jaehnig, R. J. Reynolds, and W. T. Sanders, “Development of the spatial heterodyne spectrometer for VUV remote sensing of the interstellar medium,” Proc. SPIE 4498, 284-295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

E. Serabyn, “Nulling interferometry: symmetry requirements and experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 328-339(2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, and J. Gay, “Achromatic interfero coronagraphy I. Theoretical capabilities for ground-based observations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 141, 319-329(2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, R. Burg, L. Petro, P. Bely, B. Fleury, P.-Y. Madec, and F. Charbonnier, “Achromatic interfero coronagraphy. II. Effective performance on the sky,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 341-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Baudoz, “Coronographie stellaire: le Coronographe Interférentiel Achromatique,” J. Astron. Fr. 60, 35 (1999).

1998 (1)

P. Baudoz, Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, E. Rossi, L. Petro, S. C. Casey, P. Y. Bely, R. Burg, J. W. MacKenty, B. Fleury, and P.-Y. Madec, “First results with the achromatic interfero coronograph,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 455-462 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. T. Boies, J. D. Kinnison, and J. A. Schwartz, “Effect of electron radiation on glass used for space-based optical systems,” Proc. SPIE 2287, 104-113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, D. M. Cotton, J. S. Vickers, and B. C. Bush, “Self-compensating, all-reflection interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2596-2607 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

M. D. Blue and D. W. Roberts, “Effects of space exposure on optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5299-5304 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730-740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Shao, “Hubble extra solar planet interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 1494, 347-356 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. Roddier, F. Roddier, and J. Demarcq, “Compact rotational shearing interferometer for astronomical applications,” Opt. Eng. 28, 66-70 (1989).

1979 (2)

1978 (1)

F. Roddier, C. Roddier, and J. Demarcq, “A rotation shearing interferometer with phase-compensated roof-prisms,” J. Opt. 9, 145-149 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

Abe, L.

Abreu, V. J.

Adams, L.

A. Holmes-Siedle and L. Adams, Handbook of Radiation Effects, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 2002).

Allard, F.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, É. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, “A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L′-band imaging,” Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angione, J. R.

A. H. Bouchez, R. G. Dekany, J. R. Angione, C. Baranec, M. C. Britton, K. Bui, R. S. Burruss, J. L. Cromer, S. R. Guiwits, J. R. Henning, J. Hickey, D. L. McKenna, A. M. Moore, J. E. Roberts, T. Q. Trinh, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and V. Velur, “The PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system for Palomar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baranec, C.

A. H. Bouchez, R. G. Dekany, J. R. Angione, C. Baranec, M. C. Britton, K. Bui, R. S. Burruss, J. L. Cromer, S. R. Guiwits, J. R. Henning, J. Hickey, D. L. McKenna, A. M. Moore, J. E. Roberts, T. Q. Trinh, M. Troy, T. N. Truong, and V. Velur, “The PALM-3000 high-order adaptive optics system for Palomar Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barman, T.

D. Lafrenière, C. Marois, R. Doyon, and T. Barman, “HST/NICMOS detection of HR 8799 b in 1998,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 694, L148-L152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafrenière, and R. Doyon, “Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799,” Science 322, 1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barth, J.

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Bartko, F.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The interferometric coronagraph proposed in this paper will reduce star–exoplanet contrasts, I * / I p , to levels that will enable direct imaging of exoplanets. Here we present an estimate of I * / I p for known exoplanets at visible wavelengths on the sky (crosses) and after interferometric nulling with ideal 0.5 m (squares) and 2.4 m (diamonds) telescope aperture diameters (including Airy fall-off at the corresponding field location) observing at a central wavelength of 500 nm . The contrasts are calculated using data from [51] assuming planets without rings and zero exozodiacal background or illumination. The solar system’s planets observed at 10   parsecs ( 1   parsec ( pc ) = 3.086 × 10 16 m ) are plotted for comparison and are denoted by the first one or two letters of the planet’s name, followed by the telescope aperture diameter. For the on-sky contrasts, only planets with separation angles μ > 10 mas ( 1 mas = 10 3 arcsec = 4.848 × 10 9 rad ) are plotted. For the nulled data, only the detectable planets (contrasts below 100 , μ > 0.4 λ / D ) are plotted, except Earth, which is included for illustrative purposes. The long- and short-dashed lines correspond to the IWA ( 0.4 λ / D ) and small separation peak intensity angle ( 0.73 λ / D , see Section 2) for the 0.5 m and 2.4 m designs, respectively. It is estimated that nulling with 0.5 m or 2.4 m telescope would enable direct detection of 25 or 103 of the known exoplanets, respectively. The right most data point is Fomalhaut b.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MANIC consists of optically contacted prism pairs and a symmetric BS that are arranged to produce symmetric beam traversals and access to both bright and dark outputs. The right-angle prisms achieve a π-phase shift by orthogonal flips of the electric field, which produces the centro-symmetric null that is characteristic of an AIC design. The rhombic prism periscopes balance s- and p-component reflections and provide access to the bright output, which may be used for AO wavefront sensing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

BS design for the MANIC enabling a fully symmetric coating traversal for the bright and dark output beam pairs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The layout of MANIC enables the incorporation of a well-explored coherent wavefront sensing technique that may be used to control the wavefront corrective deformable mirror (DM) at the input. In this schematic, the bright output is spatially filtered using a pinhole (PH) and used as a reference to be mixed with a portion of the dark output. Beam splitters (BS) are used to sample the dark output and recombine it with the bright output reference. The signal at the wavefront sensing camera (WFS) is interpreted by a computer (CPU) that drives the DM. The nulled image is detected at a science camera (SCI). Also shown are the compensator plates (CPs) that will be contacted to the right-angle prisms to minimize optical path difference between the two halves of the monolith and thereby increase the deep null bandwidth (see Subsection 2B4), and the polarization filter (PF) that may be needed to reduce birefringence-related leakage (see Subsection 2B5).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fabrication errors in the MANIC will produce chromatic phase errors, which limit the deep-nulling bandwidth. Here we present the modeled chromatic leakage from a point source for 500 high-precision (top) and 500 low-precision (bottom) perturbations optimized at 543 nm . The minimum and maximum leakage are shown as dotted curves. The dashed curves represent the sample median. The solid curves show the upper and lower limits of the 90% confidence interval. While the low-precision model achieves a 10 6 null for laser light, the high-precision model achieves the same performance over a 4 18 % bandpass.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The 10 6 null bandwidth of MANIC scales approximately linearly with fabrication precision. Here we plot the likelihood of achieving 10 6 null bandwidths centered on 543 nm with low- precision specifications (bold, lower abscissa) and high-precision specifications (fine, upper abscissa), each based on 1000 Monte Carlo perturbations. The plot shows that 99% and 98% of the modeled high- and low-precision modeled systems achieve a bandpass of 20 nm and 3 nm , respectively, while 50% achieve 50 60 and 5 6 nm , respectively. Furthermore, a MANIC fabricated with the high-precision specifications would have a 20 % chance of nulling at the 10 6 level over the entire V-band, which has a 100 nm bandwidth centered on 550 nm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The ability of a coronagraph to null an object depends strongly on the object’s angular extent. The angular response data (crosses) plotted here comprise 1000 random high-precision (top) and low-precision (bottom) perturbations and were generated by tilting the optic relative to the nominal null axis. The solid lines are the AIC theoretical angular response derived by [21]. The short- and long-dashed vertical lines represent the extent of the Sun ( β Sun ) and maximum separation of Jupiter ( μ Jup ) at 10 pc for λ / D = 0.2 arcsec . For large angles, the off-axis performance for the different precision levels is practically identical. At small angles ( < 10 3 λ / D ), TIR phase rotation mismatches become significant, and the low-precision design exhibits greater leakage. This leakage is inconsequential compared to that coming from the finite extent of the Sun at 10 pc ( L s ).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The strokes required to null the pupil after minimizing OPD between the two arms of the monolith are readily obtainable in commercially available DMs. Stroke is plotted here versus the input angle at which the MANIC models must be tilted to align the null axes in each half of the optic at 543 nm . Crosses and triangles correspond to the high- and low-precision designs, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The greatest detriment to the 10 6 null bandwidth is produced by dispersion mismatch between the BS epoxy and the corrective compensator plates, which must be made from the same material as the prisms to be optically contacted. This plot shows the analytically calculated null leakage due to path error introduced by a wedge in the BS Epotek 301–2 epoxy layer for wedge angles of α = 1 (solid curve) and 10 arcsec (dashed curve), with the distance between the splitting and recombination beam centers in the BS plane, ρ = 52 mm . Note that the curves in this plot closely resemble the corresponding median chromatic leakage curves in Fig. 5.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Unbalanced TIR phase shifts due to small errors in incidence angles encountered by interfering beams in the two halves of the optic contribute significant leakage. Here we plot the analytical null leakage of a monochromatic point source due to p-component (solid line) and s-component (dashed line) TIR phase shift mismatch, L ϕ , TIR , from a single deviation in incidence angle around 45 ° ( 0.7854 rad ) at 543 nm for Homosil in a unity index environment. L ϕ , TIR becomes significant at the 10 6 level for deviations exceeding 0.1 mrad ( 20 arcsec ) and 0.18 mrad ( 36 arcsec ) for p- and s-component reflections, respectively. In the low-precision design, where input angles can approach 10 arcsec (see Fig. 8), it is easy to appreciate the magnitude of this effect.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 MANIC Design Parameters

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Table 2 MANIC Null Leakage Sources

Equations (13)

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L total = i = 1 n | E ( C i ) | 2 | E RT ( C i ) | 2 + | E TR ( C i ) | 2 ,
null = 1 / L total .
d λ o , BS w = n λ o , e l BS w / λ o = n λ o , e ( ρ tan α ) / λ o n λ o , e ρ α / λ o ,
d λ , BS w = l BS w λ | n λ , e n λ , s n λ o , e n λ o , s | ,
L λ , BS w = 1 cos ( 2 π d λ , BS w ) ,
ϕ s , λ = 2 tan 1 { [ ( cos θ c , λ cos θ i ) 2 1 ] 1 2 } ,
ϕ p , λ = 2 tan 1 { 1 sin 2 θ c , λ [ ( cos θ c , λ cos θ i ) 2 1 ] 1 2 } ,
δ ϕ TIR = q = 1 N ( ϕ TR , s , q ϕ RT , s , q ) + ( ϕ TR , p , q ϕ RT , p , q ) ,
L ϕ , TIR = 1 cos δ ϕ TIR .
l λ , r n λ z { 1 cos [ θ r ( n λ ) ] } = n λ z { 1 cos [ sin 1 ( sin θ i n λ ) ] } ,
d λ , r = | l λ , r l λ o , r | / λ = n λ z λ | ( 1 sin 2 θ i n λ 2 ) 1 / 2 ( 1 sin 2 θ i n λ o 2 ) 1 / 2 | ,
L d λ , r = 1 cos ( 2 π d λ , r ) .
L rot = 2 [ 1 cos ( ω ) ] ,

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