Abstract

An unobstructed afocal scanning system design employing two off-axis parabolic reflectors as relay optics between two flat scan mirrors is proposed and investigated using OSLO optical software. It is found that, with a symmetric arrangement of the parabolic reflectors and appropriate selection of the first scan mirror rotational axis, the system provides linear scan lines at the image surface and excellent point spread function results in all scan positions. The design is functionally equivalent to a single-mirror scan engine and superior in every metric to a comparable dimension spherical mirror arrangement. This design is suited to two-dimensional laser scan engines and for confocal and two-photon microscopy in particular.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  2. J. Engelhardt, “Optical arrangement for deflecting a light beam, particularly in two substantially mutually perpendicular directions and confocal scanning microscope,” U.S. patent 6,618,178 (9 September 2003).
  3. M. Seel, “Beam deflection device,” U.S. patent 6,433,908 (13 August 2002).
  4. M. Hara, “Optical-scanning microscope apparatus,” U.S. patent 7,154,084 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Minsky, “Microscopy apparatus,” U.S. patent 3,013,467 (19 December 1961).
  7. W. B. Amos, “Achromatic scanning system,” U.S. patent 4,997,242 (5 March 1991).
  8. J. Montagu, “Galvanometric and resonant scanners,” in Handbook of Optical and Laser Scanning, G. F. Marshall, ed. (Marcell Dekker, 2004), pp. 417-476.
  9. J. I. Montagu, “Scanning microscope employing improved scanning mechanism,” U.S. patent 5,225,923 (6 July 1993).
  10. L. Beiser and R. B. Johnson, “Devices, measurements and properties,” in Handbook of Optics, 2 ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995).
  11. B. Furlong and S. Motakef, “Scanning lenses and systems,” Photonik Int. 3, 20-23 (2008).
  12. W. Denk, J. P. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser microscopy,” U.S. patent 5,034,613 (23 July 1991).
  13. W. B. Wetherell, “Afocal systems,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (Mc Graw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 2.
  14. D. Malacara and Z. Malacara, Handbook of Optical Design, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2004).
  15. W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2005), p. 631.
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    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Grischkowsky and M. van Exter, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. M. V. Mantravadi, D. H. Rose, J. T. Hall, and D. C. Richman, “Tilted primary clamshell lens laser scanner,” U.S. patent 5,903,386 (11 May 1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, Handbook of Optical Systems: Survey of Optical Instruments (Wiley-VCH, 2008), Vol. 4.
  22. J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale, Optics and Photonics Series (Academic, 1996), p. 581.
  23. J. G. White, “Method of operating a scanning confocal imaging system,” U.S. patent 5,144,477 (1 September 1992).
  24. W. B. Amos and J. G. White, “How the confocal laser scanning microscope entered biological research,” Biol. Cell 95, 335-342 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Lindblom, “Imaging system comprising a concave mirror,” U.S. patent 6,965,483 (15 November 2005).

2008 (1)

B. Furlong and S. Motakef, “Scanning lenses and systems,” Photonik Int. 3, 20-23 (2008).

2003 (1)

W. B. Amos and J. G. White, “How the confocal laser scanning microscope entered biological research,” Biol. Cell 95, 335-342 (2003).

1998 (1)

1990 (2)

D. Grischkowsky and M. van Exter, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. v. Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337-339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1974 (1)

Achtner, B.

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, Handbook of Optical Systems: Survey of Optical Instruments (Wiley-VCH, 2008), Vol. 4.

Amos, W. B.

W. B. Amos and J. G. White, “How the confocal laser scanning microscope entered biological research,” Biol. Cell 95, 335-342 (2003).

W. B. Amos, “Achromatic scanning system,” U.S. patent 4,997,242 (5 March 1991).

Beiser, L.

L. Beiser and R. B. Johnson, “Devices, measurements and properties,” in Handbook of Optics, 2 ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

Blechinger, F.

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, Handbook of Optical Systems: Survey of Optical Instruments (Wiley-VCH, 2008), Vol. 4.

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. P. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser microscopy,” U.S. patent 5,034,613 (23 July 1991).

Diels, J.-C.

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale, Optics and Photonics Series (Academic, 1996), p. 581.

Engelhardt, J.

J. Engelhardt, “Optical arrangement for deflecting a light beam, particularly in two substantially mutually perpendicular directions and confocal scanning microscope,” U.S. patent 6,618,178 (9 September 2003).

Exter, M. v.

M. v. Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337-339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. v. Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337-339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Furlong, B.

B. Furlong and S. Motakef, “Scanning lenses and systems,” Photonik Int. 3, 20-23 (2008).

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Grischkowsky and M. van Exter, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. v. Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337-339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gross, H.

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, Handbook of Optical Systems: Survey of Optical Instruments (Wiley-VCH, 2008), Vol. 4.

Hall, J. T.

M. V. Mantravadi, D. H. Rose, J. T. Hall, and D. C. Richman, “Tilted primary clamshell lens laser scanner,” U.S. patent 5,903,386 (11 May 1999).

Hara, M.

M. Hara, “Optical-scanning microscope apparatus,” U.S. patent 7,154,084 (2006).

Howard, J. M.

Johnson, R. B.

L. Beiser and R. B. Johnson, “Devices, measurements and properties,” in Handbook of Optics, 2 ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

Keiding, S.

Klose, K.

Lindblom, P.

P. Lindblom, “Imaging system comprising a concave mirror,” U.S. patent 6,965,483 (15 November 2005).

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara and Z. Malacara, Handbook of Optical Design, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2004).

Malacara, Z.

D. Malacara and Z. Malacara, Handbook of Optical Design, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2004).

Mantravadi, M. V.

M. V. Mantravadi, D. H. Rose, J. T. Hall, and D. C. Richman, “Tilted primary clamshell lens laser scanner,” U.S. patent 5,903,386 (11 May 1999).

Minsky, M.

M. Minsky, “Microscopy apparatus,” U.S. patent 3,013,467 (19 December 1961).

Montagu, J.

J. Montagu, “Galvanometric and resonant scanners,” in Handbook of Optical and Laser Scanning, G. F. Marshall, ed. (Marcell Dekker, 2004), pp. 417-476.

Montagu, J. I.

J. I. Montagu, “Scanning microscope employing improved scanning mechanism,” U.S. patent 5,225,923 (6 July 1993).

Motakef, S.

B. Furlong and S. Motakef, “Scanning lenses and systems,” Photonik Int. 3, 20-23 (2008).

Richman, D. C.

M. V. Mantravadi, D. H. Rose, J. T. Hall, and D. C. Richman, “Tilted primary clamshell lens laser scanner,” U.S. patent 5,903,386 (11 May 1999).

Rimmer, M. P.

Rose, D. H.

M. V. Mantravadi, D. H. Rose, J. T. Hall, and D. C. Richman, “Tilted primary clamshell lens laser scanner,” U.S. patent 5,903,386 (11 May 1999).

Rudolph, W.

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale, Optics and Photonics Series (Academic, 1996), p. 581.

Seel, M.

M. Seel, “Beam deflection device,” U.S. patent 6,433,908 (13 August 2002).

Siegman, A.

A. Siegman, Lasers, 1st ed. (University Science, 1986).

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2005), p. 631.

Stone, B. D.

Strickler, J. P.

W. Denk, J. P. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser microscopy,” U.S. patent 5,034,613 (23 July 1991).

van Exter, M.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky and M. van Exter, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. P. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser microscopy,” U.S. patent 5,034,613 (23 July 1991).

Wetherell, W. B.

W. B. Wetherell and M. P. Rimmer, “Confocal paraboloids: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2192-2193 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Wetherell, “Afocal systems,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (Mc Graw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 2.

White, J. G.

W. B. Amos and J. G. White, “How the confocal laser scanning microscope entered biological research,” Biol. Cell 95, 335-342 (2003).

J. G. White, “Method of operating a scanning confocal imaging system,” U.S. patent 5,144,477 (1 September 1992).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. v. Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337-339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Biol. Cell (1)

W. B. Amos and J. G. White, “How the confocal laser scanning microscope entered biological research,” Biol. Cell 95, 335-342 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

D. Grischkowsky and M. van Exter, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Photonik Int. (1)

B. Furlong and S. Motakef, “Scanning lenses and systems,” Photonik Int. 3, 20-23 (2008).

Other (18)

W. Denk, J. P. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser microscopy,” U.S. patent 5,034,613 (23 July 1991).

W. B. Wetherell, “Afocal systems,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (Mc Graw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 2.

D. Malacara and Z. Malacara, Handbook of Optical Design, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2004).

W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2005), p. 631.

M. V. Mantravadi, D. H. Rose, J. T. Hall, and D. C. Richman, “Tilted primary clamshell lens laser scanner,” U.S. patent 5,903,386 (11 May 1999).

M. Minsky, “Microscopy apparatus,” U.S. patent 3,013,467 (19 December 1961).

W. B. Amos, “Achromatic scanning system,” U.S. patent 4,997,242 (5 March 1991).

J. Montagu, “Galvanometric and resonant scanners,” in Handbook of Optical and Laser Scanning, G. F. Marshall, ed. (Marcell Dekker, 2004), pp. 417-476.

J. I. Montagu, “Scanning microscope employing improved scanning mechanism,” U.S. patent 5,225,923 (6 July 1993).

L. Beiser and R. B. Johnson, “Devices, measurements and properties,” in Handbook of Optics, 2 ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

A. Siegman, Lasers, 1st ed. (University Science, 1986).

J. Engelhardt, “Optical arrangement for deflecting a light beam, particularly in two substantially mutually perpendicular directions and confocal scanning microscope,” U.S. patent 6,618,178 (9 September 2003).

M. Seel, “Beam deflection device,” U.S. patent 6,433,908 (13 August 2002).

M. Hara, “Optical-scanning microscope apparatus,” U.S. patent 7,154,084 (2006).

P. Lindblom, “Imaging system comprising a concave mirror,” U.S. patent 6,965,483 (15 November 2005).

H. Gross, F. Blechinger, and B. Achtner, Handbook of Optical Systems: Survey of Optical Instruments (Wiley-VCH, 2008), Vol. 4.

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale, Optics and Photonics Series (Academic, 1996), p. 581.

J. G. White, “Method of operating a scanning confocal imaging system,” U.S. patent 5,144,477 (1 September 1992).

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