Abstract

Time-delay-compensated grating monochromators for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet femtosecond pulses in a broad spectral region are designed by adopting both classical diffraction and the off-plane mount. The optical design requires six optical elements: four concave mirrors and two plane gratings. I compare here the two designs in terms of the tolerances in the alignment for time-delay compensation in the femtosecond time scale. The off-plane mount is demonstrated to be far superior to the classical diffraction mount.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

2004 (1)

L. Poletto, “Time-compensated grazing-incidence monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 1013-1016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, “Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

L. Poletto and G. Tondello, “Time-compensated EUV and soft x-ray monochromator for ultrashort high order harmonic pulses,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 374-379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970(1997).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

P. Vincent, M. Neviere, and D. Maystre, “X-ray gratings: the GMS mount,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1780-1783 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

1977 (1)

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

Bonora, S.

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, N. H.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cash, W.

Caumes, J.-P.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga1, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Phys. 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

Chang, Z.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970(1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Constant, E.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga1, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Phys. 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nature Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elouga1, L.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga1, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Phys. 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferencz, K.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, F.

Flanagan, K. A.

Frassetto, F.

Frueke, R.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, “Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giglia, A.

Gohle, C.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goray, L. I.

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heilmann, R. K.

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holland, G. E.

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, W. R.

Jaeglè, P.

P. Jaeglè, Coherent Sources of XUV Radiation (Springer, 2006).

Kan, C.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970(1997).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond XUV pulses: attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” in Few-Cycle Laser Pulse Generation and Its Applications, F. X. Kärtner, ed. (Springer, 2004).

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

Kleinenberg, U.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, “Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kohnert, R.

Koppitsch, R.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nature Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond XUV pulses: attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” in Few-Cycle Laser Pulse Generation and Its Applications, F. X. Kärtner, ed. (Springer, 2004).

Laming, J. M.

Mahne, N.

Maystre, D.

Mevel, E.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga1, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Phys. 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970(1997).
[CrossRef]

Nannarone, S.

Neviere, M.

Nisoli, M.

Opt., Appl.

P. Vincent, M. Neviere, and D. Maystre, “X-ray gratings: the GMS mount,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1780-1783 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pascolini, M.

Pohl, M.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, “Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, and L. Poletto, “Optical concept of a compressor for XUV pulses in the attosecond domain,” Opt. Express 16, 6652-6667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Temporal characterization of a time-compensated monochromator for high-efficiency selection of XUV pulses generated by high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B44-B49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2897-2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pascolini, S. Bonora, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and L. Poletto, “Gratings in the conical diffraction mounting for an EUV time-delay compensated monochromator,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3253-3562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto and P. Villoresi, “Time-compensated monochromator in the off-plane mount for extreme-ultraviolet ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8577-8585 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga1, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Phys. 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, “Time-compensated grazing-incidence monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 1013-1016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto and G. Tondello, “Time-compensated EUV and soft x-ray monochromator for ultrashort high order harmonic pulses,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 374-379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, A. P.

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970(1997).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

Schattenburg, M. L.

Schnürer, M.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seely, J. F.

Sola, J.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga1, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Phys. 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, “Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

Streli, C.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strelkov, V.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga1, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Phys. 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

L. Poletto and G. Tondello, “Time-compensated EUV and soft x-ray monochromator for ultrashort high order harmonic pulses,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 374-379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

Vincent, P.

P. Vincent, M. Neviere, and D. Maystre, “X-ray gratings: the GMS mount,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1780-1783 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, and D. Maystre, “X-ray efficiencies of gratings,” Appl. Opt. 17, 843-845 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visser, H.

Vozzi, C.

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga1, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Phys. 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970(1997).
[CrossRef]

Werner, W.

Wieland, M.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, “Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, “Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wobrauschek, P.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (9)

W. Werner, “X-ray efficiencies of blazed gratings in extreme off-plane mountings,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2078-2080(1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Neviere, P. Vincent, and D. Maystre, “X-ray efficiencies of gratings,” Appl. Opt. 17, 843-845 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Werner and H. Visser, “X-ray monochromator designs based on extreme off-plane grating mountings,” Appl. Opt. 20, 487-492 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cash and R. Kohnert, “Very high x-ray efficiency from a blazed grating,” Appl. Opt. 21, 17-18 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cash, “Echelle spectrographs at grazing incidence,” Appl. Opt. 21, 710-717 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, “Compensation of optical path lengths in extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray monochromators for ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6040-6049 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Seely, L. I. Goray, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. M. Laming, G. E. Holland, K. A. Flanagan, R. K. Heilmann, C.-H. Chang, M. L. Schattenburg, and A. P. Rasmussen, “Efficiency of a grazing-incidence off-plane grating in the soft-x-ray region,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1680-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pascolini, S. Bonora, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and L. Poletto, “Gratings in the conical diffraction mounting for an EUV time-delay compensated monochromator,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3253-3562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto and P. Villoresi, “Time-compensated monochromator in the off-plane mount for extreme-ultraviolet ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8577-8585 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Poletto, “Time-compensated grazing-incidence monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 1013-1016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleinenberg, “Submicron extreme ultraviolet imaging using high-harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520-2522 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (2)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Hansch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Phys. (2)

J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga1, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Phys. 2, 319-322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nature Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967-2970(1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5 keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10 fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236-3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

L. Poletto and G. Tondello, “Time-compensated EUV and soft x-ray monochromator for ultrashort high order harmonic pulses,” Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 374-379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Vincent, M. Neviere, and D. Maystre, “X-ray gratings: the GMS mount,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1780-1783 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Jaeglè, Coherent Sources of XUV Radiation (Springer, 2006).

R. Kienberger and F. Krausz, “Subfemtosecond XUV pulses: attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” in Few-Cycle Laser Pulse Generation and Its Applications, F. X. Kärtner, ed. (Springer, 2004).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the off-plane mount.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of the time-delay monochromator configuration with plane gratings: (a) conventional mount and (b) off-plane mount.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Residual spread of the optical paths for the monochromator with two plane gratings: (a) conventional mount and (b) off-plane mount. The design parameters are: 15 55 nm spectral region, source divergence D = 10 mrad full width at zero height, and toroidal mirrors at 87 ° incidence angle with arms p = 300 mm . The spectral dispersion in the slit plane at a 35 nm wavelength is 8.3 nm/mm in the left panels (low resolution) and 5.5 nm/mm in the right panels (medium resolution).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Error in time-delay compensation as a function of the error in the positioning of mirror M 3 : (a) conventional mount and (b) off-plane mount. The design parameters are the same as in Fig. 3. The spectral dispersion in the slit plane is 8.3 nm/mm in the left panels and 5.5 nm/mm in the right panels. Once the resolution has been fixed, the errors are similar in the two geometries. Furthermore, it has been verified that the errors are almost the same for different grating parameters but the same resolution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Error in time-delay compensation as a function of the misalignment of grating G 2 for the conventional mount. The design parameters are the same as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Error in time-delay compensation as a function of the misalignment of grating G 2 for the off-plane mount. The design parameters are the same as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ratio of the errors in time-delay compensation for the off-plane and the conventional mounts. α 1 indicates the incidence angle on G 1 in the CDM.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reference system for the definition of the tolerances in the source position and orientation. The origin is the nominal position of the HH source. The x axis is parallel to the straight line that connects the source with the center of M 1 and the y axis is parallel to the M 1 surface in the sagittal direction.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Residual spread of the optical paths due to angular instabilities of the HH source: (a) classical-diffraction mount and (b) off-plane mount. The spectral dispersion in the intermediate slit plane is 5.5 nm/mm at 35 nm .

Equations (11)

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Δ ε = ± arcsin [ λ σ 2 cos ( K / 2 ) ] ,
Δ ε o p = ± arcsin ( λ σ o p 2 sin γ ) ,
Δ λ = cos β 1 σ p Δ s ,
Δ λ o p = cos μ σ o p p Δ s ,
α = K 2 arcsin [ λ σ 2 cos ( K / 2 ) ] .
N 2 = N cos β cos α 2 p 3 p .
Δ N N Δ p p + Δ K 2 tan ( K α ) { 1 + sin ( K 2 α ) tan ( K 2 ) + sin ( K 2 α ) tan 2 ( K 2 ) Δ K 2 + tan ( K α ) [ 1 + sin ( K 2 α ) tan ( K 2 ) ] 2 Δ K 2 } ,
μ = arcsin ( λ σ o p 2 sin γ ) .
Δ N o p N o p Δ p p + Δ γ tan 2 μ tan γ ( 1 3 2 Δ γ tan γ ) ,
σ o p σ = cos μ c cos β c ,
Δ T o p Δ T cos 2 ( K / 2 ) sin 2 ( K / 2 α ) cos α sin ( K α ) sin 2 γ tan γ ,

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