Abstract

A distributed fiber optic monitoring methodology based on optic time domain reflectometry technology is developed for seismic damage identification of steel structures. Epoxy with a strength closely associated to a specified structure damage state is used for bonding zigzagged configured optic fibers on the surfaces of the structure. Sensing the local deformation of the structure, the epoxy modulates the signal change within the optic fiber in response to the damage state of the structure. A monotonic loading test is conducted on a steel specimen installed with the proposed sensing system using selected epoxy that will crack at the designated strain level, which indicates the damage of the steel structure. Then, using the selected epoxy, a varying degree of cyclic loading amplitudes, which is associated with different damage states, is applied on a second specimen. The test results show that the specimen’s damage can be identified by the optic sensors, and its maximum local deformation can be recorded by the sensing system; moreover, the damage evolution can also be identified.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. P. Lynch, Y. Wang, K. C. Lu, T. C. Hou, and C. H. Loh, “Post-seismic damage assessment of steel structures instrumented with self-interrogating wireless sensors,” in Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (8NCEE) (Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 2006).
  2. W. L. Schulz, J. P. Conte, and E. Udd, “Long gauge fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensors to monitor civil structures,” Proc. SPIE 4330, 56-65 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. P. Ou and S. Hou, “Seismic damage identification using multi-line distributed fiber optic sensor system,” Proc. SPIE 5856, 1003-1008 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. T. Wang and C. K. Y. Leung, “Applications of a distributed fiber optic crack sensor for concrete structures,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 135, 458-464 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. K. Y. Leung, N. Elvin, N. Olson, T. F. Morse, and Y. F. He, “A novel distributed optical crack sensor for concrete structures,” Eng. Fract. Mech. 65(2-3), 133-148 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. B. Liao, Fiber Optics (Tsinghua University Press, 2000).
  7. J. P. Ou, S. Hou, Z. Zhou, and A. V. Dyshlyuk, “The multi-line distributed fiber optic crack detection system and its application,” Piezoelectrics Acoustooptics 29(2), 144-147 (2007).
  8. M. Mihalikova and J. Janek, “Influence of the loading and strain rates on the strength properties and formability of higher-strength sheet,” Metalurgija 46(2), 107-110 (2007).

2007 (3)

K. T. Wang and C. K. Y. Leung, “Applications of a distributed fiber optic crack sensor for concrete structures,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 135, 458-464 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. P. Ou, S. Hou, Z. Zhou, and A. V. Dyshlyuk, “The multi-line distributed fiber optic crack detection system and its application,” Piezoelectrics Acoustooptics 29(2), 144-147 (2007).

M. Mihalikova and J. Janek, “Influence of the loading and strain rates on the strength properties and formability of higher-strength sheet,” Metalurgija 46(2), 107-110 (2007).

2005 (2)

C. K. Y. Leung, N. Elvin, N. Olson, T. F. Morse, and Y. F. He, “A novel distributed optical crack sensor for concrete structures,” Eng. Fract. Mech. 65(2-3), 133-148 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. P. Ou and S. Hou, “Seismic damage identification using multi-line distributed fiber optic sensor system,” Proc. SPIE 5856, 1003-1008 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

W. L. Schulz, J. P. Conte, and E. Udd, “Long gauge fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensors to monitor civil structures,” Proc. SPIE 4330, 56-65 (2001).
[Crossref]

Conte, J. P.

W. L. Schulz, J. P. Conte, and E. Udd, “Long gauge fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensors to monitor civil structures,” Proc. SPIE 4330, 56-65 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dyshlyuk, A. V.

J. P. Ou, S. Hou, Z. Zhou, and A. V. Dyshlyuk, “The multi-line distributed fiber optic crack detection system and its application,” Piezoelectrics Acoustooptics 29(2), 144-147 (2007).

Elvin, N.

C. K. Y. Leung, N. Elvin, N. Olson, T. F. Morse, and Y. F. He, “A novel distributed optical crack sensor for concrete structures,” Eng. Fract. Mech. 65(2-3), 133-148 (2005).
[Crossref]

He, Y. F.

C. K. Y. Leung, N. Elvin, N. Olson, T. F. Morse, and Y. F. He, “A novel distributed optical crack sensor for concrete structures,” Eng. Fract. Mech. 65(2-3), 133-148 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hou, S.

J. P. Ou, S. Hou, Z. Zhou, and A. V. Dyshlyuk, “The multi-line distributed fiber optic crack detection system and its application,” Piezoelectrics Acoustooptics 29(2), 144-147 (2007).

J. P. Ou and S. Hou, “Seismic damage identification using multi-line distributed fiber optic sensor system,” Proc. SPIE 5856, 1003-1008 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hou, T. C.

J. P. Lynch, Y. Wang, K. C. Lu, T. C. Hou, and C. H. Loh, “Post-seismic damage assessment of steel structures instrumented with self-interrogating wireless sensors,” in Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (8NCEE) (Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 2006).

Janek, J.

M. Mihalikova and J. Janek, “Influence of the loading and strain rates on the strength properties and formability of higher-strength sheet,” Metalurgija 46(2), 107-110 (2007).

Leung, C. K. Y.

K. T. Wang and C. K. Y. Leung, “Applications of a distributed fiber optic crack sensor for concrete structures,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 135, 458-464 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. K. Y. Leung, N. Elvin, N. Olson, T. F. Morse, and Y. F. He, “A novel distributed optical crack sensor for concrete structures,” Eng. Fract. Mech. 65(2-3), 133-148 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y. B.

Y. B. Liao, Fiber Optics (Tsinghua University Press, 2000).

Loh, C. H.

J. P. Lynch, Y. Wang, K. C. Lu, T. C. Hou, and C. H. Loh, “Post-seismic damage assessment of steel structures instrumented with self-interrogating wireless sensors,” in Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (8NCEE) (Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 2006).

Lu, K. C.

J. P. Lynch, Y. Wang, K. C. Lu, T. C. Hou, and C. H. Loh, “Post-seismic damage assessment of steel structures instrumented with self-interrogating wireless sensors,” in Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (8NCEE) (Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 2006).

Lynch, J. P.

J. P. Lynch, Y. Wang, K. C. Lu, T. C. Hou, and C. H. Loh, “Post-seismic damage assessment of steel structures instrumented with self-interrogating wireless sensors,” in Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (8NCEE) (Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 2006).

Mihalikova, M.

M. Mihalikova and J. Janek, “Influence of the loading and strain rates on the strength properties and formability of higher-strength sheet,” Metalurgija 46(2), 107-110 (2007).

Morse, T. F.

C. K. Y. Leung, N. Elvin, N. Olson, T. F. Morse, and Y. F. He, “A novel distributed optical crack sensor for concrete structures,” Eng. Fract. Mech. 65(2-3), 133-148 (2005).
[Crossref]

Olson, N.

C. K. Y. Leung, N. Elvin, N. Olson, T. F. Morse, and Y. F. He, “A novel distributed optical crack sensor for concrete structures,” Eng. Fract. Mech. 65(2-3), 133-148 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ou, J. P.

J. P. Ou, S. Hou, Z. Zhou, and A. V. Dyshlyuk, “The multi-line distributed fiber optic crack detection system and its application,” Piezoelectrics Acoustooptics 29(2), 144-147 (2007).

J. P. Ou and S. Hou, “Seismic damage identification using multi-line distributed fiber optic sensor system,” Proc. SPIE 5856, 1003-1008 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schulz, W. L.

W. L. Schulz, J. P. Conte, and E. Udd, “Long gauge fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensors to monitor civil structures,” Proc. SPIE 4330, 56-65 (2001).
[Crossref]

Udd, E.

W. L. Schulz, J. P. Conte, and E. Udd, “Long gauge fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensors to monitor civil structures,” Proc. SPIE 4330, 56-65 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, K. T.

K. T. Wang and C. K. Y. Leung, “Applications of a distributed fiber optic crack sensor for concrete structures,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 135, 458-464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. P. Lynch, Y. Wang, K. C. Lu, T. C. Hou, and C. H. Loh, “Post-seismic damage assessment of steel structures instrumented with self-interrogating wireless sensors,” in Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (8NCEE) (Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 2006).

Zhou, Z.

J. P. Ou, S. Hou, Z. Zhou, and A. V. Dyshlyuk, “The multi-line distributed fiber optic crack detection system and its application,” Piezoelectrics Acoustooptics 29(2), 144-147 (2007).

Eng. Fract. Mech. (1)

C. K. Y. Leung, N. Elvin, N. Olson, T. F. Morse, and Y. F. He, “A novel distributed optical crack sensor for concrete structures,” Eng. Fract. Mech. 65(2-3), 133-148 (2005).
[Crossref]

Metalurgija (1)

M. Mihalikova and J. Janek, “Influence of the loading and strain rates on the strength properties and formability of higher-strength sheet,” Metalurgija 46(2), 107-110 (2007).

Piezoelectrics Acoustooptics (1)

J. P. Ou, S. Hou, Z. Zhou, and A. V. Dyshlyuk, “The multi-line distributed fiber optic crack detection system and its application,” Piezoelectrics Acoustooptics 29(2), 144-147 (2007).

Proc. SPIE (2)

W. L. Schulz, J. P. Conte, and E. Udd, “Long gauge fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensors to monitor civil structures,” Proc. SPIE 4330, 56-65 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. P. Ou and S. Hou, “Seismic damage identification using multi-line distributed fiber optic sensor system,” Proc. SPIE 5856, 1003-1008 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (1)

K. T. Wang and C. K. Y. Leung, “Applications of a distributed fiber optic crack sensor for concrete structures,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 135, 458-464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Y. B. Liao, Fiber Optics (Tsinghua University Press, 2000).

J. P. Lynch, Y. Wang, K. C. Lu, T. C. Hou, and C. H. Loh, “Post-seismic damage assessment of steel structures instrumented with self-interrogating wireless sensors,” in Proceedings of the 8th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (8NCEE) (Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 2006).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical reflection chart of OTDR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proposed sensing principle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Layout of the sensing system in building.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sketch of a multiline distributed sensing system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Test setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Material force and displacement relationship under monotonic loading.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical OTDR reflection traces.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Crack in the epoxy occurred at the load level of 14.2 kN.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Force versus displacement relationship of the steel specimen under monotonic load.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Force versus displacement curve under cyclic load: (a) subtest 1, (b) subtest 2, (c) subtest 3, (d) subtest 4.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

OTDR trace before loading.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Crack in the epoxy occurred in subtest 2 at the 49th cycle.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Zoomed OTDR traces observed before loading and during the 49th cycle of the 0–16 Hz fatigue loading.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Optic power loss versus loading cycles.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

OTDR reflection traces with a newly emerged reflection peak.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Loading Sequence

Equations (1)

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α = A R 1 / 2 exp ( U R ) ,

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