Abstract

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Raman lidar was upgraded in 2004 with a new data system that provides simultaneous measurements of both the photomultiplier analog output voltage and photon counts. We describe recent improvements to the algorithm used to merge these two signals into a single signal with improved dynamic range. The effect of modifications to the algorithm are evaluated by comparing profiles of water vapor mixing ratio from the lidar with radiosonde measurements over a six month period. The modifications that were implemented resulted in a reduction of the mean bias in the daytime water vapor mixing ratio from a 3% dry bias to well within 1%. This improvement was obtained by ignoring the temporal variation of the glue coefficients and using only the nighttime average glue coefficients throughout the entire diurnal cycle.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. R. Stokes and S. E. Schwartz, “The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: programmatic background and design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1201-1221 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, and D. D. Turner, “Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979-4990 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. D. Turner and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Twenty-four-hour Raman lidar water vapor measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive observation periods,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1062-1076 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, and T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-49 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. D. Turner and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Refurbishment and upgrade of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Raman lidar,” presented at the 15th ARM Science Team Meeting, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA, 14-18 March 2005.
  7. D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. Petty, M. B. Clayton, L. A. Brasseur, T. Tooman, Z. Wang, and J. M. Comstock, “A decade of Raman lidar water vapor, aerosol, and cloud observations at the ARM Southern Great Plains site,” presented at the 3rd Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications and AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 14-18 January 2007.
  8. F. Russo, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Turner, and R. M. Hoff, “Measurements of the aerosol indirect effect using a Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.
  9. D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Petty and D. D. Turner, “Combine analog-to-digital and photon counting detection utilized for continuous Raman lidar measurements,” presented at the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference, Nara, Japan, 24-28 July 2006).
  11. R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, and R. Ferrare, “Progress on the use of combined analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.
  12. D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068-3082 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. N. Whiteman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (personal communication, 2008).
  14. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Dry bias and variability in Vaisala radiosondes: the ARM experience,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 117-132 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and T. J. Wagner, “Improved daytime column-integrated precipitable water vapor from Vaisala radiosonde humidity sensors,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 873-883 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. M. Miloshevich, A. Paukkunen, H. Vömel, and S. J. Oltmans, “Development and validation of a time-lag correction for Vaisala radiosonde humidity measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1305-1327 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. N. Whiteman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (personal communication, 2008).

K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and T. J. Wagner, “Improved daytime column-integrated precipitable water vapor from Vaisala radiosonde humidity sensors,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 873-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. M. Miloshevich, A. Paukkunen, H. Vömel, and S. J. Oltmans, “Development and validation of a time-lag correction for Vaisala radiosonde humidity measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1305-1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Dry bias and variability in Vaisala radiosondes: the ARM experience,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 117-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, and T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. D. Turner and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Twenty-four-hour Raman lidar water vapor measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive observation periods,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1062-1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

R. R. Stokes and S. E. Schwartz, “The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: programmatic background and design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1201-1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28(1992).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, E.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28(1992).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, J.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, S. E.

Blair, F. H.

Bösenberg, J.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, L. A.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. Petty, M. B. Clayton, L. A. Brasseur, T. Tooman, Z. Wang, and J. M. Comstock, “A decade of Raman lidar water vapor, aerosol, and cloud observations at the ARM Southern Great Plains site,” presented at the 3rd Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications and AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 14-18 January 2007.

Cadirola, M.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cady-Pereira, K. E.

K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and T. J. Wagner, “Improved daytime column-integrated precipitable water vapor from Vaisala radiosonde humidity sensors,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 873-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, M.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, and R. Ferrare, “Progress on the use of combined analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.

Clayton, M. B.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. Petty, M. B. Clayton, L. A. Brasseur, T. Tooman, Z. Wang, and J. M. Comstock, “A decade of Raman lidar water vapor, aerosol, and cloud observations at the ARM Southern Great Plains site,” presented at the 3rd Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications and AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 14-18 January 2007.

Clough, S.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and T. J. Wagner, “Improved daytime column-integrated precipitable water vapor from Vaisala radiosonde humidity sensors,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 873-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Dry bias and variability in Vaisala radiosondes: the ARM experience,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 117-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Comer, J.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Comstock, J. M.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. Petty, M. B. Clayton, L. A. Brasseur, T. Tooman, Z. Wang, and J. M. Comstock, “A decade of Raman lidar water vapor, aerosol, and cloud observations at the ARM Southern Great Plains site,” presented at the 3rd Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications and AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 14-18 January 2007.

Cook, D.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Covert, D.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demoz, B.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elleman, R.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W. F.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, and T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, and R. Ferrare, “Progress on the use of combined analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.

Ferrare, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, and T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. Petty, M. B. Clayton, L. A. Brasseur, T. Tooman, Z. Wang, and J. M. Comstock, “A decade of Raman lidar water vapor, aerosol, and cloud observations at the ARM Southern Great Plains site,” presented at the 3rd Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications and AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 14-18 January 2007.

Gentry, B.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Girolamo, P. Di

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Twenty-four-hour Raman lidar water vapor measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive observation periods,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1062-1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, and D. D. Turner, “Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979-4990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. Petty, M. B. Clayton, L. A. Brasseur, T. Tooman, Z. Wang, and J. M. Comstock, “A decade of Raman lidar water vapor, aerosol, and cloud observations at the ARM Southern Great Plains site,” presented at the 3rd Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications and AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 14-18 January 2007.

D. D. Turner and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Refurbishment and upgrade of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Raman lidar,” presented at the 15th ARM Science Team Meeting, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA, 14-18 March 2005.

Gutman, S.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Halthore, R.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heilman Brasseur, L. A.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, and T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoff, R. M.

F. Russo, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Turner, and R. M. Hoff, “Measurements of the aerosol indirect effect using a Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.

Jonsson, H.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knuteson, R. O.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lahmann, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28(1992).
[CrossRef]

Lesht, B.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lesht, B. M.

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Dry bias and variability in Vaisala radiosondes: the ARM experience,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 117-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liljegren, J.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liljegren, J. C.

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Dry bias and variability in Vaisala radiosondes: the ARM experience,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 117-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Linné, H.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, S. H.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28(1992).
[CrossRef]

Michalsky, J.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mielke, B.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miloshevich, L. M.

L. M. Miloshevich, A. Paukkunen, H. Vömel, and S. J. Oltmans, “Development and validation of a time-lag correction for Vaisala radiosonde humidity measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1305-1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mlawer, E. J.

K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and T. J. Wagner, “Improved daytime column-integrated precipitable water vapor from Vaisala radiosonde humidity sensors,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 873-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morris, V.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newsom, R. K.

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, and R. Ferrare, “Progress on the use of combined analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.

Ogren, J.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oltmans, S. J.

L. M. Miloshevich, A. Paukkunen, H. Vömel, and S. J. Oltmans, “Development and validation of a time-lag correction for Vaisala radiosonde humidity measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1305-1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paukkunen, A.

L. M. Miloshevich, A. Paukkunen, H. Vömel, and S. J. Oltmans, “Development and validation of a time-lag correction for Vaisala radiosonde humidity measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1305-1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petty, D.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. Petty, M. B. Clayton, L. A. Brasseur, T. Tooman, Z. Wang, and J. M. Comstock, “A decade of Raman lidar water vapor, aerosol, and cloud observations at the ARM Southern Great Plains site,” presented at the 3rd Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications and AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 14-18 January 2007.

D. Petty and D. D. Turner, “Combine analog-to-digital and photon counting detection utilized for continuous Raman lidar measurements,” presented at the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference, Nara, Japan, 24-28 July 2006).

Porch, W.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Redemann, J.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Dry bias and variability in Vaisala radiosondes: the ARM experience,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 117-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, S.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28(1992).
[CrossRef]

Rush, K.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Russo, F.

F. Russo, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Turner, and R. M. Hoff, “Measurements of the aerosol indirect effect using a Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.

Schmid, B.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, S. E.

R. R. Stokes and S. E. Schwartz, “The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: programmatic background and design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1201-1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwemmer, G.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shephard, M. W.

K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and T. J. Wagner, “Improved daytime column-integrated precipitable water vapor from Vaisala radiosonde humidity sensors,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 873-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Splitt, M.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, R. R.

R. R. Stokes and S. E. Schwartz, “The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: programmatic background and design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1201-1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D. C.

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Dry bias and variability in Vaisala radiosondes: the ARM experience,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 117-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tooman, T.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. Petty, M. B. Clayton, L. A. Brasseur, T. Tooman, Z. Wang, and J. M. Comstock, “A decade of Raman lidar water vapor, aerosol, and cloud observations at the ARM Southern Great Plains site,” presented at the 3rd Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications and AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 14-18 January 2007.

Tooman, T. P.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, and T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D. D.

K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and T. J. Wagner, “Improved daytime column-integrated precipitable water vapor from Vaisala radiosonde humidity sensors,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 873-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Dry bias and variability in Vaisala radiosondes: the ARM experience,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 117-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, and T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Twenty-four-hour Raman lidar water vapor measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive observation periods,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1062-1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, and D. D. Turner, “Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979-4990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Refurbishment and upgrade of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Raman lidar,” presented at the 15th ARM Science Team Meeting, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA, 14-18 March 2005.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. Petty, M. B. Clayton, L. A. Brasseur, T. Tooman, Z. Wang, and J. M. Comstock, “A decade of Raman lidar water vapor, aerosol, and cloud observations at the ARM Southern Great Plains site,” presented at the 3rd Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications and AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 14-18 January 2007.

D. Petty and D. D. Turner, “Combine analog-to-digital and photon counting detection utilized for continuous Raman lidar measurements,” presented at the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference, Nara, Japan, 24-28 July 2006).

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, and R. Ferrare, “Progress on the use of combined analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.

F. Russo, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Turner, and R. M. Hoff, “Measurements of the aerosol indirect effect using a Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.

Van Hove, T.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Venable, D.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vömel, H.

L. M. Miloshevich, A. Paukkunen, H. Vömel, and S. J. Oltmans, “Development and validation of a time-lag correction for Vaisala radiosonde humidity measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1305-1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28(1992).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T. J.

K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and T. J. Wagner, “Improved daytime column-integrated precipitable water vapor from Vaisala radiosonde humidity sensors,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 873-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28(1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. Petty, M. B. Clayton, L. A. Brasseur, T. Tooman, Z. Wang, and J. M. Comstock, “A decade of Raman lidar water vapor, aerosol, and cloud observations at the ARM Southern Great Plains site,” presented at the 3rd Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications and AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 14-18 January 2007.

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28(1992).
[CrossRef]

Westwater, E.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D.

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (personal communication, 2008).

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Russo, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Turner, and R. M. Hoff, “Measurements of the aerosol indirect effect using a Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18-28(1992).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (2)

R. R. Stokes and S. E. Schwartz, “The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: programmatic background and design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1201-1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman, “The ARM Program's water vapor intensive observation periods,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84, 217-236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (6)

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, “Dry bias and variability in Vaisala radiosondes: the ARM experience,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 117-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and T. J. Wagner, “Improved daytime column-integrated precipitable water vapor from Vaisala radiosonde humidity sensors,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 873-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Miloshevich, A. Paukkunen, H. Vömel, and S. J. Oltmans, “Development and validation of a time-lag correction for Vaisala radiosonde humidity measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1305-1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, P. Di Girolamo, J. Comer, I. Veselovskii, K. Evans, Z. Wang, M. Cadirola, K. Rush, G. Schwemmer, B. Gentry, S. H. Melfi, B. Mielke, D. Venable, and T. Van Hove, “Raman water vapor lidar measurements during the International H2O Project. I. Instrumentation and analysis techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23, 157-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Twenty-four-hour Raman lidar water vapor measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive observation periods,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1062-1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, and T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, D. Covert, R. Elleman, J. Ogren, E. Andrews, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and H. Jonsson, “Evaluation of daytime measurements of aerosols and water vapor made by an operational Raman lidar over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S08 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. D. Turner and J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Refurbishment and upgrade of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Raman lidar,” presented at the 15th ARM Science Team Meeting, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA, 14-18 March 2005.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. Petty, M. B. Clayton, L. A. Brasseur, T. Tooman, Z. Wang, and J. M. Comstock, “A decade of Raman lidar water vapor, aerosol, and cloud observations at the ARM Southern Great Plains site,” presented at the 3rd Symposium on Lidar Atmospheric Applications and AMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 14-18 January 2007.

F. Russo, D. N. Whiteman, D. D. Turner, and R. M. Hoff, “Measurements of the aerosol indirect effect using a Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.

D. Petty and D. D. Turner, “Combine analog-to-digital and photon counting detection utilized for continuous Raman lidar measurements,” presented at the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference, Nara, Japan, 24-28 July 2006).

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, M. Clayton, and R. Ferrare, “Progress on the use of combined analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar,” presented at the 24th International Laser Radar Conference, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 23-27 June 2008.

D. N. Whiteman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (personal communication, 2008).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative examples of results from (a) the baseline and (b) the modified regression methods. Panel (c) shows both results superimposed, where the dashed line is from the baseline regression and the solid line is the inverted modified regression result. Dark points fall within the lower and upper thresholds of the fit region as indicated by the dotted lines. Light gray points fall outside the fit region and are not used in the regression analysis. This example is taken from the wide FOV water vapor channel at about 1600 UTC on 16 August 2007.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time series of the slope, s, computed using (a) the baseline regression method and (b) the modified regression method. Panel (c) shows the difference between the baseline and modified slopes, normalized by the modified slope. The light gray dotted vertical lines indicate the times of sunset and sunrise. These examples were taken from the wide FOV water vapor (solid) and nitrogen (dashed) channels on 16 August 2007. Linear interpolation is used to fill the daytime voids (between 16 and 22 UTC for the water vapor). The dotted vertical lines at about 01 : 15 and 12 : 00 UTC represent the times of sunset and sunrise, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example illustrating the process of conditional averaging as applied to the counting rate and analog data. The boundary of each bin is indicated by the dotted vertical lines. For clarity, the bin size used in this example is Δ C = 2 MHz (the bin size used in the actual estimation of τ was 1 MHz ). Light gray points indicate actual measurements. This example was taken from the narrow FOV nitrogen channel on 19 April 2007.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples illustrating the behavior of (a)  J ( τ ) versus τ, (b) analog voltage versus corrected (dashed) and uncorrected (solid) count rate, and (c) the fit residual ( 100 ( a k a ^ k ) / a ^ k ) versus analog voltage for C max = 50 MHz . The optimal value of τ is determined from the minimum of J mod , as shown in panel (a). This value is then used in panels (b) and (c) to correct the count rate for pulse pileup effects. These results were computed from data acquired by the narrow FOV nitrogen channel on 31 August 2007.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Dependence of the estimated response time, τ, on C max , and (b) the minimum value of J ( τ ) , min ( J ( τ ) ) , as a function of C max for the narrow FOV water vapor channel. These results were obtained by averaging over 29 clear nights between 1 April and 30 September 2007.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as in Fig. 4, except C max = 20 MHz .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as in Fig. 4, except C max = 100 MHz .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results using the baseline MERGE VAP. Profiles of the mean percent difference between the lidar and sonde water vapor mixing ratio for (a) nighttime and (b) daytime soundings. The solid lines indicate the value of the vertically averaged lidar-to-sonde ratio over the displayed height range, and the dotted line indicates zero bias. These results are based on 140 daytime soundings and 120 nighttime soundings between 1 April and 30 September 2007.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as in Fig. 8, except these results are from the modified MERGE VAP with time-dependent GCs.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Same as in Fig. 8, except these results are from the modified MERGE VAP with time-independent GCs.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Response Times Used to Correct Raw Photon Count Rates for System Dead Time a

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C i j = C i j 1 τ C i j ,
C ^ i j = s i A i j + o i ,
C bi + δ C < C i j < C max ,
C i j merge = { C i j for   C i j < C max C ^ i j for   C i j C max .
J i baseline = j ( C i j C ^ i j ) 2 σ i j 2
A ^ i j = s i C i j + o i .
J i = j ( A i j A ^ i j ) 2 σ i j 2
s i = 1 / s i ,
o i = o i / s i .
J ( τ ) = N 1 k = 0 N 1 ( a k a ^ k ) 2 δ a k 2

Metrics