Abstract

In recent years, tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) have been demonstrated to be a promising technological platform for sensing applications such as the measurement of axial strain, bending, vibration, and refractive index. However, complex spectral measurements combined with the difficulty of using TFBGs in a quasi-distributed sensors network limit the practical exploitation of this assessed technology. To address this issue, we propose a hybrid configuration involving uniform and TFBGs working in reflection, which makes the demodulation technique easier and allows multipoint sensing. This configuration provides a narrowband reflection signal that is modulated by the wavelength selective losses associated with some TFBG’s cladding-modes resonances. We report here the operating principle of the proposed device. An experimental validation is presented for refractive-index sensing purposes.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Chen and J. Albert, “Strain-optic coefficients of the individual cladding modes of a single mode fiber: theory and experiment,” Electron. Lett. 43, 21-22 (2006).
  3. S. Baek, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Characteristics of short-period fiber Bragg gratings for use as macro-bending sensors,” Appl. Opt. 41, 631-636 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, and P. Mégret, “Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings: effect of thickness and external refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Shevchenko and J. Albert, “Plasmon resonances in gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 211-213 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, and P. Mégret, “External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber Bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1330-1336(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, and J. Albert, “Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1142-1149 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, “Tilted fiber phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 296-313 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, and P. Mégret, “External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber Bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1330-1336(2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, and J. Albert, “Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1142-1149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, and P. Mégret, “Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings: effect of thickness and external refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shevchenko and J. Albert, “Plasmon resonances in gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 211-213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. Chen and J. Albert, “Strain-optic coefficients of the individual cladding modes of a single mode fiber: theory and experiment,” Electron. Lett. 43, 21-22 (2006).

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Albert, J.

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shevchenko and J. Albert, “Plasmon resonances in gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32, 211-213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, and J. Albert, “Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1142-1149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chen and J. Albert, “Strain-optic coefficients of the individual cladding modes of a single mode fiber: theory and experiment,” Electron. Lett. 43, 21-22 (2006).

Baek, S.

Campopiano, S.

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, and P. Mégret, “External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber Bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1330-1336(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, and P. Mégret, “Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings: effect of thickness and external refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caucheteur, C.

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, and P. Mégret, “External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber Bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1330-1336(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, and P. Mégret, “Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings: effect of thickness and external refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.

Chen, C.

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, and J. Albert, “Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1142-1149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chen and J. Albert, “Strain-optic coefficients of the individual cladding modes of a single mode fiber: theory and experiment,” Electron. Lett. 43, 21-22 (2006).

Cusano, A.

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, and P. Mégret, “External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber Bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1330-1336(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, and P. Mégret, “Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings: effect of thickness and external refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, and P. Mégret, “External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber Bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1330-1336(2008).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, and P. Mégret, “External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber Bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1330-1336(2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jafari, A.

Jeong, Y.

Laffont, G.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laronche, A.

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, and J. Albert, “Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1142-1149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

Mégret, P.

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, and P. Mégret, “External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber Bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1330-1336(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, and P. Mégret, “Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings: effect of thickness and external refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paladino, D.

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, and P. Mégret, “External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber Bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1330-1336(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, and P. Mégret, “Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings: effect of thickness and external refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, P.

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, and P. Mégret, “External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber Bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1330-1336(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, and P. Mégret, “Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings: effect of thickness and external refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shevchenko, Y.

Sipe, J. E.

Thomson, D. J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Chen and J. Albert, “Strain-optic coefficients of the individual cladding modes of a single mode fiber: theory and experiment,” Electron. Lett. 43, 21-22 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, and P. Mégret, “Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings: effect of thickness and external refractive index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, and P. Mégret, “External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber Bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1330-1336(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of a 5 ° TFBG versus SRI measured at 25     ° C .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflected spectrum evolution for a 5 ° TFBG followed by a 1 mm long FBG centered around 1515 nm when the SRI evolves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup in which a TFBG parallel network works in reflection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of the reflected power in an 3 nm window as a function of the SRI for a 5 ° TFBG (Bragg wavelength λ B 1543 nm ) at different operating wavelengths λ 0 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of the reflected power in an 3 nm window as a function of the SRI for different TFBGs around 1525 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Total reflected spectrum from the parallel network measured with an optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolution of the reflected power as a function of the SRI for a 5 ° TFBG followed by a 3 nm wide FBG centered around 1519 nm ( λ B λ 0 = 24 nm ).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temperature influence on a hybrid configuration for a 5 ° TFBG immersed in SRI = 1.00 and followed by a 3 nm wide FBG centered around 1519 nm ( λ B λ 0 = 24 nm ).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ Bragg = 2 n eff , core Λ g cos θ ,
λ coupling , i = ( n eff , clad , i + n eff , core ) Λ g cos θ ,

Metrics