Abstract

A nondimensional analysis of particle behavior during cross-type optical particle separation was performed. A new dimensionless number, S, was defined as the ratio of the optical force to the viscous drag force, and the effects of varying S on particle motion were examined. For large S, the particles undergo acceleration, deceleration, and release as they pass through the laser beam. The retention distance is much longer for large S than for small S. In addition, the effects on particle behavior of varying the wavelength of the laser beam, the particle size, and the index of refraction of the particles were investigated. Furthermore, an analytical expression of the retention distance for large S was validated.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, “Cells on chips,” Nature 442, 403-411 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. U. Kim, C.-W. Shu, K. Y. Dane, P. S. Daugherty, J. Y. J. Wang, and H. T. Soh, “Selection of mammalian cells based on their cell-cycle phase using dielectrophoresis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20708-20712 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. M. Das, F. Becker, S. Vermon, J. Noshari, C. Joyce, and P. R. C. Gascoyne, “Dielectrophoretic segregation of different human cell types on microscope slides,” Anal. Chem. 77, 2708-2719 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Jung and K.-H. Han, “Lateral-driven continuous magnetophoretic separation of blood cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 223902 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. E. McCloskey, J. J. Chalmers, and M. Zborowski, “Magnetic cell separation: characterization of magnetophoretic mobility,” Anal. Chem. 75, 6868-6874 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Choi, S. Song, C. Choi, and J.-K. Park, “Continuous blood cell separation by hydrophoretic filtration,” Lab Chip 7, 1532-1538 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Choi and J.-K. Park, “Continuous hydrophoretic separation and sizing of microparticles using slanted obstacles in a microchannel,” Lab Chip 7, 890-897 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. S. B. Kim, J. H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, “Theoretical development of in situ optical particle separator: cross-type optical chromatography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6919-6924 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem. 80, 2628-2630 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Resolution of cross-type optical particle separation,” Anal. Chem. 80, 6023-6028 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. B. Kim, E. Jung, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Optical mobility in cross-type optical particle separation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 044103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. B. Kim and S. S. Kim, “Radiation forces on spheres in loosely focused Gaussian beam: ray-optics regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 23, 897-903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. C. Gauthier and S. Wallace, “Optical levitation of spheres: analytical development and numerical computations of the force equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 1680-1686 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J. 61, 569-582 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. B. Kim, D. K. Song, and S. S. Kim, “Optical differential mobility analyzer for micrometer size colloidal particles: theoretical approach,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 311, 102-109 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem. 80, 2628-2630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Resolution of cross-type optical particle separation,” Anal. Chem. 80, 6023-6028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, E. Jung, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Optical mobility in cross-type optical particle separation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 044103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Jung and K.-H. Han, “Lateral-driven continuous magnetophoretic separation of blood cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 223902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Jákl, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, “Static optical sorting in a laser interference field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Marchington, M. Mazilu, S. Kuriakose, V. Garcès-Chávez, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical deflection and sorting of microparticles in a near-field optical geometry,” Opt. Express 16, 3712-3726 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

S. J. Hart, A. V. Terray, and J. Arnold, “Particle separation and collection using an optical chromatographic filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kim, D. K. Song, and S. S. Kim, “Optical differential mobility analyzer for micrometer size colloidal particles: theoretical approach,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 311, 102-109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Choi, S. Song, C. Choi, and J.-K. Park, “Continuous blood cell separation by hydrophoretic filtration,” Lab Chip 7, 1532-1538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Choi and J.-K. Park, “Continuous hydrophoretic separation and sizing of microparticles using slanted obstacles in a microchannel,” Lab Chip 7, 890-897 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kim, C.-W. Shu, K. Y. Dane, P. S. Daugherty, J. Y. J. Wang, and H. T. Soh, “Selection of mammalian cells based on their cell-cycle phase using dielectrophoresis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20708-20712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. B. Kim and S. S. Kim, “Radiation forces on spheres in loosely focused Gaussian beam: ray-optics regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 23, 897-903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, “Cells on chips,” Nature 442, 403-411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, J. H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, “Theoretical development of in situ optical particle separator: cross-type optical chromatography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6919-6924 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. M. Das, F. Becker, S. Vermon, J. Noshari, C. Joyce, and P. R. C. Gascoyne, “Dielectrophoretic segregation of different human cell types on microscope slides,” Anal. Chem. 77, 2708-2719 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Toner and D. Irimia, “Blood-on-a-chip,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 7, 77-103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

H. Andersoon and A. van den Berg, “Microfluidic devices for cellomics: a review,” Sens. Actuators B 92, 315-325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. E. McCloskey, J. J. Chalmers, and M. Zborowski, “Magnetic cell separation: characterization of magnetophoretic mobility,” Anal. Chem. 75, 6868-6874 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5316-5318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69, 2701-2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. C. Gauthier and S. Wallace, “Optical levitation of spheres: analytical development and numerical computations of the force equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 1680-1686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J. 61, 569-582 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Andersoon, H.

H. Andersoon and A. van den Berg, “Microfluidic devices for cellomics: a review,” Sens. Actuators B 92, 315-325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, J.

S. J. Hart, A. V. Terray, and J. Arnold, “Particle separation and collection using an optical chromatographic filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J. 61, 569-582 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Becker, F.

C. M. Das, F. Becker, S. Vermon, J. Noshari, C. Joyce, and P. R. C. Gascoyne, “Dielectrophoretic segregation of different human cell types on microscope slides,” Anal. Chem. 77, 2708-2719 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chalmers, J. J.

K. E. McCloskey, J. J. Chalmers, and M. Zborowski, “Magnetic cell separation: characterization of magnetophoretic mobility,” Anal. Chem. 75, 6868-6874 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, C.

S. Choi, S. Song, C. Choi, and J.-K. Park, “Continuous blood cell separation by hydrophoretic filtration,” Lab Chip 7, 1532-1538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.

S. Choi and J.-K. Park, “Continuous hydrophoretic separation and sizing of microparticles using slanted obstacles in a microchannel,” Lab Chip 7, 890-897 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Choi, S. Song, C. Choi, and J.-K. Park, “Continuous blood cell separation by hydrophoretic filtration,” Lab Chip 7, 1532-1538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cižmár, T.

P. Jákl, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, “Static optical sorting in a laser interference field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dane, K. Y.

U. Kim, C.-W. Shu, K. Y. Dane, P. S. Daugherty, J. Y. J. Wang, and H. T. Soh, “Selection of mammalian cells based on their cell-cycle phase using dielectrophoresis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20708-20712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, C. M.

C. M. Das, F. Becker, S. Vermon, J. Noshari, C. Joyce, and P. R. C. Gascoyne, “Dielectrophoretic segregation of different human cell types on microscope slides,” Anal. Chem. 77, 2708-2719 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daugherty, P. S.

U. Kim, C.-W. Shu, K. Y. Dane, P. S. Daugherty, J. Y. J. Wang, and H. T. Soh, “Selection of mammalian cells based on their cell-cycle phase using dielectrophoresis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20708-20712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

El-Ali, J.

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, “Cells on chips,” Nature 442, 403-411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erickson, D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcès-Chávez, V.

Gascoyne, P. R. C.

C. M. Das, F. Becker, S. Vermon, J. Noshari, C. Joyce, and P. R. C. Gascoyne, “Dielectrophoretic segregation of different human cell types on microscope slides,” Anal. Chem. 77, 2708-2719 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, R. C.

R. C. Gauthier and S. Wallace, “Optical levitation of spheres: analytical development and numerical computations of the force equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 1680-1686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Han, K.-H.

J. Jung and K.-H. Han, “Lateral-driven continuous magnetophoretic separation of blood cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 223902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hart, S. J.

S. J. Hart, A. V. Terray, and J. Arnold, “Particle separation and collection using an optical chromatographic filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5316-5318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Imasaka, T.

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69, 2701-2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irimia, D.

M. Toner and D. Irimia, “Blood-on-a-chip,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 7, 77-103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishidzu, Y.

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69, 2701-2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jákl, P.

P. Jákl, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, “Static optical sorting in a laser interference field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, K. F.

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, “Cells on chips,” Nature 442, 403-411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joyce, C.

C. M. Das, F. Becker, S. Vermon, J. Noshari, C. Joyce, and P. R. C. Gascoyne, “Dielectrophoretic segregation of different human cell types on microscope slides,” Anal. Chem. 77, 2708-2719 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, E.

S. B. Kim, E. Jung, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Optical mobility in cross-type optical particle separation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 044103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.

J. Jung and K.-H. Han, “Lateral-driven continuous magnetophoretic separation of blood cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 223902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaneta, T.

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69, 2701-2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

Kim, S. B.

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem. 80, 2628-2630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Resolution of cross-type optical particle separation,” Anal. Chem. 80, 6023-6028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, E. Jung, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Optical mobility in cross-type optical particle separation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 044103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kim, D. K. Song, and S. S. Kim, “Optical differential mobility analyzer for micrometer size colloidal particles: theoretical approach,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 311, 102-109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim and S. S. Kim, “Radiation forces on spheres in loosely focused Gaussian beam: ray-optics regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 23, 897-903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kim, J. H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, “Theoretical development of in situ optical particle separator: cross-type optical chromatography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6919-6924 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. S.

S. B. Kim, E. Jung, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Optical mobility in cross-type optical particle separation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 044103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Resolution of cross-type optical particle separation,” Anal. Chem. 80, 6023-6028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem. 80, 2628-2630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, D. K. Song, and S. S. Kim, “Optical differential mobility analyzer for micrometer size colloidal particles: theoretical approach,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 311, 102-109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim and S. S. Kim, “Radiation forces on spheres in loosely focused Gaussian beam: ray-optics regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 23, 897-903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kim, J. H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, “Theoretical development of in situ optical particle separator: cross-type optical chromatography,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6919-6924 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, U.

U. Kim, C.-W. Shu, K. Y. Dane, P. S. Daugherty, J. Y. J. Wang, and H. T. Soh, “Selection of mammalian cells based on their cell-cycle phase using dielectrophoresis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20708-20712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klug, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

Kuriakose, S.

Lipson, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchington, R. F.

Mazilu, M.

McCloskey, K. E.

K. E. McCloskey, J. J. Chalmers, and M. Zborowski, “Magnetic cell separation: characterization of magnetophoretic mobility,” Anal. Chem. 75, 6868-6874 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishima, N.

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69, 2701-2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noshari, J.

C. M. Das, F. Becker, S. Vermon, J. Noshari, C. Joyce, and P. R. C. Gascoyne, “Dielectrophoretic segregation of different human cell types on microscope slides,” Anal. Chem. 77, 2708-2719 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-K.

S. Choi and J.-K. Park, “Continuous hydrophoretic separation and sizing of microparticles using slanted obstacles in a microchannel,” Lab Chip 7, 890-897 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Choi, S. Song, C. Choi, and J.-K. Park, “Continuous blood cell separation by hydrophoretic filtration,” Lab Chip 7, 1532-1538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reece, P. J.

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Šerý, M.

P. Jákl, T. Čižmár, M. Šerý, and P. Zemánek, “Static optical sorting in a laser interference field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C.-W.

U. Kim, C.-W. Shu, K. Y. Dane, P. S. Daugherty, J. Y. J. Wang, and H. T. Soh, “Selection of mammalian cells based on their cell-cycle phase using dielectrophoresis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20708-20712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soh, H. T.

U. Kim, C.-W. Shu, K. Y. Dane, P. S. Daugherty, J. Y. J. Wang, and H. T. Soh, “Selection of mammalian cells based on their cell-cycle phase using dielectrophoresis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20708-20712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, D. K.

S. B. Kim, D. K. Song, and S. S. Kim, “Optical differential mobility analyzer for micrometer size colloidal particles: theoretical approach,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 311, 102-109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, S.

S. Choi, S. Song, C. Choi, and J.-K. Park, “Continuous blood cell separation by hydrophoretic filtration,” Lab Chip 7, 1532-1538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorger, P. K.

J. El-Ali, P. K. Sorger, and K. F. Jensen, “Cells on chips,” Nature 442, 403-411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, H. J.

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem. 80, 2628-2630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Resolution of cross-type optical particle separation,” Anal. Chem. 80, 6023-6028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, E. Jung, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Optical mobility in cross-type optical particle separation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 044103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Terray, A. V.

S. J. Hart, A. V. Terray, and J. Arnold, “Particle separation and collection using an optical chromatographic filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5316-5318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toner, M.

M. Toner and D. Irimia, “Blood-on-a-chip,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 7, 77-103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Berg, A.

H. Andersoon and A. van den Berg, “Microfluidic devices for cellomics: a review,” Sens. Actuators B 92, 315-325 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vermon, S.

C. M. Das, F. Becker, S. Vermon, J. Noshari, C. Joyce, and P. R. C. Gascoyne, “Dielectrophoretic segregation of different human cell types on microscope slides,” Anal. Chem. 77, 2708-2719 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, S.

R. C. Gauthier and S. Wallace, “Optical levitation of spheres: analytical development and numerical computations of the force equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 1680-1686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y. J.

U. Kim, C.-W. Shu, K. Y. Dane, P. S. Daugherty, J. Y. J. Wang, and H. T. Soh, “Selection of mammalian cells based on their cell-cycle phase using dielectrophoresis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 20708-20712 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457, 71-75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, S. Y.

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Resolution of cross-type optical particle separation,” Anal. Chem. 80, 6023-6028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem. 80, 2628-2630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zborowski, M.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of cross-type optical particle separation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized trajectories of particles during cross-type optical particle separation for various values of S.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

x-directional particle velocities for various values of S. As S increases, the particles undergo acceleration, deceleration, and release.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

x positions of particles as a function of time. Due to the deceleration of the particles, the separation time increases for large values of S.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mechanisms of acceleration, deceleration, and release of particles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Retention distance as a function of S. For small values of S, the retention distance has a linear relation with S but the dependence becomes increasingly nonlinear as S increases.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effects on the x-directional particle velocity of varying the index of refraction of the particles. The variation of the index of refraction of the particles does not affect particle behavior.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effects on the x-directional particle velocity of varying the wavelength of the laser beam. The variation of the wavelength of the laser beam does not affect particle behavior.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The shaded region is the region of validity of Eq. (9) ( r p * 0.1 ). Outside the shaded region, the relation distance is calculated numerically with Eqs. (5, 6).

Equations (11)

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m p d u p d t + 6 π μ r p ( U u p ) = F g ,
m p d v p d t + 6 π μ r p v p = F s ,
u p * = u p U , v p * = v p U , x * = x ω 0 , y * = y ω 0 r p * = r p ω 0 , t * = U t ω 0 , ω * = ω ω 0 , λ * = λ ω 0 .
ω = ω 0 1 + ( λ y π ω 0 2 ) 2 , ω * = 1 + ( λ * y * π ) 2 .
d u p * d t * = R [ ( 1 u p * ) + S 0 2 π 0 π / 2 Q g ω * 2 exp ( 2 ρ * ω * 2 ) sin 2 θ cos φ d θ d φ ] ,
d v p * d t * = R [ v p * + S 0 2 π 0 π / 2 Q s ω * 2 exp ( 2 ρ * ω * 2 ) sin 2 θ d θ d φ ] .
R = 6 π μ r p U m p U 2 / ω 0 = viscous drag particle inertia ,
S = ( n 0 P / π c ) ( r p 2 / ω 0 2 ) 6 π μ r p U = optical force viscous drag .
R = 10 6 , r p * = 0.1 , m = 1.2 , λ * = 0.01.
y max * = S f ( m ) ,
f ( m ) = 2 π 3 / 2 Q * ( m ) erf ( 2 ) .

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