Abstract

We present a two-step reconstruction method that can qualitatively and quantitatively improve the reconstruction of tissue refractive index (RI) distribution by phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography (PCDOT). In this two-step method, we first recover the distribution of tissue absorption and scattering coefficients by conventional diffuse optical tomography to obtain the geometrical information of lesions, allowing the incorporation of geometrical information as a priori in the PCDOT reconstruction using a locally refined mesh. The method is validated by a series of phantom experiments and evaluated using in vivo data from 42 human subjects. The results demonstrate clear contrast of RI between the lesion and the surroundings, making the image interpretation straightforward. The sensitivity and specificity from these 42 cases are both 81% when RI is used as an imaging parameter for distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. A. Sickles, D. L. Miglioretti, R. Ballard-Barbash, B. M. Geller, J. W. Leung, R. D. Rosenberg, R. S. Bindman, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Performance benchmarks for diagnostic mammography,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 235, 775-790(2005).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. X. Liang, Q. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative reconstruction of refractive index distribution and imaging of glucose concentration by using diffusing light,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8360-8365 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. J. J. Casciari, S. V. Sotirchaos, and R. M. Sutherland, “Variations in tumor cell growth rates and metabolism with oxygen concentration, glucose-concentration, and extracellular PH,” J. Cell. Phys. 151, 386-394 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108, 9-22(2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis finger joint,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 047804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, C. Li, S. Grobmyer, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, “Phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography: pilot results in the breast,” Acad. Radiol. 15, 859-866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

C. Li, H. Zhao, B. Anderson, and H. Jiang, “Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64×64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system,” Med. Phys. 33, 627-636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative reconstruction of refractive index distribution and imaging of glucose concentration by using diffusing light,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8360-8365 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zysk, E. Chaney, and S. Boppart, “Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumors,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 2165-2177 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

E. A. Sickles, D. L. Miglioretti, R. Ballard-Barbash, B. M. Geller, J. W. Leung, R. D. Rosenberg, R. S. Bindman, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Performance benchmarks for diagnostic mammography,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 235, 775-790(2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 925-933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

H. Jiang and Y. Xu, “Phase-contrast imaging of tissue using near-infrared diffusing light,” Med. Phys. 30, 1048-1051(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszczynski, R. Macdonald, P. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain optical of breast tumors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3170-3186 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, “A compact, parallel-detection diffuse optical mammography system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2836-2842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. Moore, D. Kopans, and D. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5181-5190(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. L. Fajardo, and K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186-194(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

H. Jiang, Y. Xu, N. Iftimia, J. Eggert, K. Klove, L. Baron, and L. Fajardo, “Three dimensional optical tomographic imaging of breast in a human subject,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 1334-1340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. J. Casciari, S. V. Sotirchaos, and R. M. Sutherland, “Variations in tumor cell growth rates and metabolism with oxygen concentration, glucose-concentration, and extracellular PH,” J. Cell. Phys. 151, 386-394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, L.

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Anderson, B.

C. Li, H. Zhao, B. Anderson, and H. Jiang, “Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64×64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system,” Med. Phys. 33, 627-636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Athanasiou, T.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108, 9-22(2008).
[CrossRef]

Ballard-Barbash, R.

E. A. Sickles, D. L. Miglioretti, R. Ballard-Barbash, B. M. Geller, J. W. Leung, R. D. Rosenberg, R. S. Bindman, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Performance benchmarks for diagnostic mammography,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 235, 775-790(2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbash, R. B.

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Baron, L.

H. Jiang, Y. Xu, N. Iftimia, J. Eggert, K. Klove, L. Baron, and L. Fajardo, “Three dimensional optical tomographic imaging of breast in a human subject,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 1334-1340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bindman, R. S.

E. A. Sickles, D. L. Miglioretti, R. Ballard-Barbash, B. M. Geller, J. W. Leung, R. D. Rosenberg, R. S. Bindman, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Performance benchmarks for diagnostic mammography,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 235, 775-790(2005).
[CrossRef]

Bluemke, D. A.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D.

Boppart, S.

A. Zysk, E. Chaney, and S. Boppart, “Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumors,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 2165-2177 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briest, S.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 925-933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brukilacchio, T.

Carney, P. A.

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Casciari, J. J.

J. J. Casciari, S. V. Sotirchaos, and R. M. Sutherland, “Variations in tumor cell growth rates and metabolism with oxygen concentration, glucose-concentration, and extracellular PH,” J. Cell. Phys. 151, 386-394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Causer, P.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 925-933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaney, E.

A. Zysk, E. Chaney, and S. Boppart, “Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumors,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 2165-2177 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaves, T.

Chen, M. H.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chorlton, M.

Conant, E. F.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 925-933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cutter, G.

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 925-933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darzi, A.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108, 9-22(2008).
[CrossRef]

Deangelis, G.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Debruhl, N.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dignan, M.

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Eggert, J.

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. L. Fajardo, and K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186-194(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Xu, N. Iftimia, J. Eggert, K. Klove, L. Baron, and L. Fajardo, “Three dimensional optical tomographic imaging of breast in a human subject,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 1334-1340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Enfield, L. C.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108, 9-22(2008).
[CrossRef]

Fajardo, L.

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, C. Li, S. Grobmyer, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, “Phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography: pilot results in the breast,” Acad. Radiol. 15, 859-866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Xu, N. Iftimia, J. Eggert, K. Klove, L. Baron, and L. Fajardo, “Three dimensional optical tomographic imaging of breast in a human subject,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 1334-1340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fajardo, L. L.

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. L. Fajardo, and K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186-194(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaida, G.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatronis, C. A.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geller, B.

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Geller, B. M.

E. A. Sickles, D. L. Miglioretti, R. Ballard-Barbash, B. M. Geller, J. W. Leung, R. D. Rosenberg, R. S. Bindman, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Performance benchmarks for diagnostic mammography,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 235, 775-790(2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, A.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108, 9-22(2008).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, J. J.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grobmyer, S.

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, C. Li, S. Grobmyer, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, “Phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography: pilot results in the breast,” Acad. Radiol. 15, 859-866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

Gu, X.

N. Iftimia, X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, “A compact, parallel-detection diffuse optical mammography system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2836-2842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harms, S.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartov, A.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108, 9-22(2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, E.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 925-933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hylton, N.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N.

N. Iftimia, X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, “A compact, parallel-detection diffuse optical mammography system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2836-2842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. L. Fajardo, and K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186-194(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Xu, N. Iftimia, J. Eggert, K. Klove, L. Baron, and L. Fajardo, “Three dimensional optical tomographic imaging of breast in a human subject,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 1334-1340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jess, H.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis finger joint,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 047804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, C. Li, S. Grobmyer, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, “Phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography: pilot results in the breast,” Acad. Radiol. 15, 859-866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative reconstruction of refractive index distribution and imaging of glucose concentration by using diffusing light,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8360-8365 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, H. Zhao, B. Anderson, and H. Jiang, “Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64×64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system,” Med. Phys. 33, 627-636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, “A compact, parallel-detection diffuse optical mammography system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2836-2842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and Y. Xu, “Phase-contrast imaging of tissue using near-infrared diffusing light,” Med. Phys. 30, 1048-1051(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. L. Fajardo, and K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186-194(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Xu, N. Iftimia, J. Eggert, K. Klove, L. Baron, and L. Fajardo, “Three dimensional optical tomographic imaging of breast in a human subject,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 1334-1340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaschke, M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerlikowske, K.

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kilmer, M. E.

Klove, K.

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. L. Fajardo, and K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186-194(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Xu, N. Iftimia, J. Eggert, K. Klove, L. Baron, and L. Fajardo, “Three dimensional optical tomographic imaging of breast in a human subject,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 1334-1340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kobrunner, S.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kogel, C. A.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

Kopans, D.

Kuhl, C.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leff, D. R.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108, 9-22(2008).
[CrossRef]

Lehman, C.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leung, J. W.

E. A. Sickles, D. L. Miglioretti, R. Ballard-Barbash, B. M. Geller, J. W. Leung, R. D. Rosenberg, R. S. Bindman, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Performance benchmarks for diagnostic mammography,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 235, 775-790(2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, A.

Li, C.

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, C. Li, S. Grobmyer, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, “Phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography: pilot results in the breast,” Acad. Radiol. 15, 859-866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, H. Zhao, B. Anderson, and H. Jiang, “Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64×64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system,” Med. Phys. 33, 627-636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, C. Li, S. Grobmyer, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, “Phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography: pilot results in the breast,” Acad. Radiol. 15, 859-866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative reconstruction of refractive index distribution and imaging of glucose concentration by using diffusing light,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8360-8365 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macdonald, R.

Mantulin, W.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McBride, T. O.

Meaney, P. M.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

Miglioretti, D. L.

E. A. Sickles, D. L. Miglioretti, R. Ballard-Barbash, B. M. Geller, J. W. Leung, R. D. Rosenberg, R. S. Bindman, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Performance benchmarks for diagnostic mammography,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 235, 775-790(2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Miller, E. L.

Moesta, K. T.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszczynski, R. Macdonald, P. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain optical of breast tumors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3170-3186 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, R.

Mucke, J.

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 925-933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orel, S. G.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 925-933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterberg, U. L.

Patten, D. K.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108, 9-22(2008).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, K. D.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. O. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2950-2961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pisano, E.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. O. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2950-2961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poplack, S. P.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

Prewitt, J. O.

Rinneberg, H.

Rosenberg, R.

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Rosenberg, R. D.

E. A. Sickles, D. L. Miglioretti, R. Ballard-Barbash, B. M. Geller, J. W. Leung, R. D. Rosenberg, R. S. Bindman, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Performance benchmarks for diagnostic mammography,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 235, 775-790(2005).
[CrossRef]

Rutter, C.

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Schlag, P.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszczynski, R. Macdonald, P. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain optical of breast tumors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3170-3186 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnall, M.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schnall, M. D.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 925-933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitt, S.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seeber, M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sickles, E. A.

E. A. Sickles, D. L. Miglioretti, R. Ballard-Barbash, B. M. Geller, J. W. Leung, R. D. Rosenberg, R. S. Bindman, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Performance benchmarks for diagnostic mammography,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 235, 775-790(2005).
[CrossRef]

Smazal, S.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sobel, E. S.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis finger joint,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 047804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soho, S. K.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

Sotirchaos, S. V.

J. J. Casciari, S. V. Sotirchaos, and R. M. Sutherland, “Variations in tumor cell growth rates and metabolism with oxygen concentration, glucose-concentration, and extracellular PH,” J. Cell. Phys. 151, 386-394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stelling, C.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stott, J.

Stroszczynski, C.

Sutherland, R. M.

J. J. Casciari, S. V. Sotirchaos, and R. M. Sutherland, “Variations in tumor cell growth rates and metabolism with oxygen concentration, glucose-concentration, and extracellular PH,” J. Cell. Phys. 151, 386-394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taplin, S.

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Tosteson, T. D.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, H.

Warren, O. J.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108, 9-22(2008).
[CrossRef]

Weatherall, P.

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wells, W. A.

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

Xu, Y.

N. Iftimia, X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, “A compact, parallel-detection diffuse optical mammography system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2836-2842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and Y. Xu, “Phase-contrast imaging of tissue using near-infrared diffusing light,” Med. Phys. 30, 1048-1051(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. L. Fajardo, and K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186-194(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Y. Xu, N. Iftimia, J. Eggert, K. Klove, L. Baron, and L. Fajardo, “Three dimensional optical tomographic imaging of breast in a human subject,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 1334-1340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. Z.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108, 9-22(2008).
[CrossRef]

Yankaskas, B. C.

E. A. Sickles, D. L. Miglioretti, R. Ballard-Barbash, B. M. Geller, J. W. Leung, R. D. Rosenberg, R. S. Bindman, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Performance benchmarks for diagnostic mammography,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 235, 775-790(2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis finger joint,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 047804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 925-933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, C. Li, S. Grobmyer, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, “Phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography: pilot results in the breast,” Acad. Radiol. 15, 859-866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis finger joint,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 047804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative reconstruction of refractive index distribution and imaging of glucose concentration by using diffusing light,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8360-8365 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. Moore, D. Kopans, and D. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5181-5190(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

C. Li, H. Zhao, B. Anderson, and H. Jiang, “Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64×64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system,” Med. Phys. 33, 627-636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysk, A.

A. Zysk, E. Chaney, and S. Boppart, “Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumors,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 2165-2177 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acad. Radiol. (3)

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. L. Fajardo, and K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186-194(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liang, Q. Zhang, C. Li, S. Grobmyer, L. Fajardo, and H. Jiang, “Phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography: pilot results in the breast,” Acad. Radiol. 15, 859-866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Zhang, E. F. Conant, E. Hwang, S. Briest, S. G. Orel, M. D. Schnall, and B. J. Czerniecki, “Breast cancer detection based on incremental biochemical and physiological properties of breast cancers: a six-year, two-site study,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 925-933 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Intern. Med. (1)

P. A. Carney, D. L. Miglioretti, B. C. Yankaskas, K. Kerlikowske, R. Rosenberg, C. Rutter, B. Geller, L. Abraham, S. Taplin, M. Dignan, G. Cutter, and R. B. Barbash, “Individual and combined effects of age, breast density, and hormone replacement therapy use on the accuracy of screening mammography,” Ann. Intern. Med. 138, 168-175 (2003).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfield, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, “Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108, 9-22(2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

H. Jiang, Y. Xu, N. Iftimia, J. Eggert, K. Klove, L. Baron, and L. Fajardo, “Three dimensional optical tomographic imaging of breast in a human subject,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20, 1334-1340 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis finger joint,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 047804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell. Phys. (1)

J. J. Casciari, S. V. Sotirchaos, and R. M. Sutherland, “Variations in tumor cell growth rates and metabolism with oxygen concentration, glucose-concentration, and extracellular PH,” J. Cell. Phys. 151, 386-394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1)

D. A. Bluemke, C. A. Gatronis, M. H. Chen, G. Deangelis, N. Debruhl, S. Harms, S. Kobrunner, N. Hylton, C. Kuhl, C. Lehman, E. Pisano, P. Causer, S. Schnitt, S. Smazal, C. Stelling, P. Weatherall, and M. Schnall, “Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast prior to biopsy,” JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 292, 2735-2742 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (2)

C. Li, H. Zhao, B. Anderson, and H. Jiang, “Multispectral breast imaging using a ten-wavelength, 64×64 source/detector channels silicon photodiode-based diffuse optical tomography system,” Med. Phys. 33, 627-636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang and Y. Xu, “Phase-contrast imaging of tissue using near-infrared diffusing light,” Med. Phys. 30, 1048-1051(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia (1)

V. Ntziachristos, A. G. Yodh, M. D. Schnall, and B. Chance, “MRI-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy of malignant and benign breast lesions,” Neoplasia 4, 347-354 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. Zysk, E. Chaney, and S. Boppart, “Refractive index of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumors,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 2165-2177 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: Initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) (2)

S. P. Poplack, T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Electromagnetic breast imaging: results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 243, 350-359(2007).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Sickles, D. L. Miglioretti, R. Ballard-Barbash, B. M. Geller, J. W. Leung, R. D. Rosenberg, R. S. Bindman, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Performance benchmarks for diagnostic mammography,” Radiology (Oak Brook, Ill.) 235, 775-790(2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

N. Iftimia, X. Gu, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, “A compact, parallel-detection diffuse optical mammography system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2836-2842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of split elements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phantom geometry. R 1 = 50 mm , R 2 = 5 mm , d = 14 mm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RI images reconstructed from phantom measurements without the two-step method, where the absorption and scattering coefficients were μ a = 0.007 mm 1 and μ s ' = 1.0 mm 1 , respectively, for both the background and the target. The target had (a) 1% glucose concentration ( n = 1.3312 ), (b) 2% glucose concentration ( n = 1.3332 ), (c) 3% glucose concentration ( n = 1.3353 ), and (d) 5% glucose concentration ( n = 3393 )

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RI images reconstructed from phantom measurements with the two-step method. The absorption and scattering coefficients were μ a = 0.007 mm 1 and μ s ' = 1.0 mm 1 for both the background and the target. The target had (a) 1% glucose concentration ( n = 1.3312 ), (b) 2% glucose concentration ( n = 1.3332 ), (c) 3% glucose concentration ( n = 1.3353 ), and (d) 5% glucose concentration ( n = 1.3393 ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstructed optical images for a 66 year old woman who had an invasive ductal carcinoma that measured 1.9 cm in maximal dimension. (a) Absorption coefficient image, (b) scattering coefficient image, (c) RI image recovered without the two-step method, (d) RI image recovered with the two-step method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reconstructed optical images for a 60 year old woman with a 9 mm diameter benign nodule. (a) absorption coefficient image, (b) scattering coefficient image, (c) RI image recovered without the two-step method, (d) RI image recovered with the two-step method.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of RI and the Glucose Concentration Used in the Phantom Study

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the Actual and Recovered Values of the RI of the Target

Equations (5)

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[ A ] { Φ } = { b } ,
[ A ] { Φ / n } = { b / n } [ A / n ] { Φ } ,
( I T I + λ L T L ) Δ n = I T ( Φ ( m ) Φ ( c ) ) ,
L i j = { 1 if   i = 1 1 / N N 1 if   i , j   region  I 1 / N N 2 if   i , j   region II 0 if   i , j   others ,
n = 0.2105 · [ C ] + 1.3292 ,

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