Abstract

Mechanical and thermoelastic properties of optical films are very important to ensure the performance of optical interference filters and optical coating systems. We systematically study the growth and the mechanical and thermoelastic characteristics of niobium oxide (Nb2O5), tantalum oxide (Ta2O5), and silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin films prepared by dual ion beam sputtering. First, we investigate the stress (σ), hardness (H), reduced Young’s modulus (Er), and scratch resistance. Second, we focus on the methodology and assessment of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and Poisson’s ratio (ν) using the two-substrate method. For the high refractive index films, namely, Nb2O5 (nat550nm=2.30) and Ta2O5 (nat550nm=2.13), we obtained H6GPa, Er125GPa, CTE=4.9×106°C1, ν=0.22, and H7GPa, Er133GPa, CTE=4.4×106°C1, and ν=0.27, respectively. In comparison, for SiO2 (nat550nm=1.48), these values are H9.5GPa, Er87GPa, CTE=2.1×106°C1, and ν=0.11. Correlations between the growth conditions (secondary beam ion energy and ion current), the micro structure, and the film properties are discussed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  5. S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047-1058 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

W. Kulisch, D. Gilliland, G. Ceccone, H. Rauscher, L. Sirghi, P. Colpo, and F. Rossi, “Ion beam deposition of tantalum pentoxide thin film at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 991-995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. V. J. Chandra, G. M.Rao, and S. Uthanna, “Heat treatment induced structural and optical properties of rf magnetron sputtered tantalum oxide films,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 290-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Chen, C. J. Chu, C. H. Ho, C. C. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Determination of stress-optical and thermal-optical coefficients of Nb2O5 thin film material,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043513(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Wu, H. M. Chan, and M. P. Harmer, “Compositional tailoring of the thermal expansion coefficient of tantalum (V) oxide,” J. Mater Sci. 41, 689-695 (2006).

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674-1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C.-T. Wei and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Stresses and temperature stability of dense wavelength division multiplexing filters prepared by reactive ion-assisted e-gun evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7577-7581 (2005).

C. M. Weyant, K. T. Faber, J. D. Almer, and J. V. Guiheen, “Residual stress and microstructural evolution in tantalum oxide coatings on silicon nitride,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2169-2176 (2005).

2004 (3)

M. Moldovan, C. M. Weyant, D. L. Johnson, and K. T. Faber, “Tantalum oxide coatings as candidate environmental barriers,” J. Thermal Spray Technol. 13, 51-56 (2004).

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670-2679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

2003 (1)

C. L. Tien and C. C. Lee, “Effects of ion energy on internal stress and optical properties of ion beam sputtering Ta2O5 films,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2755-2763 (2003).

2002 (3)

2001 (4)

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047-1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184-190(2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and W. S. Sun, “Determination of the mechanical properties of thin films by digital phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 198, 325-331(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

T. Chudoba, N. Schwarzer, and F. Richter, “Determination of elastic properties of thin films by indentation measurements with a spherical indenter,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 127, 9-17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681-1691 (2000).

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxide films deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327-337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 4, 29-34 (1998).

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R22, 269-322 (1998).

1996 (2)

R. P. Vinci and J. J. Vlassak, “Mechanical behavior of thin films,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 26, 431-462 (1996).

G. E. Jellison Jr. and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371-373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Cevro and G. Carter, “Ion beam and dual ion beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films,” Opt. Eng. 34, 596-606(1995).

1994 (1)

G. Carter, “Peening in ion-assisted thin-film deposition: a generalized model,” J. Phys. D 27, 1046-1055 (1994).

1993 (2)

C. A. Davis, “A simple model for the formation of compressive stress in thin films by ion bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 226, 30-34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Fang, F. Jones, and V. Prasada “Effect of gas impurity and ion bombardment on stresses in sputter-deposited thin films: a molecular-dynamics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4472-4482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564-1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

H. Demiryont, J. R. Sites, and K. Geib, “Effects of oxygen content on the optical properties of tantalum oxide films deposited by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 24, 490-495(1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Adachi, “GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1−xAs: material parameters for use in research and device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1-R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thornton and D. W. Hoffman, “The influence of discharge current on the intrinsic stress in Mo films deposited using cylindrical and planar magnetron sputtering sources,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 576-579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314-320(1984).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

B. M. Gatehouse and A. D. Wadsley, “The crystal structure of the high temperature form of niobium pentoxide,” Acta Crystallogr. 17, 1545-1554 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. L.

M. Moldovan, C. M. Weyant, D. L. Johnson, and K. T. Faber, “Tantalum oxide coatings as candidate environmental barriers,” J. Thermal Spray Technol. 13, 51-56 (2004).

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, “GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1−xAs: material parameters for use in research and device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1-R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Almer, J. D.

C. M. Weyant, K. T. Faber, J. D. Almer, and J. V. Guiheen, “Residual stress and microstructural evolution in tantalum oxide coatings on silicon nitride,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2169-2176 (2005).

Amassian, A.

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674-1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Autran, J. L.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R22, 269-322 (1998).

Balland, B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R22, 269-322 (1998).

Bhalla, A. S.

H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Negative thermal expansion behavior in single crystal and ceramic of Nb2O5-based compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5051-5054 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blacker, R.

Boudreault, G.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

Carter, G.

M. Cevro and G. Carter, “Ion beam and dual ion beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films,” Opt. Eng. 34, 596-606(1995).

G. Carter, “Peening in ion-assisted thin-film deposition: a generalized model,” J. Phys. D 27, 1046-1055 (1994).

Ceccone, G.

W. Kulisch, D. Gilliland, G. Ceccone, H. Rauscher, L. Sirghi, P. Colpo, and F. Rossi, “Ion beam deposition of tantalum pentoxide thin film at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 991-995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cevro, M.

M. Cevro and G. Carter, “Ion beam and dual ion beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films,” Opt. Eng. 34, 596-606(1995).

Chan, H. M.

S. Wu, H. M. Chan, and M. P. Harmer, “Compositional tailoring of the thermal expansion coefficient of tantalum (V) oxide,” J. Mater Sci. 41, 689-695 (2006).

Chandra, S. V. J.

S. V. J. Chandra, G. M.Rao, and S. Uthanna, “Heat treatment induced structural and optical properties of rf magnetron sputtered tantalum oxide films,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 290-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chaneliere, C.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R22, 269-322 (1998).

Chen, T. C.

T. C. Chen, C. J. Chu, C. H. Ho, C. C. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Determination of stress-optical and thermal-optical coefficients of Nb2O5 thin film material,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043513(2007).
[CrossRef]

Choosuwan, H.

H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Negative thermal expansion behavior in single crystal and ceramic of Nb2O5-based compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5051-5054 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C. J.

T. C. Chen, C. J. Chu, C. H. Ho, C. C. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Determination of stress-optical and thermal-optical coefficients of Nb2O5 thin film material,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043513(2007).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, K. P.

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681-1691 (2000).

Chudoba, T.

T. Chudoba, N. Schwarzer, and F. Richter, “Determination of elastic properties of thin films by indentation measurements with a spherical indenter,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 127, 9-17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colpo, P.

W. Kulisch, D. Gilliland, G. Ceccone, H. Rauscher, L. Sirghi, P. Colpo, and F. Rossi, “Ion beam deposition of tantalum pentoxide thin film at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 991-995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Court, N.

Cuomo, J. J.

J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, and H. R. Kaufman, Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology (Noyes, 1989), Part III, p. 170.

Davis, C. A.

C. A. Davis, “A simple model for the formation of compressive stress in thin films by ion bombardment,” Thin Solid Films 226, 30-34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Demiryont, H.

Devine, R. A. B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R22, 269-322 (1998).

Dligatch, S.

Drese, R.

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047-1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elliman, R. G.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

Faber, K. T.

C. M. Weyant, K. T. Faber, J. D. Almer, and J. V. Guiheen, “Residual stress and microstructural evolution in tantalum oxide coatings on silicon nitride,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2169-2176 (2005).

M. Moldovan, C. M. Weyant, D. L. Johnson, and K. T. Faber, “Tantalum oxide coatings as candidate environmental barriers,” J. Thermal Spray Technol. 13, 51-56 (2004).

Fang, C. C.

C. C. Fang, F. Jones, and V. Prasada “Effect of gas impurity and ion bombardment on stresses in sputter-deposited thin films: a molecular-dynamics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4472-4482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gatehouse, B. M.

B. M. Gatehouse and A. D. Wadsley, “The crystal structure of the high temperature form of niobium pentoxide,” Acta Crystallogr. 17, 1545-1554 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Gatto, A.

Geib, K.

Gilliland, D.

W. Kulisch, D. Gilliland, G. Ceccone, H. Rauscher, L. Sirghi, P. Colpo, and F. Rossi, “Ion beam deposition of tantalum pentoxide thin film at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 991-995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

Grötzschel, R.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

Guiheen, J. V.

C. M. Weyant, K. T. Faber, J. D. Almer, and J. V. Guiheen, “Residual stress and microstructural evolution in tantalum oxide coatings on silicon nitride,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2169-2176 (2005).

Gujrathi, S. C.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

S. C. Gujrathi, “Depth profiles of thin films and interfaces by the elastic recoil detection technique,” in Metallization of Polymers, E. Sacher, J. J. Pireaux, and S. P. Kowalczyk, eds., American Chemical Society Symposium Series Vol. 440 (American Chemical Society, 2005), p. 88.

Guo, R.

H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Negative thermal expansion behavior in single crystal and ceramic of Nb2O5-based compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5051-5054 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harmer, M. P.

S. Wu, H. M. Chan, and M. P. Harmer, “Compositional tailoring of the thermal expansion coefficient of tantalum (V) oxide,” J. Mater Sci. 41, 689-695 (2006).

Ho, C. H.

T. C. Chen, C. J. Chu, C. H. Ho, C. C. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Determination of stress-optical and thermal-optical coefficients of Nb2O5 thin film material,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043513(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, D. W.

J. A. Thornton and D. W. Hoffman, “The influence of discharge current on the intrinsic stress in Mo films deposited using cylindrical and planar magnetron sputtering sources,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 576-579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. C.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, and J. C. Hsu, “Internal stress and optical properties of Nb2O5 thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2043-2047 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxide films deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327-337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, B.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184-190(2001).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C. C.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681-1691 (2000).

Jayavel, R.

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047-1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison Jr. and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371-373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jeynes, C.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

Jones, F.

C. C. Fang, F. Jones, and V. Prasada “Effect of gas impurity and ion bombardment on stresses in sputter-deposited thin films: a molecular-dynamics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4472-4482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

Kappertz, O.

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047-1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, H. R.

J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, and H. R. Kaufman, Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology (Noyes, 1989), Part III, p. 170.

Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674-1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670-2679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, R.

Klose, F.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184-190(2001).
[CrossRef]

Kukli, K.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 4, 29-34 (1998).

Kulisch, W.

W. Kulisch, D. Gilliland, G. Ceccone, H. Rauscher, L. Sirghi, P. Colpo, and F. Rossi, “Ion beam deposition of tantalum pentoxide thin film at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 991-995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lappalainen, R.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 4, 29-34 (1998).

Lee, C. C.

T. C. Chen, C. J. Chu, C. H. Ho, C. C. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Determination of stress-optical and thermal-optical coefficients of Nb2O5 thin film material,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043513(2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien and C. C. Lee, “Effects of ion energy on internal stress and optical properties of ion beam sputtering Ta2O5 films,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2755-2763 (2003).

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, and J. C. Hsu, “Internal stress and optical properties of Nb2O5 thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2043-2047 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and W. S. Sun, “Determination of the mechanical properties of thin films by digital phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 198, 325-331(2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxide films deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327-337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681-1691 (2000).

Lennard, W. N.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

Leskela, M.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 4, 29-34 (1998).

Martin, P. J.

Martinu, L.

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674-1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, J. Oberste-Berghaus, L. Martinu, R. Blacker, I. Stevenson, G. Sadkhin, D. Morton, S. McEldowney, R. Klinger, P. J. Martin, N. Court, S. Dligatch, M. Gross, and R. P. Netterfield, “Mechanical characteristics of optical coatings prepared by various techniques: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2670-2679 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masse, J. P.

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674-1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matthee, T.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184-190(2001).
[CrossRef]

McEldowney, S.

Modine, F. A.

G. E. Jellison Jr. and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371-373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moldovan, M.

M. Moldovan, C. M. Weyant, D. L. Johnson, and K. T. Faber, “Tantalum oxide coatings as candidate environmental barriers,” J. Thermal Spray Technol. 13, 51-56 (2004).

Morton, D.

Netterfield, R. P.

Neuhauser, H.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184-190(2001).
[CrossRef]

Oberste-Berghaus, J.

Okada, Y.

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314-320(1984).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, W. C.

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564-1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pharr, G. M.

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564-1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, D.

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prasada, V.

C. C. Fang, F. Jones, and V. Prasada “Effect of gas impurity and ion bombardment on stresses in sputter-deposited thin films: a molecular-dynamics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4472-4482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rao, G. M.

S. V. J. Chandra, G. M.Rao, and S. Uthanna, “Heat treatment induced structural and optical properties of rf magnetron sputtered tantalum oxide films,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 290-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rauhala, E.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

Rauscher, H.

W. Kulisch, D. Gilliland, G. Ceccone, H. Rauscher, L. Sirghi, P. Colpo, and F. Rossi, “Ion beam deposition of tantalum pentoxide thin film at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 991-995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richter, F.

T. Chudoba, N. Schwarzer, and F. Richter, “Determination of elastic properties of thin films by indentation measurements with a spherical indenter,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 127, 9-17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ritala, M.

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 4, 29-34 (1998).

Rossi, F.

W. Kulisch, D. Gilliland, G. Ceccone, H. Rauscher, L. Sirghi, P. Colpo, and F. Rossi, “Ion beam deposition of tantalum pentoxide thin film at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 991-995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rossnagel, S. M.

J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, and H. R. Kaufman, Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology (Noyes, 1989), Part III, p. 170.

Sadkhin, G.

Sajavaara, T.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

Schwarzer, N.

T. Chudoba, N. Schwarzer, and F. Richter, “Determination of elastic properties of thin films by indentation measurements with a spherical indenter,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 127, 9-17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, W. S.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, H.-P. D.

C.-T. Wei and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Stresses and temperature stability of dense wavelength division multiplexing filters prepared by reactive ion-assisted e-gun evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7577-7581 (2005).

Sirghi, L.

W. Kulisch, D. Gilliland, G. Ceccone, H. Rauscher, L. Sirghi, P. Colpo, and F. Rossi, “Ion beam deposition of tantalum pentoxide thin film at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 991-995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sites, J. R.

Stevenson, I.

Strauss, G. N.

G. N. Strauss, “Mechanical stress in optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser and H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer, 2003), p. 207.

Sun, W. S.

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and W. S. Sun, “Determination of the mechanical properties of thin films by digital phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 198, 325-331(2001).
[CrossRef]

Szymanowski, H.

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674-1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Szyszka, B.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184-190(2001).
[CrossRef]

Thielsch, R.

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton and D. W. Hoffman, “The influence of discharge current on the intrinsic stress in Mo films deposited using cylindrical and planar magnetron sputtering sources,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 576-579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. L.

C. L. Tien and C. C. Lee, “Effects of ion energy on internal stress and optical properties of ion beam sputtering Ta2O5 films,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2755-2763 (2003).

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, and J. C. Hsu, “Internal stress and optical properties of Nb2O5 thin films deposited by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2043-2047 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and W. S. Sun, “Determination of the mechanical properties of thin films by digital phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 198, 325-331(2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, “An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681-1691 (2000).

Timmers, H.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

Tokumaru, Y.

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314-320(1984).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y. L.

C. L. Tien, C. C. Lee, Y. L. Tsai, and W. S. Sun, “Determination of the mechanical properties of thin films by digital phase shifting interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 198, 325-331(2001).
[CrossRef]

Uthanna, S.

S. V. J. Chandra, G. M.Rao, and S. Uthanna, “Heat treatment induced structural and optical properties of rf magnetron sputtered tantalum oxide films,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 290-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraj, S.

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047-1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vergöhl, M.

B. Hunsche, M. Vergöhl, H. Neuhauser, F. Klose, B. Szyszka, and T. Matthee, “Effect of deposition parameters on optical and mechanical properties of Mf- and DC- sputtered Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 392, 184-190(2001).
[CrossRef]

Vinci, R. P.

R. P. Vinci and J. J. Vlassak, “Mechanical behavior of thin films,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 26, 431-462 (1996).

Vlassak, J. J.

R. P. Vinci and J. J. Vlassak, “Mechanical behavior of thin films,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 26, 431-462 (1996).

Wadsley, A. D.

B. M. Gatehouse and A. D. Wadsley, “The crystal structure of the high temperature form of niobium pentoxide,” Acta Crystallogr. 17, 1545-1554 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Q.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

Wei, C.-T.

C.-T. Wei and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Stresses and temperature stability of dense wavelength division multiplexing filters prepared by reactive ion-assisted e-gun evaporation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 7577-7581 (2005).

Weijers, T. D. M.

G. Boudreault, R. G. Elliman, R. Grötzschel, S. C. Gujrathi, C. Jeynes, W. N. Lennard, E. Rauhala, T. Sajavaara, H. Timmers, Y. Q. Wang, and T. D. M. Weijers, “Round robin: measurement of H implantation distributions in Si by elastic recoil detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 222, 547-566(2004).

Weyant, C. M.

C. M. Weyant, K. T. Faber, J. D. Almer, and J. V. Guiheen, “Residual stress and microstructural evolution in tantalum oxide coatings on silicon nitride,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2169-2176 (2005).

M. Moldovan, C. M. Weyant, D. L. Johnson, and K. T. Faber, “Tantalum oxide coatings as candidate environmental barriers,” J. Thermal Spray Technol. 13, 51-56 (2004).

Wong, D. H.

C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and D. H. Wong, “Low loss niobium oxide films deposited by ion beam sputter deposition,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 327-337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

T. C. Chen, C. J. Chu, C. H. Ho, C. C. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Determination of stress-optical and thermal-optical coefficients of Nb2O5 thin film material,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043513(2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

S. Wu, H. M. Chan, and M. P. Harmer, “Compositional tailoring of the thermal expansion coefficient of tantalum (V) oxide,” J. Mater Sci. 41, 689-695 (2006).

Wutting, M.

S. Venkataraj, R. Drese, O. Kappertz, R. Jayavel, and M. Wutting, “Characterization of niobium oxide films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1047-1058 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zabeida, O.

J. P. Masse, H. Szymanowski, O. Zabeida, A. Amassian, J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, “Stability and effect of annealing on the optical properties of plasma deposited Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 films,” Thin Solid Films 515, 1674-1682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. (1)

B. M. Gatehouse and A. D. Wadsley, “The crystal structure of the high temperature form of niobium pentoxide,” Acta Crystallogr. 17, 1545-1554 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

R. P. Vinci and J. J. Vlassak, “Mechanical behavior of thin films,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 26, 431-462 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. E. Jellison Jr. and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371-373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Vap. Deposition (1)

K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskela, and R. Lappalainen, “Niobium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 4, 29-34 (1998).

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

S. V. J. Chandra, G. M.Rao, and S. Uthanna, “Heat treatment induced structural and optical properties of rf magnetron sputtered tantalum oxide films,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 290-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 314-320(1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Adachi, “GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1−xAs: material parameters for use in research and device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1-R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Fang, F. Jones, and V. Prasada “Effect of gas impurity and ion bombardment on stresses in sputter-deposited thin films: a molecular-dynamics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4472-4482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Chen, C. J. Chu, C. H. Ho, C. C. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Determination of stress-optical and thermal-optical coefficients of Nb2O5 thin film material,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043513(2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Negative thermal expansion behavior in single crystal and ceramic of Nb2O5-based compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5051-5054 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater Sci. (1)

S. Wu, H. M. Chan, and M. P. Harmer, “Compositional tailoring of the thermal expansion coefficient of tantalum (V) oxide,” J. Mater Sci. 41, 689-695 (2006).

J. Mater. Res. (1)

W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr, “An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments,” J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564-1583 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

C. L. Tien and C. C. Lee, “Effects of ion energy on internal stress and optical properties of ion beam sputtering Ta2O5 films,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2755-2763 (2003).

C. L. Tien, C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, and K. P. Chuang, “Simultaneous determination of the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of Ta2O5 thin film using phase shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1681-1691 (2000).

J. Phys. D (1)

G. Carter, “Peening in ion-assisted thin-film deposition: a generalized model,” J. Phys. D 27, 1046-1055 (1994).

J. Thermal Spray Technol. (1)

M. Moldovan, C. M. Weyant, D. L. Johnson, and K. T. Faber, “Tantalum oxide coatings as candidate environmental barriers,” J. Thermal Spray Technol. 13, 51-56 (2004).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (3)

J. A. Thornton and D. W. Hoffman, “The influence of discharge current on the intrinsic stress in Mo films deposited using cylindrical and planar magnetron sputtering sources,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 576-579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Kulisch, D. Gilliland, G. Ceccone, H. Rauscher, L. Sirghi, P. Colpo, and F. Rossi, “Ion beam deposition of tantalum pentoxide thin film at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 991-995 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: a review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the DIBS system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmission spectra of Nb 2 O 5 films prepared with different E i .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index ( a t     550     nm ) of Nb 2 O 5 and Ta 2 O 5 films as a function of E i for different I i .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

F h curves for Nb 2 O 5 ( E i = 400 eV , I i = 100 mA ), Ta 2 O 5 ( E i = 550 eV , I i = 100 mA ), and Si O 2 ( E i = 400 eV , I i = 75 mA ) films deposited on Si(100) substrates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) H and (b)  E r of Nb 2 O 5 and Ta 2 O 5 films as a function of E i for different values of I i .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Compressive stress in Nb 2 O 5 and Ta 2 O 5 films as a function of E i for different values of I i .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

σ T plots of (a)  Nb 2 O 5 , (b)  Ta 2 O 5 , and (c)  S i O 2 thin films deposited on Si(100) and GaAs(100) substrates.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Deposition Parameters

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Table 2 Properties of Optimized Nb 2 O 5 , Ta 2 O 5 , and Si O 2 Films a

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Table 3 Summary of E f / ( 1 ν f ) , E f , CTE, and ν f Values for Nb 2 O 5 , Ta 2 O 5 , and Si O 2 Thin Films

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 E r = ( 1 υ f 2 ) E f + ( 1 υ in 2 ) E in ,
σ = 1 6 R E s d s 2 ( 1 υ s ) d f ,
σ ( T ) = σ i + ( α s α f ) ( E f 1 ν f ) ( T T d ) ,
d σ d T = [ E f ( 1 ν f ) ] ( α s α f ) ,
[ E f 1 ν f ] = d σ 1 d T d σ 2 d T α s 1 α s 2 ,
α f = α s 2 d σ 1 d T α s 1 d σ 2 d T d σ 1 d T d σ 2 d T ,
υ f = ( 1 E r 1 υ in 2 E in ) d σ d T 1 α s α f 1.

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