Abstract

An approach is developed to retrieve the complex index of refraction by coupling two well known instruments: an aerodynamic particle size spectrometer (APS) probe for measuring aerosol size distributions and an integrating nephelometer for measuring total light scattering coefficients. The retrieval is realized by an iterative least squares minimization of the fractional error between the nephelometer-measured light scattering coefficients and those calculated from the APS-measured size distributions based on the Mie theory for spherical particles. High-resolution data collected during two field experiments conducted at two locations with distinct environments in China are analyzed. The results show that light scattering coefficients, aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices all vary substantially with time. Further examination of their dependence on relative humidity suggests that instead of being monotonic change with relative humidity, the refractive index often fluctuates when the relative humidity changes. This nonmonotonic variation of refractive index with relative index suggests concurrent change of relative humidity and other chemical compositions. Possible errors in the retrieval are also discussed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, and S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo, and climate,” Nature 326, 655-661 (1987).
  2. X. Zhou, S. Tao, and K. Yao, Advanced Atmospheric Physics (Meteorology Publishing House, 1991).
  3. D. A. Hegg, P. V. Hobbs, S. Gasso, J. D. Nance, and A. L. Rangno, “Aerosol measurements in the Arctic relevant to direct and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23349-23363 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “Anthropogenic aerosols: indirect warming effect from dispersion forcing,” Nature 419, 580-581 (2002).
  5. V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119-2124 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Liu and J. Diamond, “China's environment in a globalizing world,” Nature 435, 1179-1186 (2005).
  7. Y. Han, T. Wang, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “The research progress on physic-optics characteristics of atmospheric aerosol,” Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 7396-7407 (2008) (in Chinese).
  8. C. Xie, T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and Z. F. Wang, “Characteristics of aerosol optical properties in pollution and Asian dust episodes over Beijing, China,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4945-4951 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. L. Machol, R. D. Marchbanks, C. J. Senff, B. J. McCarty, W. L. Eberhard, W. A. Brewer, R. A. Richter, R. J. Alvarez, D. C. Law, A. M. Weickmann, and S. P. Sandberg, “Scanning tropospheric ozone and aerosol lidar with double-gated photomultipliers,” Appl. Opt. 48, 512-524 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. J. Ghan and S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol properties and processes: a path from field and laboratory measurements to global climate models,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 1059-1083 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. H. Chan, “Effective absorption for thermal blooming due to aerosols,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 628-629 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. G. Gebhardt, “High power laser propagation,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1479-1493 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983), pp. 28-30.
  14. V. B. Krapchev, “Atmospheric thermal blooming and beam clearing by aerosol vaporization,” Proc. SPIE 1221, 91-105(1990).
  15. X. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Liu, and D. Wan, “Aerosol induced air breakdown with Nd:YAG pulsed laser radiation,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 9, 157-160 (1997) (in Chinese).
  16. L. Y. Chen, M. C. Chou, L. K. Hwang, W. Y. Lin, C. C. Chen, and F. T. Jeng, “Aerosol scattering coefficients at different humidities,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31 (suppl.), 983-984 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2002).
  18. G. Yamamoto and M. Tanaka, “Increase of global albedo due to air pollution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1405-1412 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. Ramanathan, M. V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C. Corrigan, C. Chung, and D. Winker, “Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption,” Nature 448, 575-578 (2007).
  20. R. Eiden, “Determination of the complex index of refraction of spherical aerosol particles,” Appl. Opt. 10, 749-754 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. I. Lin, M. Baker, and R. J. Charlson, “Absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosol: a method for measurement,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1356-1363 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Z. Hansen and W. H. Evans, “Polar nephelometer for atmospheric particulates studies,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3389-3395 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Zhao, Z. Gong, H. Hu, and M. Tanaka, “Simulataneous determination of the aerosol complex index of refraction and size distribution from scattering measurements of polarized light,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7992-8001 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Zhao, “Determination of complex index of refraction and size distribution of aerosols from polar nephelometer measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2331-2336 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Romanov, N. T. O'Neill, A. Royer, and Bruce L. J. McArthur, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol refractive index and particle size distribution from ground-based measurements of direct and scattered solar radiation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7305-7320 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. Tian and C. Chen, “Parameterization of optical characteristics of aerosols over Lanzhou city in winter,” Sci. Atmos. Sin. 20, 235-242 (1996) (in Chinese).
  27. W. Tian, C. Chen, and J. Huang, “Spectral character and complex refractive index of the winter aerosol over Lanzhou city,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 32, 126-132 (1996).
  28. Q. Guo, H. Hu, and J. Zhou, “Measurement of elemental carbon in the atmospheric aerosol and correlation with its imaginary refractive index,” Sci. Atmos. Sin. 20, 633-639 (1996). (in Chinese)
  29. Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “The effect of referactive index on size distributions and light scattering coefficients derived from optical particle counters,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31, 945-957(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. L. Hand and S. M. Kreidenweis, “A new method for retrieving particle refractive index and effective density from aerosol size distribution data,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 36, 1012-1026(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Hu, X. Li, Y. Zhang, and T. Li, “Determination of the refractive index and size distribution of aerosol from dual-scattering-angle optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3864-3870 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “Relationship of refractive index to mass density and self-consistency of mixing rules for multicomponent mixtures like ambient aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 39, 974-986 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. K. M. Adams, “Real-time in situ measurements of atmospheric optical absorption in the visible via photoacoustic spectroscopy. 1. Evaluation of the photoacoustic cells,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4052-4056 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  35. P. H. McMurray, “A review of atmospheric aerosol measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1959-1999 (2000).
  36. H. Hu, J. Xu, and Z. Huang, “The characteristics of the imaginary part of aerosol refractive index in some places of eastern China,” Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 15, 18-23 (1991). (in Chinese)
  37. J. C. Wilson and B. Liu, “Aerodynamic particle size measurement by laser-doppler velocimetry,” J. Aerosol Sci. 11, 139-150(1980).
    [CrossRef]
  38. T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, and Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279-291 (1989).
  39. T. M. Peters and D. Leith, “Concentration measurement and counting efficiency of the aerodynamic particle sizer 3321,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 627-634 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. K. Agarwal, G. J. Sem, and R. J. Remiaz, “Filter testing with a continuous-flow, single-particle-counting condensation nucleus counter,” TSI Quarterly 11, 3-12 (1985).
  41. J. Shi, R. M. Harrison, and D. Evans, “Comparison of ambient particle surface area measurement by epiphaniometer and SMPS/APS,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 6193-6200 (2001).
  42. S. Shen, P. A. Jaques, Y. Zhu, M. D. Geller, and C. Sioutas, “Evaluation of the SMPS-APS system as a continuous monitor for measuring PM2.5, PM10 and coarse (PM2.5−10) concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 3939-3950 (2002).
  43. A. Virkkula and R. E. Hillamo, “Three-wavelength nephelometer measurements in the Finnish arctic,” J. Aerosol Sci. 26 (suppl.), S451-S452 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  44. T. R. Muraleedharan and M. Radojevic, “Personal particle exposure monitoring using nephelometry during haze in Brunei,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 2733-2738 (2000).
  45. R. G. Beuttell and A. W. Brewer, “Instruments for the measurement of the visual range,” J. Sci. Instrum. 26, 357-359 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  46. R. J. Charlson and N. C. Ahlquist, “Integrating nephelometer,” U.S. patent 3563661 (16 February 1971).
  47. B. A. Bodhalne, “Measurement of the Rayleigh scattering properties of some gases with a nephelometer,” Appl. Opt. 18, 121-125 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  48. M. Z. Hansen and W. H. Evans, “Polar nephelometer for atmospheric particulates studies,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3389-3395(1980).
    [CrossRef]
  49. J. B. Rae and J. A. Garland, “A stabilized integrating nephelometer for visibility studies,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 219-223(1970).
  50. J. Heintzenberg and L. Backlin, “A height sensitivity integration nephelometer for airborne air pollution,” Atmos. Environ. 17, 433-436 (1983).
  51. B. A. Bodhaine, “Aerosol measurements at four background sites,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10753 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  52. M. J. Rood, D. S. Covert, and T. V. Larson, “Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol in Riverside, California,” Tellus 39B, 383-397 (1987).
  53. B. A. Bodhaine, “Barrow surface aerosol: 1976-1986,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 2357-2369 (1989).
  54. B. A. Bodhaine, J. M. Harris, and G. A. Herbert, “Aerosol light scatting and condensation nuclei measurements at Barrow, Alaska,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 1375-1389 (1981).
  55. M. J. Rood, M. A. Shaw, T. V. Larson, and D. S. Covert, “Ubiquitous nature of ambient metastable aerosol,” Nature 337, 537-539 (1989).
  56. B. A. Bodhaine, C. N. Ahlquist, and R. C. Schenell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A25, 2267-2276 (1991).
  57. R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  58. J. P. Veefkind, J. C. H. van der Hage, and H. M. ten Brink, “Nephelometer derived and directly measured aerosol optical depth of the atmospheric boundary layer,” Atmos. Res. 41, 217-228 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  59. F. Li, S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Lugauer, I. Colbeck, and H. W. Giiggeler, “Aerosol size distribution retrieval from multi-wavelength nephelometer data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28 (suppl.), S249-S250 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  60. S. A. P. Nyecki, I. Colebeck, and R. M. Harrison, “A portable aerosol sampler to measure real-time atmospheric aerosol mass loadings,” J. Aerosol Sci. 23, S687-S690(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  61. A. D. Shendrikar and W. K. Steinmetz, “Integrating nephelometer measurements for the airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 1383-1392 (2003).
  62. K. Werner, “A new polar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  63. B. Hu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Chen, and G. Feng, “A study on scattering properties of aerosol particle over Xigu district of Lanzhou,” Plateau Meteorol. 22, 354-360 (2003) (in Chinese).
  64. Z. Ke, J. Tang, B. Wang, and P. Yang, “Primary analysis of application results of integrating nephelometers in dust storm monitoring network experiment,” Meteorol. Sci. Technol. 32, 258-262 (2004) (in Chinese).
  65. B. Hu, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, and L. Zhang, “A study of the properties of atmospheric aerosol over Lanzhou in winter and applications by using integrating nephelometer,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 41, 9-25 (2005) (in Chinese).
  66. Y. Han, “Measurements and statistical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol optical properties,” Ph.D dissertation (Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, 2006) (in Chinese).
  67. Y. Han, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “Measurement and analysis of atmospheric visibility and aerosol extinction characteristics based on scattering statistical,” Infrared Laser Eng. 4, 663-666 (2008) (in Chinese).
  68. G. Mie, “Beitrage zur optik trüber medien, spezielle kolloidaller metallosungen,” Ann. Phys. 25, 377-444 (1908).
  69. W. J. Wiscombe, “Mie scattering calculations: advances in technique and fast, vector-speed computer codes,” Technical Note NCAR/TN-140+STR (National Center for Atmospheric Research, June 1979).
  70. W. J. Wiscombe, “Improved Mie scattering algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1505-1509 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  71. V. E. Cachorro and L. L. Salcedo, “New improvements for Mie scattering calculations,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 913-926 (1991).
  72. W. Wang and M. J. Rood, “Real refractive index: dependence on relative humidity and solute composition with relevancy to atmospheric aerosol particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23305 (2008).
  73. P. Gwaze, G. Helas, H. J. Annegarn, J. Huth, and S. J. Piketh, “Physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles collected over Cape Town during winter haze episodes,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 103, 35-43 (2007).
  74. P. Biswas and C. Y. Wu, “Nanoparticles and the environment,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 55, 708-746 (2005).
  75. Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, and J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution retrieval from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31753-31762 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (5)

Y. Han, T. Wang, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “The research progress on physic-optics characteristics of atmospheric aerosol,” Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 7396-7407 (2008) (in Chinese).

C. Xie, T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and Z. F. Wang, “Characteristics of aerosol optical properties in pollution and Asian dust episodes over Beijing, China,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4945-4951 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “Relationship of refractive index to mass density and self-consistency of mixing rules for multicomponent mixtures like ambient aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 39, 974-986 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “Measurement and analysis of atmospheric visibility and aerosol extinction characteristics based on scattering statistical,” Infrared Laser Eng. 4, 663-666 (2008) (in Chinese).

W. Wang and M. J. Rood, “Real refractive index: dependence on relative humidity and solute composition with relevancy to atmospheric aerosol particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23305 (2008).

2007 (3)

P. Gwaze, G. Helas, H. J. Annegarn, J. Huth, and S. J. Piketh, “Physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles collected over Cape Town during winter haze episodes,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 103, 35-43 (2007).

S. J. Ghan and S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol properties and processes: a path from field and laboratory measurements to global climate models,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 1059-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, M. V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C. Corrigan, C. Chung, and D. Winker, “Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption,” Nature 448, 575-578 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

J. Liu and J. Diamond, “China's environment in a globalizing world,” Nature 435, 1179-1186 (2005).

P. Biswas and C. Y. Wu, “Nanoparticles and the environment,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 55, 708-746 (2005).

B. Hu, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, and L. Zhang, “A study of the properties of atmospheric aerosol over Lanzhou in winter and applications by using integrating nephelometer,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 41, 9-25 (2005) (in Chinese).

2004 (2)

K. Werner, “A new polar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ke, J. Tang, B. Wang, and P. Yang, “Primary analysis of application results of integrating nephelometers in dust storm monitoring network experiment,” Meteorol. Sci. Technol. 32, 258-262 (2004) (in Chinese).

2003 (4)

A. D. Shendrikar and W. K. Steinmetz, “Integrating nephelometer measurements for the airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 1383-1392 (2003).

B. Hu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Chen, and G. Feng, “A study on scattering properties of aerosol particle over Xigu district of Lanzhou,” Plateau Meteorol. 22, 354-360 (2003) (in Chinese).

T. M. Peters and D. Leith, “Concentration measurement and counting efficiency of the aerodynamic particle sizer 3321,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 627-634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. L. Hand and S. M. Kreidenweis, “A new method for retrieving particle refractive index and effective density from aerosol size distribution data,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 36, 1012-1026(2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “Anthropogenic aerosols: indirect warming effect from dispersion forcing,” Nature 419, 580-581 (2002).

S. Shen, P. A. Jaques, Y. Zhu, M. D. Geller, and C. Sioutas, “Evaluation of the SMPS-APS system as a continuous monitor for measuring PM2.5, PM10 and coarse (PM2.5−10) concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 3939-3950 (2002).

2001 (2)

J. Shi, R. M. Harrison, and D. Evans, “Comparison of ambient particle surface area measurement by epiphaniometer and SMPS/APS,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 6193-6200 (2001).

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119-2124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

L. Y. Chen, M. C. Chou, L. K. Hwang, W. Y. Lin, C. C. Chen, and F. T. Jeng, “Aerosol scattering coefficients at different humidities,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31 (suppl.), 983-984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. H. McMurray, “A review of atmospheric aerosol measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1959-1999 (2000).

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “The effect of referactive index on size distributions and light scattering coefficients derived from optical particle counters,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31, 945-957(2000).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Muraleedharan and M. Radojevic, “Personal particle exposure monitoring using nephelometry during haze in Brunei,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 2733-2738 (2000).

1999 (3)

1997 (3)

F. Zhao, Z. Gong, H. Hu, and M. Tanaka, “Simulataneous determination of the aerosol complex index of refraction and size distribution from scattering measurements of polarized light,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7992-8001 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Liu, and D. Wan, “Aerosol induced air breakdown with Nd:YAG pulsed laser radiation,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 9, 157-160 (1997) (in Chinese).

F. Li, S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Lugauer, I. Colbeck, and H. W. Giiggeler, “Aerosol size distribution retrieval from multi-wavelength nephelometer data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28 (suppl.), S249-S250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

J. P. Veefkind, J. C. H. van der Hage, and H. M. ten Brink, “Nephelometer derived and directly measured aerosol optical depth of the atmospheric boundary layer,” Atmos. Res. 41, 217-228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Hegg, P. V. Hobbs, S. Gasso, J. D. Nance, and A. L. Rangno, “Aerosol measurements in the Arctic relevant to direct and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23349-23363 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Tian and C. Chen, “Parameterization of optical characteristics of aerosols over Lanzhou city in winter,” Sci. Atmos. Sin. 20, 235-242 (1996) (in Chinese).

W. Tian, C. Chen, and J. Huang, “Spectral character and complex refractive index of the winter aerosol over Lanzhou city,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 32, 126-132 (1996).

Q. Guo, H. Hu, and J. Zhou, “Measurement of elemental carbon in the atmospheric aerosol and correlation with its imaginary refractive index,” Sci. Atmos. Sin. 20, 633-639 (1996). (in Chinese)

1995 (1)

A. Virkkula and R. E. Hillamo, “Three-wavelength nephelometer measurements in the Finnish arctic,” J. Aerosol Sci. 26 (suppl.), S451-S452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. A. P. Nyecki, I. Colebeck, and R. M. Harrison, “A portable aerosol sampler to measure real-time atmospheric aerosol mass loadings,” J. Aerosol Sci. 23, S687-S690(1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

B. A. Bodhaine, C. N. Ahlquist, and R. C. Schenell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A25, 2267-2276 (1991).

H. Hu, J. Xu, and Z. Huang, “The characteristics of the imaginary part of aerosol refractive index in some places of eastern China,” Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 15, 18-23 (1991). (in Chinese)

V. E. Cachorro and L. L. Salcedo, “New improvements for Mie scattering calculations,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 913-926 (1991).

1990 (1)

V. B. Krapchev, “Atmospheric thermal blooming and beam clearing by aerosol vaporization,” Proc. SPIE 1221, 91-105(1990).

1989 (3)

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, and Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279-291 (1989).

M. J. Rood, M. A. Shaw, T. V. Larson, and D. S. Covert, “Ubiquitous nature of ambient metastable aerosol,” Nature 337, 537-539 (1989).

B. A. Bodhaine, “Barrow surface aerosol: 1976-1986,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 2357-2369 (1989).

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, and S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo, and climate,” Nature 326, 655-661 (1987).

M. J. Rood, D. S. Covert, and T. V. Larson, “Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol in Riverside, California,” Tellus 39B, 383-397 (1987).

1983 (2)

J. Heintzenberg and L. Backlin, “A height sensitivity integration nephelometer for airborne air pollution,” Atmos. Environ. 17, 433-436 (1983).

B. A. Bodhaine, “Aerosol measurements at four background sites,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10753 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

B. A. Bodhaine, J. M. Harris, and G. A. Herbert, “Aerosol light scatting and condensation nuclei measurements at Barrow, Alaska,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 1375-1389 (1981).

1980 (4)

1979 (1)

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

C. H. Chan, “Effective absorption for thermal blooming due to aerosols,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 628-629 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

G. Yamamoto and M. Tanaka, “Increase of global albedo due to air pollution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1405-1412 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

J. B. Rae and J. A. Garland, “A stabilized integrating nephelometer for visibility studies,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 219-223(1970).

1949 (1)

R. G. Beuttell and A. W. Brewer, “Instruments for the measurement of the visual range,” J. Sci. Instrum. 26, 357-359 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Beitrage zur optik trüber medien, spezielle kolloidaller metallosungen,” Ann. Phys. 25, 377-444 (1908).

Adams, K. M.

Agarwal, J. K.

J. K. Agarwal, G. J. Sem, and R. J. Remiaz, “Filter testing with a continuous-flow, single-particle-counting condensation nucleus counter,” TSI Quarterly 11, 3-12 (1985).

Ahlquist, C. N.

B. A. Bodhaine, C. N. Ahlquist, and R. C. Schenell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A25, 2267-2276 (1991).

Ahlquist, N. C.

R. J. Charlson and N. C. Ahlquist, “Integrating nephelometer,” U.S. patent 3563661 (16 February 1971).

Alvarez, R. J.

Andreae, M.

P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, and S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo, and climate,” Nature 326, 655-661 (1987).

Annegarn, H. J.

P. Gwaze, G. Helas, H. J. Annegarn, J. Huth, and S. J. Piketh, “Physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles collected over Cape Town during winter haze episodes,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 103, 35-43 (2007).

Arao, K.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, and Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279-291 (1989).

Arnott, W. P.

Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, and J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution retrieval from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31753-31762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Artaxoe, P.

P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Backlin, L.

J. Heintzenberg and L. Backlin, “A height sensitivity integration nephelometer for airborne air pollution,” Atmos. Environ. 17, 433-436 (1983).

Baker, M.

Baltensperger, U.

F. Li, S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Lugauer, I. Colbeck, and H. W. Giiggeler, “Aerosol size distribution retrieval from multi-wavelength nephelometer data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28 (suppl.), S249-S250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beck, J.

P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beuttell, R. G.

R. G. Beuttell and A. W. Brewer, “Instruments for the measurement of the visual range,” J. Sci. Instrum. 26, 357-359 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, P.

P. Biswas and C. Y. Wu, “Nanoparticles and the environment,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 55, 708-746 (2005).

Bodhaine, B. A.

B. A. Bodhaine, C. N. Ahlquist, and R. C. Schenell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A25, 2267-2276 (1991).

B. A. Bodhaine, “Barrow surface aerosol: 1976-1986,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 2357-2369 (1989).

B. A. Bodhaine, “Aerosol measurements at four background sites,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10753 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bodhaine, J. M. Harris, and G. A. Herbert, “Aerosol light scatting and condensation nuclei measurements at Barrow, Alaska,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 1375-1389 (1981).

Bodhalne, B. A.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983), pp. 28-30.

Boucher, O.

P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, A. W.

R. G. Beuttell and A. W. Brewer, “Instruments for the measurement of the visual range,” J. Sci. Instrum. 26, 357-359 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, W. A.

Cachorro, V. E.

V. E. Cachorro and L. L. Salcedo, “New improvements for Mie scattering calculations,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 913-926 (1991).

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. H.

C. H. Chan, “Effective absorption for thermal blooming due to aerosols,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 628-629 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, and S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo, and climate,” Nature 326, 655-661 (1987).

C. I. Lin, M. Baker, and R. J. Charlson, “Absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosol: a method for measurement,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1356-1363 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson and N. C. Ahlquist, “Integrating nephelometer,” U.S. patent 3563661 (16 February 1971).

Chen, C.

B. Hu, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, and L. Zhang, “A study of the properties of atmospheric aerosol over Lanzhou in winter and applications by using integrating nephelometer,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 41, 9-25 (2005) (in Chinese).

B. Hu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Chen, and G. Feng, “A study on scattering properties of aerosol particle over Xigu district of Lanzhou,” Plateau Meteorol. 22, 354-360 (2003) (in Chinese).

W. Tian and C. Chen, “Parameterization of optical characteristics of aerosols over Lanzhou city in winter,” Sci. Atmos. Sin. 20, 235-242 (1996) (in Chinese).

W. Tian, C. Chen, and J. Huang, “Spectral character and complex refractive index of the winter aerosol over Lanzhou city,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 32, 126-132 (1996).

Chen, C. C.

L. Y. Chen, M. C. Chou, L. K. Hwang, W. Y. Lin, C. C. Chen, and F. T. Jeng, “Aerosol scattering coefficients at different humidities,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31 (suppl.), 983-984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

L. Y. Chen, M. C. Chou, L. K. Hwang, W. Y. Lin, C. C. Chen, and F. T. Jeng, “Aerosol scattering coefficients at different humidities,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31 (suppl.), 983-984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. C.

L. Y. Chen, M. C. Chou, L. K. Hwang, W. Y. Lin, C. C. Chen, and F. T. Jeng, “Aerosol scattering coefficients at different humidities,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31 (suppl.), 983-984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, C.

V. Ramanathan, M. V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C. Corrigan, C. Chung, and D. Winker, “Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption,” Nature 448, 575-578 (2007).

Coakley, J. A.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Colbeck, I.

F. Li, S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Lugauer, I. Colbeck, and H. W. Giiggeler, “Aerosol size distribution retrieval from multi-wavelength nephelometer data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28 (suppl.), S249-S250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Colebeck, I.

S. A. P. Nyecki, I. Colebeck, and R. M. Harrison, “A portable aerosol sampler to measure real-time atmospheric aerosol mass loadings,” J. Aerosol Sci. 23, S687-S690(1992).
[CrossRef]

Corrigan, C.

V. Ramanathan, M. V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C. Corrigan, C. Chung, and D. Winker, “Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption,” Nature 448, 575-578 (2007).

Covert, D. S.

M. J. Rood, M. A. Shaw, T. V. Larson, and D. S. Covert, “Ubiquitous nature of ambient metastable aerosol,” Nature 337, 537-539 (1989).

M. J. Rood, D. S. Covert, and T. V. Larson, “Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol in Riverside, California,” Tellus 39B, 383-397 (1987).

Crutzen, P. J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119-2124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Daum, P. H.

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “Relationship of refractive index to mass density and self-consistency of mixing rules for multicomponent mixtures like ambient aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 39, 974-986 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “Anthropogenic aerosols: indirect warming effect from dispersion forcing,” Nature 419, 580-581 (2002).

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “The effect of referactive index on size distributions and light scattering coefficients derived from optical particle counters,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31, 945-957(2000).
[CrossRef]

Diamond, J.

J. Liu and J. Diamond, “China's environment in a globalizing world,” Nature 435, 1179-1186 (2005).

Eberhard, W. L.

Eiden, R.

Evans, D.

J. Shi, R. M. Harrison, and D. Evans, “Comparison of ambient particle surface area measurement by epiphaniometer and SMPS/APS,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 6193-6200 (2001).

Evans, W. H.

Feng, G.

B. Hu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Chen, and G. Feng, “A study on scattering properties of aerosol particle over Xigu district of Lanzhou,” Plateau Meteorol. 22, 354-360 (2003) (in Chinese).

Garland, J. A.

J. B. Rae and J. A. Garland, “A stabilized integrating nephelometer for visibility studies,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 219-223(1970).

Gasso, S.

D. A. Hegg, P. V. Hobbs, S. Gasso, J. D. Nance, and A. L. Rangno, “Aerosol measurements in the Arctic relevant to direct and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23349-23363 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gebhardt, F. G.

Geller, M. D.

S. Shen, P. A. Jaques, Y. Zhu, M. D. Geller, and C. Sioutas, “Evaluation of the SMPS-APS system as a continuous monitor for measuring PM2.5, PM10 and coarse (PM2.5−10) concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 3939-3950 (2002).

Ghan, S. J.

S. J. Ghan and S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol properties and processes: a path from field and laboratory measurements to global climate models,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 1059-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giiggeler, H. W.

F. Li, S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Lugauer, I. Colbeck, and H. W. Giiggeler, “Aerosol size distribution retrieval from multi-wavelength nephelometer data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28 (suppl.), S249-S250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z.

Graham, B.

P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Q.

Q. Guo, H. Hu, and J. Zhou, “Measurement of elemental carbon in the atmospheric aerosol and correlation with its imaginary refractive index,” Sci. Atmos. Sin. 20, 633-639 (1996). (in Chinese)

Guyona, P.

P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gwaze, P.

P. Gwaze, G. Helas, H. J. Annegarn, J. Huth, and S. J. Piketh, “Physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles collected over Cape Town during winter haze episodes,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 103, 35-43 (2007).

Hales, J. M.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hallett, J.

Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, and J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution retrieval from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31753-31762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Y. Han, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “Measurement and analysis of atmospheric visibility and aerosol extinction characteristics based on scattering statistical,” Infrared Laser Eng. 4, 663-666 (2008) (in Chinese).

Y. Han, T. Wang, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “The research progress on physic-optics characteristics of atmospheric aerosol,” Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 7396-7407 (2008) (in Chinese).

Y. Han, “Measurements and statistical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol optical properties,” Ph.D dissertation (Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, 2006) (in Chinese).

Hand, J. L.

J. L. Hand and S. M. Kreidenweis, “A new method for retrieving particle refractive index and effective density from aerosol size distribution data,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 36, 1012-1026(2002).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M. Z.

Harris, J. M.

B. A. Bodhaine, J. M. Harris, and G. A. Herbert, “Aerosol light scatting and condensation nuclei measurements at Barrow, Alaska,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 1375-1389 (1981).

Harrison, R. M.

J. Shi, R. M. Harrison, and D. Evans, “Comparison of ambient particle surface area measurement by epiphaniometer and SMPS/APS,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 6193-6200 (2001).

S. A. P. Nyecki, I. Colebeck, and R. M. Harrison, “A portable aerosol sampler to measure real-time atmospheric aerosol mass loadings,” J. Aerosol Sci. 23, S687-S690(1992).
[CrossRef]

Hegg, D. A.

D. A. Hegg, P. V. Hobbs, S. Gasso, J. D. Nance, and A. L. Rangno, “Aerosol measurements in the Arctic relevant to direct and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23349-23363 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heintzenberg, J.

J. Heintzenberg and L. Backlin, “A height sensitivity integration nephelometer for airborne air pollution,” Atmos. Environ. 17, 433-436 (1983).

Helas, G.

P. Gwaze, G. Helas, H. J. Annegarn, J. Huth, and S. J. Piketh, “Physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles collected over Cape Town during winter haze episodes,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 103, 35-43 (2007).

Herbert, G. A.

B. A. Bodhaine, J. M. Harris, and G. A. Herbert, “Aerosol light scatting and condensation nuclei measurements at Barrow, Alaska,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 1375-1389 (1981).

Hillamo, R. E.

A. Virkkula and R. E. Hillamo, “Three-wavelength nephelometer measurements in the Finnish arctic,” J. Aerosol Sci. 26 (suppl.), S451-S452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

D. A. Hegg, P. V. Hobbs, S. Gasso, J. D. Nance, and A. L. Rangno, “Aerosol measurements in the Arctic relevant to direct and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23349-23363 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B.

B. Hu, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, and L. Zhang, “A study of the properties of atmospheric aerosol over Lanzhou in winter and applications by using integrating nephelometer,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 41, 9-25 (2005) (in Chinese).

B. Hu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Chen, and G. Feng, “A study on scattering properties of aerosol particle over Xigu district of Lanzhou,” Plateau Meteorol. 22, 354-360 (2003) (in Chinese).

Hu, H.

H. Hu, X. Li, Y. Zhang, and T. Li, “Determination of the refractive index and size distribution of aerosol from dual-scattering-angle optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3864-3870 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhao, Z. Gong, H. Hu, and M. Tanaka, “Simulataneous determination of the aerosol complex index of refraction and size distribution from scattering measurements of polarized light,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7992-8001 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Guo, H. Hu, and J. Zhou, “Measurement of elemental carbon in the atmospheric aerosol and correlation with its imaginary refractive index,” Sci. Atmos. Sin. 20, 633-639 (1996). (in Chinese)

H. Hu, J. Xu, and Z. Huang, “The characteristics of the imaginary part of aerosol refractive index in some places of eastern China,” Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 15, 18-23 (1991). (in Chinese)

Huang, J.

W. Tian, C. Chen, and J. Huang, “Spectral character and complex refractive index of the winter aerosol over Lanzhou city,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 32, 126-132 (1996).

Huang, Z.

H. Hu, J. Xu, and Z. Huang, “The characteristics of the imaginary part of aerosol refractive index in some places of eastern China,” Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 15, 18-23 (1991). (in Chinese)

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983), pp. 28-30.

Huth, J.

P. Gwaze, G. Helas, H. J. Annegarn, J. Huth, and S. J. Piketh, “Physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles collected over Cape Town during winter haze episodes,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 103, 35-43 (2007).

Hwang, L. K.

L. Y. Chen, M. C. Chou, L. K. Hwang, W. Y. Lin, C. C. Chen, and F. T. Jeng, “Aerosol scattering coefficients at different humidities,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31 (suppl.), 983-984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaques, P. A.

S. Shen, P. A. Jaques, Y. Zhu, M. D. Geller, and C. Sioutas, “Evaluation of the SMPS-APS system as a continuous monitor for measuring PM2.5, PM10 and coarse (PM2.5−10) concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 3939-3950 (2002).

Jeng, F. T.

L. Y. Chen, M. C. Chou, L. K. Hwang, W. Y. Lin, C. C. Chen, and F. T. Jeng, “Aerosol scattering coefficients at different humidities,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31 (suppl.), 983-984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ke, Z.

Z. Ke, J. Tang, B. Wang, and P. Yang, “Primary analysis of application results of integrating nephelometers in dust storm monitoring network experiment,” Meteorol. Sci. Technol. 32, 258-262 (2004) (in Chinese).

Kiehl, J. T.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119-2124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

V. Ramanathan, M. V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C. Corrigan, C. Chung, and D. Winker, “Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption,” Nature 448, 575-578 (2007).

Krapchev, V. B.

V. B. Krapchev, “Atmospheric thermal blooming and beam clearing by aerosol vaporization,” Proc. SPIE 1221, 91-105(1990).

Kreidenweis, S. M.

J. L. Hand and S. M. Kreidenweis, “A new method for retrieving particle refractive index and effective density from aerosol size distribution data,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 36, 1012-1026(2002).
[CrossRef]

Larson, T. V.

M. J. Rood, M. A. Shaw, T. V. Larson, and D. S. Covert, “Ubiquitous nature of ambient metastable aerosol,” Nature 337, 537-539 (1989).

M. J. Rood, D. S. Covert, and T. V. Larson, “Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol in Riverside, California,” Tellus 39B, 383-397 (1987).

Law, D. C.

Leith, D.

T. M. Peters and D. Leith, “Concentration measurement and counting efficiency of the aerodynamic particle sizer 3321,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 627-634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

F. Li, S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Lugauer, I. Colbeck, and H. W. Giiggeler, “Aerosol size distribution retrieval from multi-wavelength nephelometer data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28 (suppl.), S249-S250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Li, X.

Lin, C. I.

Lin, W. Y.

L. Y. Chen, M. C. Chou, L. K. Hwang, W. Y. Lin, C. C. Chen, and F. T. Jeng, “Aerosol scattering coefficients at different humidities,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31 (suppl.), 983-984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

K. N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2002).

Liu, B.

J. C. Wilson and B. Liu, “Aerodynamic particle size measurement by laser-doppler velocimetry,” J. Aerosol Sci. 11, 139-150(1980).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu and J. Diamond, “China's environment in a globalizing world,” Nature 435, 1179-1186 (2005).

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “Relationship of refractive index to mass density and self-consistency of mixing rules for multicomponent mixtures like ambient aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 39, 974-986 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “Anthropogenic aerosols: indirect warming effect from dispersion forcing,” Nature 419, 580-581 (2002).

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “The effect of referactive index on size distributions and light scattering coefficients derived from optical particle counters,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31, 945-957(2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, and J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution retrieval from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31753-31762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Liu, and D. Wan, “Aerosol induced air breakdown with Nd:YAG pulsed laser radiation,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 9, 157-160 (1997) (in Chinese).

Lovelock, J. E.

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, and S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo, and climate,” Nature 326, 655-661 (1987).

Lugauer, M.

F. Li, S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Lugauer, I. Colbeck, and H. W. Giiggeler, “Aerosol size distribution retrieval from multi-wavelength nephelometer data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28 (suppl.), S249-S250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Machol, J. L.

Maenhaut, W.

P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marchbanks, R. D.

Matsui, I.

Mayol-Bracero, O.

P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McArthur, Bruce L. J.

McCarty, B. J.

McMurray, P. H.

P. H. McMurray, “A review of atmospheric aerosol measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1959-1999 (2000).

Mie, G.

G. Mie, “Beitrage zur optik trüber medien, spezielle kolloidaller metallosungen,” Ann. Phys. 25, 377-444 (1908).

Muraleedharan, T. R.

T. R. Muraleedharan and M. Radojevic, “Personal particle exposure monitoring using nephelometry during haze in Brunei,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 2733-2738 (2000).

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, and Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279-291 (1989).

Nakanishi, Y.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, and Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279-291 (1989).

Nance, J. D.

D. A. Hegg, P. V. Hobbs, S. Gasso, J. D. Nance, and A. L. Rangno, “Aerosol measurements in the Arctic relevant to direct and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23349-23363 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, T.

Nyecki, S. A. P.

S. A. P. Nyecki, I. Colebeck, and R. M. Harrison, “A portable aerosol sampler to measure real-time atmospheric aerosol mass loadings,” J. Aerosol Sci. 23, S687-S690(1992).
[CrossRef]

Nyeki, S.

F. Li, S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Lugauer, I. Colbeck, and H. W. Giiggeler, “Aerosol size distribution retrieval from multi-wavelength nephelometer data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28 (suppl.), S249-S250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O'Neill, N. T.

Peters, T. M.

T. M. Peters and D. Leith, “Concentration measurement and counting efficiency of the aerodynamic particle sizer 3321,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 627-634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Piketh, S. J.

P. Gwaze, G. Helas, H. J. Annegarn, J. Huth, and S. J. Piketh, “Physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles collected over Cape Town during winter haze episodes,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 103, 35-43 (2007).

Radojevic, M.

T. R. Muraleedharan and M. Radojevic, “Personal particle exposure monitoring using nephelometry during haze in Brunei,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 2733-2738 (2000).

Rae, J. B.

J. B. Rae and J. A. Garland, “A stabilized integrating nephelometer for visibility studies,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 219-223(1970).

Ramana, M. V.

V. Ramanathan, M. V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C. Corrigan, C. Chung, and D. Winker, “Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption,” Nature 448, 575-578 (2007).

Ramanathan, V.

V. Ramanathan, M. V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C. Corrigan, C. Chung, and D. Winker, “Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption,” Nature 448, 575-578 (2007).

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119-2124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rangno, A. L.

D. A. Hegg, P. V. Hobbs, S. Gasso, J. D. Nance, and A. L. Rangno, “Aerosol measurements in the Arctic relevant to direct and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23349-23363 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rao, R.

Y. Han, T. Wang, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “The research progress on physic-optics characteristics of atmospheric aerosol,” Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 7396-7407 (2008) (in Chinese).

Y. Han, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “Measurement and analysis of atmospheric visibility and aerosol extinction characteristics based on scattering statistical,” Infrared Laser Eng. 4, 663-666 (2008) (in Chinese).

Remiaz, R. J.

J. K. Agarwal, G. J. Sem, and R. J. Remiaz, “Filter testing with a continuous-flow, single-particle-counting condensation nucleus counter,” TSI Quarterly 11, 3-12 (1985).

Richter, R. A.

Roberts, G.

V. Ramanathan, M. V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C. Corrigan, C. Chung, and D. Winker, “Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption,” Nature 448, 575-578 (2007).

Robertsa, G.

P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romanov, P.

Rood, M. J.

W. Wang and M. J. Rood, “Real refractive index: dependence on relative humidity and solute composition with relevancy to atmospheric aerosol particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23305 (2008).

M. J. Rood, M. A. Shaw, T. V. Larson, and D. S. Covert, “Ubiquitous nature of ambient metastable aerosol,” Nature 337, 537-539 (1989).

M. J. Rood, D. S. Covert, and T. V. Larson, “Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol in Riverside, California,” Tellus 39B, 383-397 (1987).

Rosenfeld, D.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119-2124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Royer, A.

Salcedo, L. L.

V. E. Cachorro and L. L. Salcedo, “New improvements for Mie scattering calculations,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 913-926 (1991).

Sandberg, S. P.

Schenell, R. C.

B. A. Bodhaine, C. N. Ahlquist, and R. C. Schenell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A25, 2267-2276 (1991).

Schwartz, S. E.

S. J. Ghan and S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol properties and processes: a path from field and laboratory measurements to global climate models,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 1059-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sem, G. J.

J. K. Agarwal, G. J. Sem, and R. J. Remiaz, “Filter testing with a continuous-flow, single-particle-counting condensation nucleus counter,” TSI Quarterly 11, 3-12 (1985).

Senff, C. J.

Shaw, M. A.

M. J. Rood, M. A. Shaw, T. V. Larson, and D. S. Covert, “Ubiquitous nature of ambient metastable aerosol,” Nature 337, 537-539 (1989).

Shen, S.

S. Shen, P. A. Jaques, Y. Zhu, M. D. Geller, and C. Sioutas, “Evaluation of the SMPS-APS system as a continuous monitor for measuring PM2.5, PM10 and coarse (PM2.5−10) concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 3939-3950 (2002).

Shendrikar, A. D.

A. D. Shendrikar and W. K. Steinmetz, “Integrating nephelometer measurements for the airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 1383-1392 (2003).

Shi, J.

J. Shi, R. M. Harrison, and D. Evans, “Comparison of ambient particle surface area measurement by epiphaniometer and SMPS/APS,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 6193-6200 (2001).

Shiobara, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, and Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279-291 (1989).

Sioutas, C.

S. Shen, P. A. Jaques, Y. Zhu, M. D. Geller, and C. Sioutas, “Evaluation of the SMPS-APS system as a continuous monitor for measuring PM2.5, PM10 and coarse (PM2.5−10) concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 3939-3950 (2002).

Steinmetz, W. K.

A. D. Shendrikar and W. K. Steinmetz, “Integrating nephelometer measurements for the airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 1383-1392 (2003).

Sugimoto, N.

Tanaka, M.

F. Zhao, Z. Gong, H. Hu, and M. Tanaka, “Simulataneous determination of the aerosol complex index of refraction and size distribution from scattering measurements of polarized light,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7992-8001 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, and Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279-291 (1989).

G. Yamamoto and M. Tanaka, “Increase of global albedo due to air pollution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1405-1412 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J.

Z. Ke, J. Tang, B. Wang, and P. Yang, “Primary analysis of application results of integrating nephelometers in dust storm monitoring network experiment,” Meteorol. Sci. Technol. 32, 258-262 (2004) (in Chinese).

Tao, S.

X. Zhou, S. Tao, and K. Yao, Advanced Atmospheric Physics (Meteorology Publishing House, 1991).

ten Brink, H. M.

J. P. Veefkind, J. C. H. van der Hage, and H. M. ten Brink, “Nephelometer derived and directly measured aerosol optical depth of the atmospheric boundary layer,” Atmos. Res. 41, 217-228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tian, W.

W. Tian, C. Chen, and J. Huang, “Spectral character and complex refractive index of the winter aerosol over Lanzhou city,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 32, 126-132 (1996).

W. Tian and C. Chen, “Parameterization of optical characteristics of aerosols over Lanzhou city in winter,” Sci. Atmos. Sin. 20, 235-242 (1996) (in Chinese).

van der Hage, J. C. H.

J. P. Veefkind, J. C. H. van der Hage, and H. M. ten Brink, “Nephelometer derived and directly measured aerosol optical depth of the atmospheric boundary layer,” Atmos. Res. 41, 217-228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Veefkind, J. P.

J. P. Veefkind, J. C. H. van der Hage, and H. M. ten Brink, “Nephelometer derived and directly measured aerosol optical depth of the atmospheric boundary layer,” Atmos. Res. 41, 217-228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Virkkula, A.

A. Virkkula and R. E. Hillamo, “Three-wavelength nephelometer measurements in the Finnish arctic,” J. Aerosol Sci. 26 (suppl.), S451-S452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wan, D.

X. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Liu, and D. Wan, “Aerosol induced air breakdown with Nd:YAG pulsed laser radiation,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 9, 157-160 (1997) (in Chinese).

Wang, B.

Z. Ke, J. Tang, B. Wang, and P. Yang, “Primary analysis of application results of integrating nephelometers in dust storm monitoring network experiment,” Meteorol. Sci. Technol. 32, 258-262 (2004) (in Chinese).

Wang, J.

X. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Liu, and D. Wan, “Aerosol induced air breakdown with Nd:YAG pulsed laser radiation,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 9, 157-160 (1997) (in Chinese).

Wang, T.

Y. Han, T. Wang, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “The research progress on physic-optics characteristics of atmospheric aerosol,” Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 7396-7407 (2008) (in Chinese).

Wang, W.

W. Wang and M. J. Rood, “Real refractive index: dependence on relative humidity and solute composition with relevancy to atmospheric aerosol particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23305 (2008).

Wang, Y.

Y. Han, T. Wang, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “The research progress on physic-optics characteristics of atmospheric aerosol,” Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 7396-7407 (2008) (in Chinese).

Y. Han, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “Measurement and analysis of atmospheric visibility and aerosol extinction characteristics based on scattering statistical,” Infrared Laser Eng. 4, 663-666 (2008) (in Chinese).

Wang, Z. F.

Warren, S. G.

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, and S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo, and climate,” Nature 326, 655-661 (1987).

Weickmann, A. M.

Weingartner, E.

F. Li, S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Lugauer, I. Colbeck, and H. W. Giiggeler, “Aerosol size distribution retrieval from multi-wavelength nephelometer data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28 (suppl.), S249-S250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Werner, K.

K. Werner, “A new polar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. C.

J. C. Wilson and B. Liu, “Aerodynamic particle size measurement by laser-doppler velocimetry,” J. Aerosol Sci. 11, 139-150(1980).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D.

V. Ramanathan, M. V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C. Corrigan, C. Chung, and D. Winker, “Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption,” Nature 448, 575-578 (2007).

Wiscombe, W. J.

W. J. Wiscombe, “Improved Mie scattering algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1505-1509 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wiscombe, “Mie scattering calculations: advances in technique and fast, vector-speed computer codes,” Technical Note NCAR/TN-140+STR (National Center for Atmospheric Research, June 1979).

Wu, C. Y.

P. Biswas and C. Y. Wu, “Nanoparticles and the environment,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 55, 708-746 (2005).

Xie, C.

Xu, J.

H. Hu, J. Xu, and Z. Huang, “The characteristics of the imaginary part of aerosol refractive index in some places of eastern China,” Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 15, 18-23 (1991). (in Chinese)

Yamamoto, G.

G. Yamamoto and M. Tanaka, “Increase of global albedo due to air pollution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1405-1412 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Yamano, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, and Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279-291 (1989).

Yang, P.

Z. Ke, J. Tang, B. Wang, and P. Yang, “Primary analysis of application results of integrating nephelometers in dust storm monitoring network experiment,” Meteorol. Sci. Technol. 32, 258-262 (2004) (in Chinese).

Yang, X.

X. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Liu, and D. Wan, “Aerosol induced air breakdown with Nd:YAG pulsed laser radiation,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 9, 157-160 (1997) (in Chinese).

Yao, K.

X. Zhou, S. Tao, and K. Yao, Advanced Atmospheric Physics (Meteorology Publishing House, 1991).

Zhang, J.

B. Hu, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, and L. Zhang, “A study of the properties of atmospheric aerosol over Lanzhou in winter and applications by using integrating nephelometer,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 41, 9-25 (2005) (in Chinese).

Zhang, L.

B. Hu, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, and L. Zhang, “A study of the properties of atmospheric aerosol over Lanzhou in winter and applications by using integrating nephelometer,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 41, 9-25 (2005) (in Chinese).

B. Hu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Chen, and G. Feng, “A study on scattering properties of aerosol particle over Xigu district of Lanzhou,” Plateau Meteorol. 22, 354-360 (2003) (in Chinese).

Zhang, W.

B. Hu, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, and L. Zhang, “A study of the properties of atmospheric aerosol over Lanzhou in winter and applications by using integrating nephelometer,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 41, 9-25 (2005) (in Chinese).

B. Hu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Chen, and G. Feng, “A study on scattering properties of aerosol particle over Xigu district of Lanzhou,” Plateau Meteorol. 22, 354-360 (2003) (in Chinese).

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, F.

Zhou, J.

Q. Guo, H. Hu, and J. Zhou, “Measurement of elemental carbon in the atmospheric aerosol and correlation with its imaginary refractive index,” Sci. Atmos. Sin. 20, 633-639 (1996). (in Chinese)

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, S. Tao, and K. Yao, Advanced Atmospheric Physics (Meteorology Publishing House, 1991).

Zhu, Y.

S. Shen, P. A. Jaques, Y. Zhu, M. D. Geller, and C. Sioutas, “Evaluation of the SMPS-APS system as a continuous monitor for measuring PM2.5, PM10 and coarse (PM2.5−10) concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 3939-3950 (2002).

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

Y. Han, T. Wang, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “The research progress on physic-optics characteristics of atmospheric aerosol,” Acta Phys. Sin. 57, 7396-7407 (2008) (in Chinese).

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

J. L. Hand and S. M. Kreidenweis, “A new method for retrieving particle refractive index and effective density from aerosol size distribution data,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 36, 1012-1026(2002).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

G. Mie, “Beitrage zur optik trüber medien, spezielle kolloidaller metallosungen,” Ann. Phys. 25, 377-444 (1908).

Appl. Opt. (14)

W. J. Wiscombe, “Improved Mie scattering algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1505-1509 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bodhalne, “Measurement of the Rayleigh scattering properties of some gases with a nephelometer,” Appl. Opt. 18, 121-125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Hansen and W. H. Evans, “Polar nephelometer for atmospheric particulates studies,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3389-3395(1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, X. Li, Y. Zhang, and T. Li, “Determination of the refractive index and size distribution of aerosol from dual-scattering-angle optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3864-3870 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Adams, “Real-time in situ measurements of atmospheric optical absorption in the visible via photoacoustic spectroscopy. 1. Evaluation of the photoacoustic cells,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4052-4056 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Eiden, “Determination of the complex index of refraction of spherical aerosol particles,” Appl. Opt. 10, 749-754 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Lin, M. Baker, and R. J. Charlson, “Absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosol: a method for measurement,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1356-1363 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Hansen and W. H. Evans, “Polar nephelometer for atmospheric particulates studies,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3389-3395 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhao, Z. Gong, H. Hu, and M. Tanaka, “Simulataneous determination of the aerosol complex index of refraction and size distribution from scattering measurements of polarized light,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7992-8001 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhao, “Determination of complex index of refraction and size distribution of aerosols from polar nephelometer measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2331-2336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Romanov, N. T. O'Neill, A. Royer, and Bruce L. J. McArthur, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol refractive index and particle size distribution from ground-based measurements of direct and scattered solar radiation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7305-7320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, T. Nishizawa, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, and Z. F. Wang, “Characteristics of aerosol optical properties in pollution and Asian dust episodes over Beijing, China,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4945-4951 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Machol, R. D. Marchbanks, C. J. Senff, B. J. McCarty, W. L. Eberhard, W. A. Brewer, R. A. Richter, R. J. Alvarez, D. C. Law, A. M. Weickmann, and S. P. Sandberg, “Scanning tropospheric ozone and aerosol lidar with double-gated photomultipliers,” Appl. Opt. 48, 512-524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Gebhardt, “High power laser propagation,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1479-1493 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. H. Chan, “Effective absorption for thermal blooming due to aerosols,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 628-629 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (10)

P. H. McMurray, “A review of atmospheric aerosol measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 1959-1999 (2000).

J. B. Rae and J. A. Garland, “A stabilized integrating nephelometer for visibility studies,” Atmos. Environ. 4, 219-223(1970).

J. Heintzenberg and L. Backlin, “A height sensitivity integration nephelometer for airborne air pollution,” Atmos. Environ. 17, 433-436 (1983).

J. Shi, R. M. Harrison, and D. Evans, “Comparison of ambient particle surface area measurement by epiphaniometer and SMPS/APS,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 6193-6200 (2001).

S. Shen, P. A. Jaques, Y. Zhu, M. D. Geller, and C. Sioutas, “Evaluation of the SMPS-APS system as a continuous monitor for measuring PM2.5, PM10 and coarse (PM2.5−10) concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 3939-3950 (2002).

T. R. Muraleedharan and M. Radojevic, “Personal particle exposure monitoring using nephelometry during haze in Brunei,” Atmos. Environ. 34, 2733-2738 (2000).

B. A. Bodhaine, “Barrow surface aerosol: 1976-1986,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 2357-2369 (1989).

B. A. Bodhaine, J. M. Harris, and G. A. Herbert, “Aerosol light scatting and condensation nuclei measurements at Barrow, Alaska,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 1375-1389 (1981).

B. A. Bodhaine, C. N. Ahlquist, and R. C. Schenell, “Three-wavelength nephelometer suitable for aircraft measurement of background aerosol scattering coefficient,” Atmos. Environ. A25, 2267-2276 (1991).

A. D. Shendrikar and W. K. Steinmetz, “Integrating nephelometer measurements for the airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentrations,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 1383-1392 (2003).

Atmos. Res. (1)

J. P. Veefkind, J. C. H. van der Hage, and H. M. ten Brink, “Nephelometer derived and directly measured aerosol optical depth of the atmospheric boundary layer,” Atmos. Res. 41, 217-228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

S. J. Ghan and S. E. Schwartz, “Aerosol properties and processes: a path from field and laboratory measurements to global climate models,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88, 1059-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

H. Hu, J. Xu, and Z. Huang, “The characteristics of the imaginary part of aerosol refractive index in some places of eastern China,” Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 15, 18-23 (1991). (in Chinese)

High Power Laser Particle Beams (1)

X. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Liu, and D. Wan, “Aerosol induced air breakdown with Nd:YAG pulsed laser radiation,” High Power Laser Particle Beams 9, 157-160 (1997) (in Chinese).

Infrared Laser Eng. (1)

Y. Han, R. Rao, and Y. Wang, “Measurement and analysis of atmospheric visibility and aerosol extinction characteristics based on scattering statistical,” Infrared Laser Eng. 4, 663-666 (2008) (in Chinese).

J. Aerosol Sci. (9)

F. Li, S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, E. Weingartner, M. Lugauer, I. Colbeck, and H. W. Giiggeler, “Aerosol size distribution retrieval from multi-wavelength nephelometer data,” J. Aerosol Sci. 28 (suppl.), S249-S250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. P. Nyecki, I. Colebeck, and R. M. Harrison, “A portable aerosol sampler to measure real-time atmospheric aerosol mass loadings,” J. Aerosol Sci. 23, S687-S690(1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Virkkula and R. E. Hillamo, “Three-wavelength nephelometer measurements in the Finnish arctic,” J. Aerosol Sci. 26 (suppl.), S451-S452 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, M. C. Chou, L. K. Hwang, W. Y. Lin, C. C. Chen, and F. T. Jeng, “Aerosol scattering coefficients at different humidities,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31 (suppl.), 983-984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wilson and B. Liu, “Aerodynamic particle size measurement by laser-doppler velocimetry,” J. Aerosol Sci. 11, 139-150(1980).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “Relationship of refractive index to mass density and self-consistency of mixing rules for multicomponent mixtures like ambient aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 39, 974-986 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Peters and D. Leith, “Concentration measurement and counting efficiency of the aerodynamic particle sizer 3321,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 627-634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “The effect of referactive index on size distributions and light scattering coefficients derived from optical particle counters,” J. Aerosol Sci. 31, 945-957(2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyona, O. Boucher, B. Graham, J. Beck, O. Mayol-Bracero, G. Robertsa, W. Maenhaut, P. Artaxoe, and M. Andreae, “Refractive index of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during LBA-EUSTACH 1999,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34, 883-907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. (1)

P. Biswas and C. Y. Wu, “Nanoparticles and the environment,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 55, 708-746 (2005).

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

G. Yamamoto and M. Tanaka, “Increase of global albedo due to air pollution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1405-1412 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1)

V. E. Cachorro and L. L. Salcedo, “New improvements for Mie scattering calculations,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 5, 913-926 (1991).

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

W. Wang and M. J. Rood, “Real refractive index: dependence on relative humidity and solute composition with relevancy to atmospheric aerosol particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D23305 (2008).

Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, and J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution retrieval from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31753-31762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bodhaine, “Aerosol measurements at four background sites,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10753 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Hegg, P. V. Hobbs, S. Gasso, J. D. Nance, and A. L. Rangno, “Aerosol measurements in the Arctic relevant to direct and indirect radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23349-23363 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lanzhou Univ. (2)

W. Tian, C. Chen, and J. Huang, “Spectral character and complex refractive index of the winter aerosol over Lanzhou city,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 32, 126-132 (1996).

B. Hu, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, C. Chen, and L. Zhang, “A study of the properties of atmospheric aerosol over Lanzhou in winter and applications by using integrating nephelometer,” J. Lanzhou Univ. 41, 9-25 (2005) (in Chinese).

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamano, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, and Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the yellow sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nakasaki. II. Models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279-291 (1989).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

K. Werner, “A new polar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. G. Beuttell and A. W. Brewer, “Instruments for the measurement of the visual range,” J. Sci. Instrum. 26, 357-359 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Meteorol. Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. Ke, J. Tang, B. Wang, and P. Yang, “Primary analysis of application results of integrating nephelometers in dust storm monitoring network experiment,” Meteorol. Sci. Technol. 32, 258-262 (2004) (in Chinese).

Nature (5)

M. J. Rood, M. A. Shaw, T. V. Larson, and D. S. Covert, “Ubiquitous nature of ambient metastable aerosol,” Nature 337, 537-539 (1989).

Y. Liu and P. H. Daum, “Anthropogenic aerosols: indirect warming effect from dispersion forcing,” Nature 419, 580-581 (2002).

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, and S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo, and climate,” Nature 326, 655-661 (1987).

V. Ramanathan, M. V. Ramana, G. Roberts, D. Kim, C. Corrigan, C. Chung, and D. Winker, “Warming trends in Asia amplified by brown cloud solar absorption,” Nature 448, 575-578 (2007).

J. Liu and J. Diamond, “China's environment in a globalizing world,” Nature 435, 1179-1186 (2005).

Plateau Meteorol. (1)

B. Hu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Chen, and G. Feng, “A study on scattering properties of aerosol particle over Xigu district of Lanzhou,” Plateau Meteorol. 22, 354-360 (2003) (in Chinese).

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. B. Krapchev, “Atmospheric thermal blooming and beam clearing by aerosol vaporization,” Proc. SPIE 1221, 91-105(1990).

S. Afr. J. Sci. (1)

P. Gwaze, G. Helas, H. J. Annegarn, J. Huth, and S. J. Piketh, “Physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles collected over Cape Town during winter haze episodes,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 103, 35-43 (2007).

Sci. Atmos. Sin. (2)

Q. Guo, H. Hu, and J. Zhou, “Measurement of elemental carbon in the atmospheric aerosol and correlation with its imaginary refractive index,” Sci. Atmos. Sin. 20, 633-639 (1996). (in Chinese)

W. Tian and C. Chen, “Parameterization of optical characteristics of aerosols over Lanzhou city in winter,” Sci. Atmos. Sin. 20, 235-242 (1996) (in Chinese).

Science (2)

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, “Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle,” Science 294, 2119-2124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423-430 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tellus (1)

M. J. Rood, D. S. Covert, and T. V. Larson, “Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol in Riverside, California,” Tellus 39B, 383-397 (1987).

Other (7)

R. J. Charlson and N. C. Ahlquist, “Integrating nephelometer,” U.S. patent 3563661 (16 February 1971).

Y. Han, “Measurements and statistical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol optical properties,” Ph.D dissertation (Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, 2006) (in Chinese).

W. J. Wiscombe, “Mie scattering calculations: advances in technique and fast, vector-speed computer codes,” Technical Note NCAR/TN-140+STR (National Center for Atmospheric Research, June 1979).

X. Zhou, S. Tao, and K. Yao, Advanced Atmospheric Physics (Meteorology Publishing House, 1991).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983), pp. 28-30.

K. N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2002).

J. K. Agarwal, G. J. Sem, and R. J. Remiaz, “Filter testing with a continuous-flow, single-particle-counting condensation nucleus counter,” TSI Quarterly 11, 3-12 (1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Instruments in our experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the integrating nephelometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Aerosol scattering coefficients for data measured (a) on 30 June 2005 in Hefei and (b) on 9 October 2005 in Xiamen, China.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change ranges of aerosol size distributions for the data measured (a) on 30 June 2005 in Hefei and (b) on 9 October 2005 in Xiamen, China.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal variation of the complex refractive indices of aerosol (CRIA). (a), (b) real and imaginary parts at Hefei, respectively; (c), (d) those in Xiamen, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Aerosol total scattering coefficients in different RH for the data measured (a) on 16 and 30 June 2005 in Hefei and (b) on 4, 7, and 9 October 2005, in Xiamen, China, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Aerosol size distributions at different values of RH measured (a) in Hefei and (b) in Xiamen, China, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Refractive index as a function of RH. (a), (b), (c) Changes of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive indices at wavelengths 450, 550, and 700 nm in Hefei. (d), (e), (f) Changes of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive indices at wavelengths 450, 550, and 700 nm in Xiamen.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Aerosol size distribution for the data measured at 3:15 pm on 4 October 2005 in Xiamen, China.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m = m r i m i ,
δ k = ( 1 N i = 1 N [ β sca | k i β aero | k j β sca | k i ] 2 ) 1 / 2 ,

Metrics