Abstract

A long-period fiber grating (LPFG) formed in a single-mode fiber is considered as an effective device to tap light from the core of fiber. This light-tapping property of the LPFG allows a new class of wavelength-selective optical couplers to be realized by using the configuration of parallel LPFGs. Over the years a number of four-port and six-port LPFG couplers with peak coupling efficiencies greater than 80% have been demonstrated. To further increase the functionality of LPFG couplers and facilitate device packaging and integration, long-period grating couplers formed in planar waveguides have also been proposed, and the preliminary results are promising. A review of these coupling devices is presented.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (3)

L. Al, W.-F. Liu, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, and J.-C. Mau, “Three-by-three port fused fiber grating coupler,” Opt. Eng. 48, 025002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chow, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, K. P. Lor, and H. P. Chan, “UV-written long-period waveguide grating coupler for broadband add/drop multiplexing,” Opt. Commun. 282, 378-381(2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Q. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, “Optical coupling between a long-period fiber grating and a parallel tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1726-1728 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

2006 (7)

2005 (2)

M.-S. Kwon and S.-Y. Shin, “Tunable polymer waveguide notch filter using a thermooptic long-period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 145-147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai and K. S. Chiang, “Analysis and design of long-period waveguide grating couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4363-4373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690-5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Luo, K. Gao, F. Liu, R. H. Qu, and Z. J. Fang, “Evanescent-field coupling based on long period grating and tapered fiber,” Opt. Commun. 240, 69-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. L. An, B. Ashton, and S. Fleming, “Long-period-grating-assisted optical add-drop filter based on mismatched twin-core photosensitive-cladding fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 343-345(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, and M. N. Ng, “Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1358-1366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, “Widely tunable long-period gratings fabricated in polymer-clad ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094-1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

P. K. Lam, A. J. Stevenson, and J. D. Love, “Bandpass spectra of evanescent couplers with long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 967-969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, “Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, P. Hua, T. A. Birks, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, “Novel add/drop filters for wavelength-division-multiplexing optical fiber systems using a Bragg grating assisted mismatched coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1656-1658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Variable-ratio, polarisation-insensitive, 3×3 fused biconical tapered couplers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1336-1337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. P. Huang and H. A. Haus, “Power exchange in grating-assisted couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 920-924 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. D. Hussey and J. D. Minelly, “Optical fibre polishing with a motor-driven polishing wheel,” Electron. Lett. 24, 805-807(1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (2)

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, and M. S. Yataki, “Modelling fused single-mode-fibre couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 561(1985).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder and X.-H. Zheng, “Fused couplers of arbitrary cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 21, 1079-1080 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. J. Shaw, “Single-mode fibre optic directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260-261 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Al, L.

L. Al, W.-F. Liu, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, and J.-C. Mau, “Three-by-three port fused fiber grating coupler,” Opt. Eng. 48, 025002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

An, H. L.

Archambault, J. L.

Ashton, B.

Bai, Y.

Barcelos, S.

Bergh, R. A.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. J. Shaw, “Single-mode fibre optic directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260-261 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

L. Dong, P. Hua, T. A. Birks, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, “Novel add/drop filters for wavelength-division-multiplexing optical fiber systems using a Bragg grating assisted mismatched coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1656-1658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, “Effect of twist in 3×3 fused tapered couplers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3004-3014 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bures, J.

Chan, F. Y. M.

Chan, H. P.

C. K. Chow, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, K. P. Lor, and H. P. Chan, “UV-written long-period waveguide grating coupler for broadband add/drop multiplexing,” Opt. Commun. 282, 378-381(2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, C. K. Chow, Q. Liu, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, “Band-rejection filter with widely tunable center wavelength and contrast using metal long-period grating on polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1109-1111(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690-5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, “Widely tunable long-period gratings fabricated in polymer-clad ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094-1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chandonnet, A.

J. Lauzon, A. Chandonnet, C. Xu, and W. P. Huang, “Grating-assisted fused fibre filter,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE , 1997), Vol. 3, pp. 169-172.

Chen, T.-C.

L. Al, W.-F. Liu, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, and J.-C. Mau, “Three-by-three port fused fiber grating coupler,” Opt. Eng. 48, 025002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

C. K. Chow, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, K. P. Lor, and H. P. Chan, “UV-written long-period waveguide grating coupler for broadband add/drop multiplexing,” Opt. Commun. 282, 378-381(2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Q. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, “Optical coupling between a long-period fiber grating and a parallel tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1726-1728 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, “Electro-optic long-period waveguide gratings in lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 16, 20409-20417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Y. Liu, “Analysis of six-port optical fiber couplers based on three parallel long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3277-3286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Y. Liu, “Characterization of single-mode fiber with fiber Bragg gratings for the design of long-period gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2129-2134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, R. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, “Light coupling between two parallel CO2-laser written long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 15, 17645-17651 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, “Symmetric 3×3 optical coupler using three parallel long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 15, 6494-6499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, Q. Liu, K. P. Lor, and K. S. Chiang, “Widely tunable long-period waveguide grating couplers,” Opt. Express 14, 12644-12654 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. M. Chan and K. S. Chiang, “Transfer-matrix method for the analysis of two parallel dissimilar non-uniform long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1008-1018(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chu, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, “Widely tunable optical bandpass filter by use of polymer long-period waveguide gratings,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2755-2760 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai and K. S. Chiang, “Analysis of long-period waveguide grating arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3856-3863(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, C. K. Chow, Q. Liu, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, “Band-rejection filter with widely tunable center wavelength and contrast using metal long-period grating on polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1109-1111(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, “Broad-band optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 229-231(2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai and K. S. Chiang, “Analysis and design of long-period waveguide grating couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4363-4373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, and M. N. Ng, “Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1358-1366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690-5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, “Widely tunable long-period gratings fabricated in polymer-clad ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094-1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Rastogi and K. S. Chiang, “Long-period gratings in planar optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6351-6355 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, “Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, “Effect of cores in fused tapered single-mode fiber couplers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 431-433 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Chiang, M. N. Ng, Y. Liu, and S. Li, “Evanescent-field coupling between two parallel long-period fiber gratings,” in Proceedings, IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 836-837.

K. S. Chiang and Q. Liu, “Long-period gratings for application in optical communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and Second International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 2006), pp. 128-133.

Chow, C. K.

C. K. Chow, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, K. P. Lor, and H. P. Chan, “UV-written long-period waveguide grating coupler for broadband add/drop multiplexing,” Opt. Commun. 282, 378-381(2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, C. K. Chow, Q. Liu, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, “Band-rejection filter with widely tunable center wavelength and contrast using metal long-period grating on polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1109-1111(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690-5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, “Widely tunable long-period gratings fabricated in polymer-clad ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094-1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y. M.

Y. M. Chu, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, “Widely tunable optical bandpass filter by use of polymer long-period waveguide gratings,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2755-2760 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690-5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, “Widely tunable long-period gratings fabricated in polymer-clad ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094-1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, P. Hua, T. A. Birks, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, “Novel add/drop filters for wavelength-division-multiplexing optical fiber systems using a Bragg grating assisted mismatched coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1656-1658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z. J.

A. P. Luo, K. Gao, F. Liu, R. H. Qu, and Z. J. Fang, “Evanescent-field coupling based on long period grating and tapered fiber,” Opt. Commun. 240, 69-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 28-30.

Fleming, S.

Fu, M.-Y.

L. Al, W.-F. Liu, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, and J.-C. Mau, “Three-by-three port fused fiber grating coupler,” Opt. Eng. 48, 025002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, K.

A. P. Luo, K. Gao, F. Liu, R. H. Qu, and Z. J. Fang, “Evanescent-field coupling based on long period grating and tapered fiber,” Opt. Commun. 240, 69-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 28-30.

Gunther, M. F.

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Variable-ratio, polarisation-insensitive, 3×3 fused biconical tapered couplers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1336-1337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. T.

Han, Y. G.

Haus, H. A.

W. P. Huang and H. A. Haus, “Power exchange in grating-assisted couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 920-924 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

Hua, P.

L. Dong, P. Hua, T. A. Birks, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, “Novel add/drop filters for wavelength-division-multiplexing optical fiber systems using a Bragg grating assisted mismatched coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1656-1658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Archambault, P. St. J. Russell, S. Barcelos, P. Hua, and L. Reekie, “Grating-frustrated coupler: a novel channel-dropping filter in single-mode optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 19, 180-182 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, W. P.

W. P. Huang and H. A. Haus, “Power exchange in grating-assisted couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 920-924 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Lauzon, A. Chandonnet, C. Xu, and W. P. Huang, “Grating-assisted fused fibre filter,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE , 1997), Vol. 3, pp. 169-172.

Hussey, C. D.

C. D. Hussey and J. D. Minelly, “Optical fibre polishing with a motor-driven polishing wheel,” Electron. Lett. 24, 805-807(1988).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, and M. S. Yataki, “Modelling fused single-mode-fibre couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 561(1985).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. Y.

Jin, W.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. M.

Kawasaki, B. S.

Kim, B. H.

Kim, C. S.

Kim, M. J.

Kotler, G.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. J. Shaw, “Single-mode fibre optic directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260-261 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M.-S.

M.-S. Kwon and S.-Y. Shin, “Tunable polymer waveguide notch filter using a thermooptic long-period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 145-147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lacrois, S.

Lam, P. K.

P. K. Lam, A. J. Stevenson, and J. D. Love, “Bandpass spectra of evanescent couplers with long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 967-969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lamont, R. G.

Lapierre, J.

Lauzon, J.

J. Lauzon, A. Chandonnet, C. Xu, and W. P. Huang, “Grating-assisted fused fibre filter,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE , 1997), Vol. 3, pp. 169-172.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, S. B.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, “Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, M. N. Ng, Y. Liu, and S. Li, “Evanescent-field coupling between two parallel long-period fiber gratings,” in Proceedings, IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 836-837.

Liu, F.

A. P. Luo, K. Gao, F. Liu, R. H. Qu, and Z. J. Fang, “Evanescent-field coupling based on long period grating and tapered fiber,” Opt. Commun. 240, 69-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

C. K. Chow, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, K. P. Lor, and H. P. Chan, “UV-written long-period waveguide grating coupler for broadband add/drop multiplexing,” Opt. Commun. 282, 378-381(2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Q. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, “Optical coupling between a long-period fiber grating and a parallel tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1726-1728 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, “Electro-optic long-period waveguide gratings in lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 16, 20409-20417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Y. Liu, “Analysis of six-port optical fiber couplers based on three parallel long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3277-3286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Y. Liu, “Characterization of single-mode fiber with fiber Bragg gratings for the design of long-period gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2129-2134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, “Symmetric 3×3 optical coupler using three parallel long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 15, 6494-6499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Chu, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, “Widely tunable optical bandpass filter by use of polymer long-period waveguide gratings,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2755-2760 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, Q. Liu, K. P. Lor, and K. S. Chiang, “Widely tunable long-period waveguide grating couplers,” Opt. Express 14, 12644-12654 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Chiang, C. K. Chow, Q. Liu, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, “Band-rejection filter with widely tunable center wavelength and contrast using metal long-period grating on polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1109-1111(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690-5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang and Q. Liu, “Long-period gratings for application in optical communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and Second International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 2006), pp. 128-133.

Liu, W.-F.

L. Al, W.-F. Liu, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, and J.-C. Mau, “Three-by-three port fused fiber grating coupler,” Opt. Eng. 48, 025002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, Q. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, “Optical coupling between a long-period fiber grating and a parallel tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1726-1728 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Y. Liu, “Analysis of six-port optical fiber couplers based on three parallel long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3277-3286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Y. Liu, “Characterization of single-mode fiber with fiber Bragg gratings for the design of long-period gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2129-2134 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, R. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, “Light coupling between two parallel CO2-laser written long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 15, 17645-17651 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, “Symmetric 3×3 optical coupler using three parallel long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 15, 6494-6499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, “Broad-band optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 229-231(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, “Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, M. N. Ng, Y. Liu, and S. Li, “Evanescent-field coupling between two parallel long-period fiber gratings,” in Proceedings, IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 836-837.

Lor, K. P.

C. K. Chow, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, K. P. Lor, and H. P. Chan, “UV-written long-period waveguide grating coupler for broadband add/drop multiplexing,” Opt. Commun. 282, 378-381(2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, Q. Liu, K. P. Lor, and K. S. Chiang, “Widely tunable long-period waveguide grating couplers,” Opt. Express 14, 12644-12654 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Chiang, C. K. Chow, Q. Liu, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, “Band-rejection filter with widely tunable center wavelength and contrast using metal long-period grating on polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1109-1111(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690-5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, “Widely tunable long-period gratings fabricated in polymer-clad ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094-1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

P. K. Lam, A. J. Stevenson, and J. D. Love, “Bandpass spectra of evanescent couplers with long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 967-969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, A. P.

A. P. Luo, K. Gao, F. Liu, R. H. Qu, and Z. J. Fang, “Evanescent-field coupling based on long period grating and tapered fiber,” Opt. Commun. 240, 69-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mau, J.-C.

L. Al, W.-F. Liu, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, and J.-C. Mau, “Three-by-three port fused fiber grating coupler,” Opt. Eng. 48, 025002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minelly, J. D.

C. D. Hussey and J. D. Minelly, “Optical fibre polishing with a motor-driven polishing wheel,” Electron. Lett. 24, 805-807(1988).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K. A.

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Variable-ratio, polarisation-insensitive, 3×3 fused biconical tapered couplers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1336-1337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. N.

K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, and M. N. Ng, “Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1358-1366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, “Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, M. N. Ng, Y. Liu, and S. Li, “Evanescent-field coupling between two parallel long-period fiber gratings,” in Proceedings, IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 836-837.

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, and M. S. Yataki, “Modelling fused single-mode-fibre couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 561(1985).
[CrossRef]

Qu, R. H.

A. P. Luo, K. Gao, F. Liu, R. H. Qu, and Z. J. Fang, “Evanescent-field coupling based on long period grating and tapered fiber,” Opt. Commun. 240, 69-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, R. J.

Rastogi, V.

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, “Widely tunable long-period gratings fabricated in polymer-clad ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094-1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Rastogi and K. S. Chiang, “Long-period gratings in planar optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6351-6355 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reekie, L.

L. Dong, P. Hua, T. A. Birks, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, “Novel add/drop filters for wavelength-division-multiplexing optical fiber systems using a Bragg grating assisted mismatched coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1656-1658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Archambault, P. St. J. Russell, S. Barcelos, P. Hua, and L. Reekie, “Grating-frustrated coupler: a novel channel-dropping filter in single-mode optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 19, 180-182 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

L. Dong, P. Hua, T. A. Birks, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, “Novel add/drop filters for wavelength-division-multiplexing optical fiber systems using a Bragg grating assisted mismatched coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1656-1658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Archambault, P. St. J. Russell, S. Barcelos, P. Hua, and L. Reekie, “Grating-frustrated coupler: a novel channel-dropping filter in single-mode optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 19, 180-182 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, H. J.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. J. Shaw, “Single-mode fibre optic directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260-261 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S.-Y.

M.-S. Kwon and S.-Y. Shin, “Tunable polymer waveguide notch filter using a thermooptic long-period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 145-147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and X.-H. Zheng, “Fused couplers of arbitrary cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 21, 1079-1080 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 28-30.

Stevenson, A. J.

P. K. Lam, A. J. Stevenson, and J. D. Love, “Bandpass spectra of evanescent couplers with long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 967-969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Variable-ratio, polarisation-insensitive, 3×3 fused biconical tapered couplers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1336-1337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

J. Lauzon, A. Chandonnet, C. Xu, and W. P. Huang, “Grating-assisted fused fibre filter,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE , 1997), Vol. 3, pp. 169-172.

Yataki, M. S.

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, and M. S. Yataki, “Modelling fused single-mode-fibre couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 561(1985).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.-H.

A. W. Snyder and X.-H. Zheng, “Fused couplers of arbitrary cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 21, 1079-1080 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (7)

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. J. Shaw, “Single-mode fibre optic directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260-261 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Hussey and J. D. Minelly, “Optical fibre polishing with a motor-driven polishing wheel,” Electron. Lett. 24, 805-807(1988).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Lam, A. J. Stevenson, and J. D. Love, “Bandpass spectra of evanescent couplers with long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 967-969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, “Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Payne, C. D. Hussey, and M. S. Yataki, “Modelling fused single-mode-fibre couplers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 561(1985).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder and X.-H. Zheng, “Fused couplers of arbitrary cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 21, 1079-1080 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Variable-ratio, polarisation-insensitive, 3×3 fused biconical tapered couplers,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1336-1337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, “Broad-band optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 229-231(2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, P. Hua, T. A. Birks, L. Reekie, and P. St. J. Russell, “Novel add/drop filters for wavelength-division-multiplexing optical fiber systems using a Bragg grating assisted mismatched coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1656-1658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, “Widely tunable long-period gratings fabricated in polymer-clad ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094-1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Kwon and S.-Y. Shin, “Tunable polymer waveguide notch filter using a thermooptic long-period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 145-147 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, C. K. Chow, Q. Liu, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, “Band-rejection filter with widely tunable center wavelength and contrast using metal long-period grating on polymer waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1109-1111(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (8)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690-5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. P. Luo, K. Gao, F. Liu, R. H. Qu, and Z. J. Fang, “Evanescent-field coupling based on long period grating and tapered fiber,” Opt. Commun. 240, 69-73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chow, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, K. P. Lor, and H. P. Chan, “UV-written long-period waveguide grating coupler for broadband add/drop multiplexing,” Opt. Commun. 282, 378-381(2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Al, W.-F. Liu, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, and J.-C. Mau, “Three-by-three port fused fiber grating coupler,” Opt. Eng. 48, 025002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Other (4)

K. S. Chiang and Q. Liu, “Long-period gratings for application in optical communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and Second International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 2006), pp. 128-133.

J. Lauzon, A. Chandonnet, C. Xu, and W. P. Huang, “Grating-assisted fused fibre filter,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communications and 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE , 1997), Vol. 3, pp. 169-172.

K. S. Chiang, M. N. Ng, Y. Liu, and S. Li, “Evanescent-field coupling between two parallel long-period fiber gratings,” in Proceedings, IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 836-837.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, 2000), Vol. 4, pp. 28-30.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of a LPFG with pitch Λ designed for coupling light from the guided core mode to a selected cladding mode. (b) Transmission spectrum of a typical LPFG showing a series of rejection bands corresponding to couplings to different cladding modes. (c) Output near-field images from four LPFGs fabricated with different pitches for couplings to different cladding modes: the LP 03 ( Λ = 590 μm ), LP 06 ( Λ = 410 μm ), LP 08 ( Λ = 295 μm ), and LP 016 ( Λ = 100 μm ) modes [36].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output near-field images from (left) the fiber that contains a LPFG and (right) the parallel fiber that does not contain any grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of a coupler that consists of two parallel identical LPFGs of length L and pitch Λ with an offset distance s and a separation d.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission characteristics of a LPFG coupler formed by two CO 2 laser-written LPFGs: (a) dependence of the coupling efficiency at the resonance wavelength on the offset distance between the two gratings with the surrounding index n fixed at 1.0 (air) and 1.420; (b) normalized output spectra from the coupled fiber measured with the surrounding index 1.420 at the offset distances: s = 0 , 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mm [15].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of a symmetric coupler that consists of three parallel identical LPFGs of length L.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission characteristics of a symmetric 3 × 3 coupler formed with three parallel UV-written LPFGs (shown in Fig. 5) measured with a surrounding index of 1.448 for light launched into (a) Fiber 1, (b) Fiber 2, and (c) Fiber 3 [17].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic diagram of a LPWG coupler formed in epoxy-clad benzocyclobutene (BCB) channel waveguides. (b) SEM image of a fabricated LPWG coupler [34].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission characteristics of the LPWG coupler shown in Fig. 7b, measured from (a) launching cores and (b) coupled cores for TE polarization at different temperatures [34].

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ 0 = ( N 01 N 0 m ) Λ ,
T = 1 - κ 2 κ 2 + δ 2 4 sin 2 κ 2 + δ 2 4 L ,

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