Abstract

A three-dimensional (3D) color display with 360° omnidirectional views is developed by use of a high frame rate digital micromirror device projector and three-color light-emitting diodes as the light source. The high-speed projector can project a series of color images on a rotating anisotropic diffusing mirror that controls the reflective light in a designed angular region. Observers around the display scene can watch autostereoscopic views from the ominidirectional 360 deg view around the 3D display. The vivid 3D scene can be obtained with perfect color effect and correct parallax, projection effect, and occlusion. The principle of the omnidirectional view 3D color display is analyzed in detail and experimental results of a 3D color object are presented.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. I. Kim, E. Korevaar, and H. Hakakha, “Three-dimensional volumetric display in rubidium vapor,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 274-284 (1996).
  2. T. Honda, T. Doumuki, A. Akella, L. Galambos, and L. Hesselink, “One-color one-beam pumping of Er3+-doped ZBLAN glasses for a three-dimensional two-step excitation display,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1108-1110 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Sullivan, “Depth cube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).
  4. D. Bahr, “FELIX: a volumetric 3D imaging technique,” Proc. SPIE 3101, 202-210 (1997).
  5. K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid FELIX: a static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).
  6. K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).
  7. G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).
  8. W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
  9. X. Xie, X. Liu, and Y. Lin, “The investigation of data voxelization for a three-dimensional volumetric display system,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 045707 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56-63 (2005).
  11. T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).
  12. A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an Interactive 360° Light Field Display, ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2007).
    [PubMed]
  13. R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, and Y. Horry, “Transpost: all-around three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 56-65(2004).

2009 (1)

X. Xie, X. Liu, and Y. Lin, “The investigation of data voxelization for a three-dimensional volumetric display system,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 045707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).

2005 (2)

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56-63 (2005).

2004 (2)

A. Sullivan, “Depth cube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, and Y. Horry, “Transpost: all-around three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 56-65(2004).

2003 (1)

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid FELIX: a static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).

2002 (2)

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

D. Bahr, “FELIX: a volumetric 3D imaging technique,” Proc. SPIE 3101, 202-210 (1997).

1996 (1)

I. I. Kim, E. Korevaar, and H. Hakakha, “Three-dimensional volumetric display in rubidium vapor,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 274-284 (1996).

Akella, A.

Ardey, G.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).

Bahr, D.

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid FELIX: a static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).

D. Bahr, “FELIX: a volumetric 3D imaging technique,” Proc. SPIE 3101, 202-210 (1997).

Balogh, T.

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).

Banker, Y.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).

Bezecny, D.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).

Bolas, M.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an Interactive 360° Light Field Display, ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2007).
[PubMed]

Chun, W. S.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).

Cossairt, O. S.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).

Debevec, P.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an Interactive 360° Light Field Display, ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2007).
[PubMed]

Dorval, R. K.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).

Doumuki, T.

Favalora, G. E.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).

Galambos, L.

Giovinco, M. G.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).

Guill, C.

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid FELIX: a static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).

Hakakha, H.

I. I. Kim, E. Korevaar, and H. Hakakha, “Three-dimensional volumetric display in rubidium vapor,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 274-284 (1996).

Hall, D. M.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).

Hesselink, L.

Homann, D.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).

Honda, T.

Horry, Y.

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, and Y. Horry, “Transpost: all-around three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 56-65(2004).

Hoshino, T.

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, and Y. Horry, “Transpost: all-around three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 56-65(2004).

Jones, A.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an Interactive 360° Light Field Display, ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2007).
[PubMed]

Kim, I. I.

I. I. Kim, E. Korevaar, and H. Hakakha, “Three-dimensional volumetric display in rubidium vapor,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 274-284 (1996).

Korevaar, E.

I. I. Kim, E. Korevaar, and H. Hakakha, “Three-dimensional volumetric display in rubidium vapor,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 274-284 (1996).

Langhans, K.

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid FELIX: a static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).

Lin, Y.

X. Xie, X. Liu, and Y. Lin, “The investigation of data voxelization for a three-dimensional volumetric display system,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 045707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Xie, X. Liu, and Y. Lin, “The investigation of data voxelization for a three-dimensional volumetric display system,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 045707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McDowall, I.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an Interactive 360° Light Field Display, ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2007).
[PubMed]

Napoli, J.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).

Oltmann, K.

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid FELIX: a static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).

Otsuka, R.

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, and Y. Horry, “Transpost: all-around three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 56-65(2004).

Purtell, T. J.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).

Richmond, M. J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).

Rieper, E.

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid FELIX: a static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).

Schooler, J. F.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).

Sullivan, A.

A. Sullivan, “Depth cube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56-63 (2005).

Xie, X.

X. Xie, X. Liu, and Y. Lin, “The investigation of data voxelization for a three-dimensional volumetric display system,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 045707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an Interactive 360° Light Field Display, ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2007).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

X. Xie, X. Liu, and Y. Lin, “The investigation of data voxelization for a three-dimensional volumetric display system,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 045707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (10)

A. Sullivan, “Depth cube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279-284 (2004).

D. Bahr, “FELIX: a volumetric 3D imaging technique,” Proc. SPIE 3101, 202-210 (1997).

K. Langhans, C. Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, “Solid FELIX: a static volume 3D-laser display,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 175-190 (2002).

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. Purtell II, J. F. Schooler, Y. Banker, and G. E. Favalora, “Spatial 3-D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56-63 (2005).

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).

I. I. Kim, E. Korevaar, and H. Hakakha, “Three-dimensional volumetric display in rubidium vapor,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 274-284 (1996).

R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, and Y. Horry, “Transpost: all-around three-dimensional display system,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 56-65(2004).

Other (1)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an Interactive 360° Light Field Display, ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2007).
[PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the omni directional view 3D display system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical character of the diffusing mirror with the diffusion angle in (a)  the horizontal direction and (b) the vertical direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top view of the displayed viewing sections.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Viewing section of the projected image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry of the relation between the projected image and the view pictures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of the omnidirectional view 3D color display system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stripe images: (a), (b), (c) RGB stripes, respectively; (d) the intensity distribution of the cross section of RGB stripes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

3D flower model.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Projected images reconstructing RGB views: (a), (b), (c), (d) four images with a 90 ° rotating angle corresponding to red views; (e), (f), (g), (h) four images with a 90 ° rotating angle corresponding to green views; (i), (j), (k), (l) four images with a 90 ° rotating angle corresponding to blue views.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photographs of different views of the reconstructed flowers.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W = D tan δ .
n = 360 / φ .
W j = { | D tan φ cos [ ( j i ) φ ] | j = i t + 1 , , i + t 1 R D sin [ ( t 1 ) φ ] W i + t 1 / 2 j = i t , i + t ,
t = ceil { [ arcsin ( R / D ) ] / φ } ,
L j = { D sin [ ( j i ) φ ] j = i t + 1 , , i + t 1 D sin [ ( 1 t ) φ ] ( W i t + 1 + W i t ) / 2 j = i t D sin [ ( t 1 ) φ ] + ( W i + t 1 + W i + t ) / 2 j = i + t .
g j ( x j , y j ) = f j ( x j , y j ) rect { ( x j L j ) / W j } , j = i t , , i + t ,
V i ( x i = x j , y i = y j ) = j = i t i + t g j ( x j , y j ) .
f i ( x i = x j , y i = y j ) = j = i t i + t V j ( x j , y j ) rect { ( x j L j ) / W j } , j = i t , , i + t ,

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