Abstract

Accurate, real-time measurement of the dilute constituents of a gaseous mixture poses a significant challenge usually relegated to mass spectrometry. Here, spontaneous Raman backscattering is used to detect low pressure molecular gases. Rapid detection of gases in the 100partsin106(ppm) range is described. Improved sensitivity is brought about by use of a hollow-core, photonic bandgap fiber gas cell in the backscattering configuration to increase collection efficiency and an image-plane aperture to greatly reduce silica-Raman background noise. Spatial and spectral properties of the silica noise were examined with a two-dimensional CCD detector array.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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2008 (4)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

1995 (1)

X. Cao and C. N. Hefwitt, “Detection methods for the analysis of biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons in air,” J. Chromatogr. A 710, 39-50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1968 (1)

Adams, N. I.

Afshar V., S.

Barrett, J. J.

Benabid, F.

N. V. Wilding, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and F. Benabid, “Experimental comparison of electromagnetic induced transparency in acetylene-filled kagomé and triangular lattice hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JFA3.
[CrossRef]

Beychok, M. R.

M. R. Beychok, “Coal gasification and the Phenosolvan process,” presented at the 168th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Atlantic City, 8-13 September 1974 (American Chemical Society, 1974); FUEL 33.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (Wiley, 1983), pp. 132-136.

Buric, M. P.

Cao, X.

X. Cao and C. N. Hefwitt, “Detection methods for the analysis of biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons in air,” J. Chromatogr. A 710, 39-50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

Couny, F.

N. V. Wilding, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and F. Benabid, “Experimental comparison of electromagnetic induced transparency in acetylene-filled kagomé and triangular lattice hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JFA3.
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

Falk, J.

Fenner, W.

Hald, J.

Hansen, T. P.

Hefwitt, C. N.

X. Cao and C. N. Hefwitt, “Detection methods for the analysis of biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons in air,” J. Chromatogr. A 710, 39-50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Henningsen, J.

Hyatt, H. A.

Kellam, J. M.

Kiefer, J.

J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, S. Steuer, S. Schorsch, M. C. Weikl, and A. Leipertz, “Design and characterization of a Raman scattering--based sensor system for temporally resolved gas analysis and its application in a gas turbine power plant,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 085408 (2008),
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, S. Steuer, S. Schorsch, M. C. Weikl, and A. Leipertz, “Design and characterization of a Raman scattering--based sensor system for temporally resolved gas analysis and its application in a gas turbine power plant,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 085408 (2008),
[CrossRef]

Light, P. S.

N. V. Wilding, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and F. Benabid, “Experimental comparison of electromagnetic induced transparency in acetylene-filled kagomé and triangular lattice hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JFA3.
[CrossRef]

Ludvigsen, H.

Monro, T. M.

Petersen, J. C.

Porto, S. P. S.

Pristinski, D.

Ritari, T.

Ruan, Y.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2007). p. 554.

Schorsch, S.

J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, S. Steuer, S. Schorsch, M. C. Weikl, and A. Leipertz, “Design and characterization of a Raman scattering--based sensor system for temporally resolved gas analysis and its application in a gas turbine power plant,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 085408 (2008),
[CrossRef]

Seeger, T.

J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, S. Steuer, S. Schorsch, M. C. Weikl, and A. Leipertz, “Design and characterization of a Raman scattering--based sensor system for temporally resolved gas analysis and its application in a gas turbine power plant,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 085408 (2008),
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

Sørensen, T.

Steuer, S.

J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, S. Steuer, S. Schorsch, M. C. Weikl, and A. Leipertz, “Design and characterization of a Raman scattering--based sensor system for temporally resolved gas analysis and its application in a gas turbine power plant,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 085408 (2008),
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2007). p. 554.

Tuominen, J.

Warren-Smith, S. C.

Weikl, M. C.

J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, S. Steuer, S. Schorsch, M. C. Weikl, and A. Leipertz, “Design and characterization of a Raman scattering--based sensor system for temporally resolved gas analysis and its application in a gas turbine power plant,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 085408 (2008),
[CrossRef]

Wilding, N. V.

N. V. Wilding, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and F. Benabid, “Experimental comparison of electromagnetic induced transparency in acetylene-filled kagomé and triangular lattice hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JFA3.
[CrossRef]

Woodruff, S. D.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Chromatogr. A (1)

X. Cao and C. N. Hefwitt, “Detection methods for the analysis of biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons in air,” J. Chromatogr. A 710, 39-50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, S. Steuer, S. Schorsch, M. C. Weikl, and A. Leipertz, “Design and characterization of a Raman scattering--based sensor system for temporally resolved gas analysis and its application in a gas turbine power plant,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 085408 (2008),
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (8)

M. R. Beychok, “Coal gasification and the Phenosolvan process,” presented at the 168th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Atlantic City, 8-13 September 1974 (American Chemical Society, 1974); FUEL 33.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2007). p. 554.

N. V. Wilding, P. S. Light, F. Couny, and F. Benabid, “Experimental comparison of electromagnetic induced transparency in acetylene-filled kagomé and triangular lattice hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JFA3.
[CrossRef]

HC-580 HC-PBF data sheet retrieved 3 September 2008 from http://www.i-waveco.com/category/pdf/5131-HC58001.pdf.

HC-800-01 HC-PBF data sheet retrieved 3 November 2008 from http://www.crystal-fibre.com/datasheets/HC-800-01.pdf,

Semrock beam splitter data sheet. Downloaded 23 July 2008 from http://www.semrock.com/Catalog/RamanEdgeDichroic.htm.

The 14 mm lens focusing into the pinhole plane exhibited significant chromatic aberration so that the oxygen Raman signal shown in Fig. was reduced by approximately 43% with the addition of the pinhole. Later experiments utilizing an achromatic-doublet lens resulted in little attenuation at both wavelengths with the addition of the aperture.

R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (Wiley, 1983), pp. 132-136.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: L 1, 11 mm aspheric singlet; L 2, 14 mm aspheric singlet; L 3, 25 mm spherical singlet, P, pinhole; L 4, 6 cm EFL spherical singlet; BS, dichroic long-pass beam splitter; SPEC, 0.55 m grating spectrometer; PMT, EMI 9789A photomultiplier with photon counting; IR CCD, EG&G 1421 IR 1024 element CCD array or Princeton Instruments SpectruMM 250B with Hamamatsu MPP backilluminated 1024 × 252 element sensor array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) HCPBF spectrum from ambient air. No image plane aperture. (b)  10 μm diameter image plane aperture added (bottom). Signals were recorded with PMT photon counting at 1 V / 10 5 counts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman signal strengths, methane (▪) at 2917 cm 1 ( 85 mW pump power) and C O 2 (◂) at 1388 cm 1 ( 65 mW pump power) versus fiber input gas pressure. The EG&G CCD array detector was used for this measurement. The inset shows detection of 33 Pa (equivalent to 164 ppm in air) of methane as described in the text. For the data shown in the inset, the detection integration time was increased to 20 s for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman signal strengths with 780 nm pumping. The photograph is an image of the spectral and spatial extent of the light scattering observed in the core, holey cladding, and a small portion of the surrounding solid silica. For figure clarity, a double thresholding algorithm was applied in which pixels with values less than 5 counts were eliminated and pixels with values greater than 50 counts were displayed as maximum intensity. The inset shows spectra of the scattered light emerging from the core and the core plus cladding (see text).

Equations (2)

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sinh ( α L ) α L
SNR = C g a s τ C Si τ .

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