Abstract

The absorption spectra and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) of NO2 using a tunable, external cavity CW quantum cascade laser operating at room temperature in the region of 1625 to 1645cm1 are reported. The external cavity quantum cascade laser enabled us to record continuous absorption spectra of low concentrations of NO2 over a broad range (16cm1), demonstrating the potential for simultaneously recording the complex spectra of multiple species. This capability allows the identification of a particular species of interest with high sensitivity and selectivity. The measured spectra are in excellent agreement with the spectra from the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption database [J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005)]. We also conduct WMS for the first time using an external cavity quantum cascade laser, a technique that enhances the sensitivity of detection. By employing WMS, we could detect low-intensity absorption lines, which are not visible in the simple absorption spectra, and demonstrate a minimum detection limit at the 100ppb level with a short-path absorption cell. Details of the tunable, external cavity quantum cascade laser system and its performance are discussed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34, 275-282 (2006).

H. Li, G. B. Rieker, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Extension of wavelength modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1052-1061 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Mikhailenko, Yu. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system spectroscopy of atmospheric gases. The structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18, 685-695 (2005).

G. Wysocki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. Billiard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavityquantum cascade laserfor high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769-777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Schmol, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Detection of ammonia by photoacoustic spectroscopy with semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1815-1823 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, M. Rochat, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Chemical sensing with pulsed QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 351-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “High-sensitivity detection of NO2 using a 740 nm semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 487-491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Oh and A. C. Stanton, “Measurement of nitric oxide with an antimonide diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3294-3297 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

P. Werle, “Analytical applications of infrared semiconductor lasers in atmospheric trace gas monitoring,” J. Phys. IV 4, C4-9-C4-12 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1981 (1)

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522-2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Arndt, R.

R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522-2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Auwera, J. Vander

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Babikov, Yu. L.

C. N. Mikhailenko, Yu. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system spectroscopy of atmospheric gases. The structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18, 685-695 (2005).

Baer, D. S.

Bakhirkin, Y.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34, 275-282 (2006).

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, M. Rochat, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Chemical sensing with pulsed QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 351-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bijnen, F. G. C.

Billiard, J.

G. Wysocki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. Billiard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavityquantum cascade laserfor high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769-777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J. C.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R.

G. Wysocki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. Billiard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavityquantum cascade laserfor high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769-777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, M. Rochat, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Chemical sensing with pulsed QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 351-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dharamsi, A. N.

A. N. Dharamsi, “A theory of modulation spectroscopy with applications of higher harmonic detection,” J. Phys. D 29, 540-549 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

G. Wysocki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. Billiard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavityquantum cascade laserfor high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769-777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, M. Rochat, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Chemical sensing with pulsed QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 351-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frech, B.

Gagliardi, G.

L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “High-sensitivity detection of NO2 using a 740 nm semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 487-491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

Gianfrani, L.

L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “High-sensitivity detection of NO2 using a 740 nm semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 487-491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Golovko, V. F.

C. N. Mikhailenko, Yu. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system spectroscopy of atmospheric gases. The structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18, 685-695 (2005).

Hackenstein, J. H. P.

Hanson, R. K.

Harren, F. J. M.

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

Hofstetter, D.

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, M. Rochat, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Chemical sensing with pulsed QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 351-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34, 275-282 (2006).

Kosterev, A. A.

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, M. Rochat, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Chemical sensing with pulsed QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 351-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Labrie, D.

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Liu, X.

Lotze, R.

Maiorov, M.

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maulini, R.

G. Wysocki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. Billiard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavityquantum cascade laserfor high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769-777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, C. N.

C. N. Mikhailenko, Yu. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system spectroscopy of atmospheric gases. The structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18, 685-695 (2005).

Miklós, A.

Mürtz, M.

Oh, D. B.

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palm, P.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pesce, G.

L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “High-sensitivity detection of NO2 using a 740 nm semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 487-491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Philippe, L. C.

Reid, J.

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reuss, J.

Rieker, G. B.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rochat, M.

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, M. Rochat, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Chemical sensing with pulsed QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 351-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sasso, A.

L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “High-sensitivity detection of NO2 using a 740 nm semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 487-491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmol, A.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. C.

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

G. Wysocki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. Billiard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavityquantum cascade laserfor high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769-777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34, 275-282 (2006).

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, M. Rochat, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Chemical sensing with pulsed QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 351-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Werle, P.

P. Werle, “Analytical applications of infrared semiconductor lasers in atmospheric trace gas monitoring,” J. Phys. IV 4, C4-9-C4-12 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34, 275-282 (2006).

G. Wysocki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. Billiard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavityquantum cascade laserfor high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769-777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

G. Wysocki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. Billiard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavityquantum cascade laserfor high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769-777 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Reid and D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers--comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203-210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, M. Rochat, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, and J. Faist, “Chemical sensing with pulsed QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 351-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “High-sensitivity detection of NO2 using a 740 nm semiconductor diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 487-491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Oceanic Opt. (1)

C. N. Mikhailenko, Yu. L. Babikov, and V. F. Golovko, “Information-calculating system spectroscopy of atmospheric gases. The structure and main functions,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 18, 685-695 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for Lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522-2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

A. N. Dharamsi, “A theory of modulation spectroscopy with applications of higher harmonic detection,” J. Phys. D 29, 540-549 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV (1)

P. Werle, “Analytical applications of infrared semiconductor lasers in atmospheric trace gas monitoring,” J. Phys. IV 4, C4-9-C4-12 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, and G. Wysocki, “Recent advances in trace gas detection using quantum and interband cascade lasers,” Rev. Laser Eng. 34, 275-282 (2006).

Other (1)

“National air quality, monitoring and emissions trends report,” EPA Report 450/2-78-052, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 1978.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup employed for absorption and WMS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

NO 2 absorption spectrum recorded from 1629 to 1645 cm 1 at 50 ppm at 260 mbar , using a continuously tunable, external cavity quantum cascade laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectrum of NO 2 ( 50 ppm at 260 mbar ) from 1631.73 to 1633.8 cm 1 (the black trace is from the experimental data, and the gray trace is the simulated spectrum based on HITRAN data).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

NO 2 absorption spectrum of the doublet at 1632.5 cm 1 . The NO 2 concentration was at 75 ± 15 ppm at a pressure of 120 ± 10 mbar . The closely spaced doublet (1632.508 and 1632.511 cm 1 ) appears as one absorption feature. The weak absorption feature to the right of the main peak is from two closely spaced doublets that are approximately 10 and 15 times weaker than the main peak and are located at 1632.541 and 1632.544 cm 1 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Second harmonic WMS signal of absorption spectrum of the doublet at 1632.5 cm 1 . The NO 2 concentration was 75 ± 15 ppm at a pressure of 120 ± 10 mbar .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Second harmonic signal of the NO 2 multiplet at 1632.38 cm 1 . The NO 2 concentration was 75 ± 15 ppm at a pressure of 120 ± 10 mbar . The two doublets that comprise this feature are seen to partially overlap, as is expected. The black trace is from the experimental data, and the gray trace is the simulated spectrum based on HITRAN data. The agreement between the simulated spectrum and experimental data confirm that the two doublets are resolved as expected (the simulated spectrum was generated by exporting the table generated by the SPECTRA software and plotting its second derivative). (b) Noise content is shown for the same region and was obtained under the same operating conditions but with an empty cell.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectral Line Parameters from HITRAN for Major NO 2 Doublets in the R Branch Contributing to the Absorption Spectra Shown in Fig. 3

Equations (1)

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m = a Δ ν ,

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