Abstract

Measurements for photorefractive dynamic properties under polarized light with different luminous intensity and wavelength at 650nm were performed in calcium-doped strontium barium niobate crystals as a function of the time. Experimental results further validated that the different input luminous intensities influence only the saturated time and photorefractive velocity of the photorefractive crystals. Birefringence experiments suggest that an input luminous intensity oscillatory threshold should exist between 64mW/cm2 and 13mW/cm2. The dynamic change of refractive index from self-focusing to asymmetric self-defocusing was also measured and regarded as the mutual results of the nonuniform-intensity incidence and positive thermal lens effect, which was validated by a further experiment based on the Michelson interference. Also, oscillation accompanying change in the dynamic indices was analyzed and attributed to the high dielectric effect as well as asymmetric self-defocusing in this investiga tion.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. A. Rakuljic, K. Sayano, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive properties of Ce- and Ca-doped Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1465-1467(1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M.-H. Li, T.-Ch. Chong, X.-W. Xu, and H. Kumagai, “Growth and spectra characterization of Ce and Eu doped SBN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 479-483 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. R. Neurgaonkar, J. R. Oliver, W. K. Cory, L. E. Cross, and D. Viehland, “Piezoelectricity in tungsten bronze crystals,” Ferroelectrics 160, 265-276 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Glass, “Investigation of the electrical properties of Sr1−xBaxNb2O6 with spatial reference to pyroelectric detection,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699-4713 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C.-Y. Gao, H.-R. Xia, J.-Q. Xu, S.-C. Si, H.-J. Zhang, J.-Y. Wang, and H.-L. Song, “Photorefractive variation properties of Ca2+ doped sodium barium niobate crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 4648-4652 (2007) (in Chinese).
  6. M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, L. Ivleva, M. Böttcher, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, “Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 024104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Jiang, S.-M. Liu, H.-D. Wen, X.-Z. Zhang, R. Guo, X.-H. Chen, J.-J. Xu, and G.-Y. Zhang “Dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to equivalent 'self-focusing' in photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 483-488(2001).
  19. C. Anastassiou, M.-F. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, “Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition,” Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
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2007 (2)

C.-Y. Gao, H.-R. Xia, J.-Q. Xu, S.-C. Si, H.-J. Zhang, J.-Y. Wang, and H.-L. Song, “Photorefractive variation properties of Ca2+ doped sodium barium niobate crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 4648-4652 (2007) (in Chinese).

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. Yu, J. Parravicini, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. Degiorgio, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 14171-14176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, L. Ivleva, M. Böttcher, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, “Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Demirbilek, S. E. Kapphan, A. B. Kutsenko, and R. Pankrath,“ Investigation of two-center holographic recording in SBN:Ce:Cr and SBN:Mn:Fe,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 653-656 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Y. Goulkov, T. Granzow, U. Dörfler, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and R. Pankrath, “Study of beam-fanning hysteresis in photo-refractive SBN:Ce:light-induced and primary scattering as functions of polar structure,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 407-416(2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. Jiang, S.-M. Liu, H.-D. Wen, X.-Z. Zhang, R. Guo, X.-H. Chen, J.-J. Xu, and G.-Y. Zhang “Dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to equivalent 'self-focusing' in photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 483-488(2001).

M.-H. Li, T.-Ch. Chong, X.-W. Xu, and H. Kumagai, “Growth and spectra characterization of Ce and Eu doped SBN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 479-483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646-649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

W.-L She, S.-R. He, H.-Z. Wang, Z.-X. Yu, and D. Mo, “Photorefractive asymmetrical self-defocusing induced by thermal self-defocusing,” Acta Phys. Sin. 45, 2022-2026 (1996) (in Chinese).

1994 (2)

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Gary L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1694-1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Neurgaonkar, J. R. Oliver, W. K. Cory, L. E. Cross, and D. Viehland, “Piezoelectricity in tungsten bronze crystals,” Ferroelectrics 160, 265-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

G. A. Rakuljic, K. Sayano, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive properties of Ce- and Ca-doped Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1465-1467(1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

M. D. Ewbank, R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, and Jack Feinberg, “Photorefractive properties of strontium barium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 374-380 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Time response of a cerium-doped Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 12, 340-342 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Broadband photorefractive properties and self-pumped phase conjugation in Ce-SBN:60,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2126-2135(1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1969 (2)

F. S. Chen, “Optically induced change of refractive indices in LiNO3 and LiTaO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389-3396 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, “Investigation of the electrical properties of Sr1−xBaxNb2O6 with spatial reference to pyroelectric detection,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699-4713 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Agranat, A.

G. A. Rakuljic, K. Sayano, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive properties of Ce- and Ca-doped Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1465-1467(1988).
[CrossRef]

Anastassiou, C.

Böttcher, M.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, L. Ivleva, M. Böttcher, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, “Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Breitling, D.

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, “Optically induced change of refractive indices in LiNO3 and LiTaO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389-3396 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.-H.

Y. Jiang, S.-M. Liu, H.-D. Wen, X.-Z. Zhang, R. Guo, X.-H. Chen, J.-J. Xu, and G.-Y. Zhang “Dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to equivalent 'self-focusing' in photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 483-488(2001).

Chen, Z.

Chong, T.-Ch.

M.-H. Li, T.-Ch. Chong, X.-W. Xu, and H. Kumagai, “Growth and spectra characterization of Ce and Eu doped SBN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 479-483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646-649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clark, W. W.

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Broadband photorefractive properties and self-pumped phase conjugation in Ce-SBN:60,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2126-2135(1987).
[CrossRef]

Cory, W. K.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, J. R. Oliver, W. K. Cory, L. E. Cross, and D. Viehland, “Piezoelectricity in tungsten bronze crystals,” Ferroelectrics 160, 265-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Ewbank, R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, and Jack Feinberg, “Photorefractive properties of strontium barium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 374-380 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Coskun, T. H.

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646-649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

Cross, L. E.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, J. R. Oliver, W. K. Cory, L. E. Cross, and D. Viehland, “Piezoelectricity in tungsten bronze crystals,” Ferroelectrics 160, 265-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

Demirbilek, R.

R. Demirbilek, S. E. Kapphan, A. B. Kutsenko, and R. Pankrath,“ Investigation of two-center holographic recording in SBN:Ce:Cr and SBN:Mn:Fe,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 653-656 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dörfler, U.

M. Y. Goulkov, T. Granzow, U. Dörfler, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and R. Pankrath, “Study of beam-fanning hysteresis in photo-refractive SBN:Ce:light-induced and primary scattering as functions of polar structure,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 407-416(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ewbank, M. D.

M. D. Ewbank, R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, and Jack Feinberg, “Photorefractive properties of strontium barium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 374-380 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fedorenko, O.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, L. Ivleva, M. Böttcher, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, “Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Feinberg, Jack

M. D. Ewbank, R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, and Jack Feinberg, “Photorefractive properties of strontium barium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 374-380 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, M. P.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Gary L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1694-1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Gao, H.-R. Xia, J.-Q. Xu, S.-C. Si, H.-J. Zhang, J.-Y. Wang, and H.-L. Song, “Photorefractive variation properties of Ca2+ doped sodium barium niobate crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 4648-4652 (2007) (in Chinese).

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Glass, “Investigation of the electrical properties of Sr1−xBaxNb2O6 with spatial reference to pyroelectric detection,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699-4713 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Goulkov, M.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, L. Ivleva, M. Böttcher, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, “Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goulkov, M. Y.

M. Y. Goulkov, T. Granzow, U. Dörfler, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and R. Pankrath, “Study of beam-fanning hysteresis in photo-refractive SBN:Ce:light-induced and primary scattering as functions of polar structure,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 407-416(2004).
[CrossRef]

Granzow, T.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, L. Ivleva, M. Böttcher, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, “Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Goulkov, T. Granzow, U. Dörfler, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and R. Pankrath, “Study of beam-fanning hysteresis in photo-refractive SBN:Ce:light-induced and primary scattering as functions of polar structure,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 407-416(2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

Y. Jiang, S.-M. Liu, H.-D. Wen, X.-Z. Zhang, R. Guo, X.-H. Chen, J.-J. Xu, and G.-Y. Zhang “Dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to equivalent 'self-focusing' in photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 483-488(2001).

He, S.-R.

W.-L She, S.-R. He, H.-Z. Wang, Z.-X. Yu, and D. Mo, “Photorefractive asymmetrical self-defocusing induced by thermal self-defocusing,” Acta Phys. Sin. 45, 2022-2026 (1996) (in Chinese).

Imlau, M.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, L. Ivleva, M. Böttcher, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, “Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Goulkov, T. Granzow, U. Dörfler, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and R. Pankrath, “Study of beam-fanning hysteresis in photo-refractive SBN:Ce:light-induced and primary scattering as functions of polar structure,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 407-416(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivleva, L.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, L. Ivleva, M. Böttcher, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, “Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, S.-M. Liu, H.-D. Wen, X.-Z. Zhang, R. Guo, X.-H. Chen, J.-J. Xu, and G.-Y. Zhang “Dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to equivalent 'self-focusing' in photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 483-488(2001).

Kapphan, S. E.

R. Demirbilek, S. E. Kapphan, A. B. Kutsenko, and R. Pankrath,“ Investigation of two-center holographic recording in SBN:Ce:Cr and SBN:Mn:Fe,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 653-656 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

Kokanyan, E. P.

Kratzig, E.

Kumagai, H.

M.-H. Li, T.-Ch. Chong, X.-W. Xu, and H. Kumagai, “Growth and spectra characterization of Ce and Eu doped SBN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 479-483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kutsenko, A. B.

R. Demirbilek, S. E. Kapphan, A. B. Kutsenko, and R. Pankrath,“ Investigation of two-center holographic recording in SBN:Ce:Cr and SBN:Mn:Fe,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 653-656 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.-H.

M.-H. Li, T.-Ch. Chong, X.-W. Xu, and H. Kumagai, “Growth and spectra characterization of Ce and Eu doped SBN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 479-483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.-M.

Y. Jiang, S.-M. Liu, H.-D. Wen, X.-Z. Zhang, R. Guo, X.-H. Chen, J.-J. Xu, and G.-Y. Zhang “Dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to equivalent 'self-focusing' in photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 483-488(2001).

Miller, M. J.

M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Time response of a cerium-doped Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 12, 340-342 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Broadband photorefractive properties and self-pumped phase conjugation in Ce-SBN:60,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2126-2135(1987).
[CrossRef]

Minzioni, P.

Mitchell, M.

C. Anastassiou, M.-F. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, “Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition,” Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646-649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mo, D.

W.-L She, S.-R. He, H.-Z. Wang, Z.-X. Yu, and D. Mo, “Photorefractive asymmetrical self-defocusing induced by thermal self-defocusing,” Acta Phys. Sin. 45, 2022-2026 (1996) (in Chinese).

Montgomery, S. R.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Gary L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1694-1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

Najaf-Zadeh, R. A.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Gary L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1694-1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Neurgaonkar, J. R. Oliver, W. K. Cory, L. E. Cross, and D. Viehland, “Piezoelectricity in tungsten bronze crystals,” Ferroelectrics 160, 265-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Rakuljic, K. Sayano, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive properties of Ce- and Ca-doped Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1465-1467(1988).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Time response of a cerium-doped Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 12, 340-342 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Ewbank, R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, and Jack Feinberg, “Photorefractive properties of strontium barium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 374-380 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Broadband photorefractive properties and self-pumped phase conjugation in Ce-SBN:60,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2126-2135(1987).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, J. R.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, J. R. Oliver, W. K. Cory, L. E. Cross, and D. Viehland, “Piezoelectricity in tungsten bronze crystals,” Ferroelectrics 160, 265-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pankrath, R.

R. Demirbilek, S. E. Kapphan, A. B. Kutsenko, and R. Pankrath,“ Investigation of two-center holographic recording in SBN:Ce:Cr and SBN:Mn:Fe,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 653-656 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Goulkov, T. Granzow, U. Dörfler, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and R. Pankrath, “Study of beam-fanning hysteresis in photo-refractive SBN:Ce:light-induced and primary scattering as functions of polar structure,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 407-416(2004).
[CrossRef]

Parravicini, J.

Rakuljic, G. A.

G. A. Rakuljic, K. Sayano, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive properties of Ce- and Ca-doped Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1465-1467(1988).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Gary L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1694-1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Broadband photorefractive properties and self-pumped phase conjugation in Ce-SBN:60,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2126-2135(1987).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Time response of a cerium-doped Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 12, 340-342 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayano, K.

G. A. Rakuljic, K. Sayano, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive properties of Ce- and Ca-doped Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1465-1467(1988).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

C. Anastassiou, M.-F. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, “Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition,” Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646-649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shandarov, V.

Sharp, E. J.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Gary L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1694-1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Time response of a cerium-doped Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 12, 340-342 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Broadband photorefractive properties and self-pumped phase conjugation in Ce-SBN:60,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2126-2135(1987).
[CrossRef]

She, W.-L

W.-L She, S.-R. He, H.-Z. Wang, Z.-X. Yu, and D. Mo, “Photorefractive asymmetrical self-defocusing induced by thermal self-defocusing,” Acta Phys. Sin. 45, 2022-2026 (1996) (in Chinese).

Shih, M.-F.

Si, S.-C.

C.-Y. Gao, H.-R. Xia, J.-Q. Xu, S.-C. Si, H.-J. Zhang, J.-Y. Wang, and H.-L. Song, “Photorefractive variation properties of Ca2+ doped sodium barium niobate crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 4648-4652 (2007) (in Chinese).

Siahmakoun, A.

Song, H.-L.

C.-Y. Gao, H.-R. Xia, J.-Q. Xu, S.-C. Si, H.-J. Zhang, J.-Y. Wang, and H.-L. Song, “Photorefractive variation properties of Ca2+ doped sodium barium niobate crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 4648-4652 (2007) (in Chinese).

Th. Woike,

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, L. Ivleva, M. Böttcher, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, “Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Viehland, D.

R. R. Neurgaonkar, J. R. Oliver, W. K. Cory, L. E. Cross, and D. Viehland, “Piezoelectricity in tungsten bronze crystals,” Ferroelectrics 160, 265-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-Z.

W.-L She, S.-R. He, H.-Z. Wang, Z.-X. Yu, and D. Mo, “Photorefractive asymmetrical self-defocusing induced by thermal self-defocusing,” Acta Phys. Sin. 45, 2022-2026 (1996) (in Chinese).

Wang, J.-Y.

C.-Y. Gao, H.-R. Xia, J.-Q. Xu, S.-C. Si, H.-J. Zhang, J.-Y. Wang, and H.-L. Song, “Photorefractive variation properties of Ca2+ doped sodium barium niobate crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 4648-4652 (2007) (in Chinese).

Wen, H.-D.

Y. Jiang, S.-M. Liu, H.-D. Wen, X.-Z. Zhang, R. Guo, X.-H. Chen, J.-J. Xu, and G.-Y. Zhang “Dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to equivalent 'self-focusing' in photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 483-488(2001).

Wöhlecke, M.

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, L. Ivleva, M. Böttcher, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, “Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Woike, T.

M. Y. Goulkov, T. Granzow, U. Dörfler, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and R. Pankrath, “Study of beam-fanning hysteresis in photo-refractive SBN:Ce:light-induced and primary scattering as functions of polar structure,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 407-416(2004).
[CrossRef]

Wood, G. L.

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Broadband photorefractive properties and self-pumped phase conjugation in Ce-SBN:60,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2126-2135(1987).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Time response of a cerium-doped Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 12, 340-342 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, Gary L.

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Gary L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1694-1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H.-R.

C.-Y. Gao, H.-R. Xia, J.-Q. Xu, S.-C. Si, H.-J. Zhang, J.-Y. Wang, and H.-L. Song, “Photorefractive variation properties of Ca2+ doped sodium barium niobate crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 4648-4652 (2007) (in Chinese).

Xu, J.-J.

Y. Jiang, S.-M. Liu, H.-D. Wen, X.-Z. Zhang, R. Guo, X.-H. Chen, J.-J. Xu, and G.-Y. Zhang “Dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to equivalent 'self-focusing' in photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 483-488(2001).

Xu, J.-Q.

C.-Y. Gao, H.-R. Xia, J.-Q. Xu, S.-C. Si, H.-J. Zhang, J.-Y. Wang, and H.-L. Song, “Photorefractive variation properties of Ca2+ doped sodium barium niobate crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 4648-4652 (2007) (in Chinese).

Xu, X.-W.

M.-H. Li, T.-Ch. Chong, X.-W. Xu, and H. Kumagai, “Growth and spectra characterization of Ce and Eu doped SBN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 479-483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

G. A. Rakuljic, K. Sayano, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive properties of Ce- and Ca-doped Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1465-1467(1988).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Yu, Z.-X.

W.-L She, S.-R. He, H.-Z. Wang, Z.-X. Yu, and D. Mo, “Photorefractive asymmetrical self-defocusing induced by thermal self-defocusing,” Acta Phys. Sin. 45, 2022-2026 (1996) (in Chinese).

Zhang, G.-Y.

Y. Jiang, S.-M. Liu, H.-D. Wen, X.-Z. Zhang, R. Guo, X.-H. Chen, J.-J. Xu, and G.-Y. Zhang “Dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to equivalent 'self-focusing' in photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 483-488(2001).

Zhang, H.-J.

C.-Y. Gao, H.-R. Xia, J.-Q. Xu, S.-C. Si, H.-J. Zhang, J.-Y. Wang, and H.-L. Song, “Photorefractive variation properties of Ca2+ doped sodium barium niobate crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 4648-4652 (2007) (in Chinese).

Zhang, X.-Z.

Y. Jiang, S.-M. Liu, H.-D. Wen, X.-Z. Zhang, R. Guo, X.-H. Chen, J.-J. Xu, and G.-Y. Zhang “Dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to equivalent 'self-focusing' in photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 483-488(2001).

Acta Phys. Sin. (3)

C.-Y. Gao, H.-R. Xia, J.-Q. Xu, S.-C. Si, H.-J. Zhang, J.-Y. Wang, and H.-L. Song, “Photorefractive variation properties of Ca2+ doped sodium barium niobate crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 4648-4652 (2007) (in Chinese).

Y. Jiang, S.-M. Liu, H.-D. Wen, X.-Z. Zhang, R. Guo, X.-H. Chen, J.-J. Xu, and G.-Y. Zhang “Dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to equivalent 'self-focusing' in photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystals,” Acta Phys. Sin. 50, 483-488(2001).

W.-L She, S.-R. He, H.-Z. Wang, Z.-X. Yu, and D. Mo, “Photorefractive asymmetrical self-defocusing induced by thermal self-defocusing,” Acta Phys. Sin. 45, 2022-2026 (1996) (in Chinese).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Y. Goulkov, T. Granzow, U. Dörfler, T. Woike, M. Imlau, and R. Pankrath, “Study of beam-fanning hysteresis in photo-refractive SBN:Ce:light-induced and primary scattering as functions of polar structure,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 407-416(2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. A. Rakuljic, K. Sayano, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive properties of Ce- and Ca-doped Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1465-1467(1988).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

R. R. Neurgaonkar, J. R. Oliver, W. K. Cory, L. E. Cross, and D. Viehland, “Piezoelectricity in tungsten bronze crystals,” Ferroelectrics 160, 265-276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark III, M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, G. J. Salamo, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Broadband photorefractive properties and self-pumped phase conjugation in Ce-SBN:60,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 2126-2135(1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. D. Ewbank, R. R. Neurgaonkar, W. K. Cory, and Jack Feinberg, “Photorefractive properties of strontium barium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 374-380 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Chen, “Optically induced change of refractive indices in LiNO3 and LiTaO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389-3396 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, “Investigation of the electrical properties of Sr1−xBaxNb2O6 with spatial reference to pyroelectric detection,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699-4713 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

M.-H. Li, T.-Ch. Chong, X.-W. Xu, and H. Kumagai, “Growth and spectra characterization of Ce and Eu doped SBN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 225, 479-483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

S. R. Montgomery, M. P. Gallagher, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Gary L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Cooperative photorefractive beam fanning in BaSrKNaNb5O15,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1694-1699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Goulkov, O. Fedorenko, L. Ivleva, M. Böttcher, Th. Woike, T. Granzow, M. Imlau, and M. Wöhlecke, “Photorefractive parametric scattering in the ferroelectric relaxor SBN: Phenomenological and application aspects,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646-649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

R. Demirbilek, S. E. Kapphan, A. B. Kutsenko, and R. Pankrath,“ Investigation of two-center holographic recording in SBN:Ce:Cr and SBN:Mn:Fe,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 653-656 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: S, laser; L1, collimation lens; L2, L3, and L4, convergence lenses; P1, polarizer; P2, analyzer; CSBN, photorefractive crystal; D, diaphragm; De, detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference result between o-rays and e-rays in CSBN50.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal change properties of the intensity I ( P ) at the center of patterns under the illumination with different LI.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Setup for dynamic changes of refractive index: S, unexpanded laser; P1, polarizer; P2, analyzer; C, crystal; D, diaphragm; De, detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dynamic change properties under illumination with the extraordinary beam in CSBN50.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dynamic change properties under illumination with the ordinary beam in CSBN50.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dielectric coefficients versus temperatures in CSBN50.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experiments for validating asymmetric self-defocusing based on the Michelson interference. (a) Experimental arrangement. (b) Rings with the crystal placed and unrotated. (c) The crystal was rotated clockwise about 8 ° .

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( P ) = I 1 ( P ) + I 2 ( P ) + 2 I 1 ( P ) I 2 ( P ) cos [ k δ 2 π λ Δ ] ,
I ( P ) = I o ( P ) + I e ( P ) + 2 I o ( P ) I e ( P ) cos [ 2 π λ L Δ ( n o n e ) ] .
Δ n = ( E ( x ) · y ^ ) cos θ 2 n ( θ ) ( n o 4 γ 13 sin 2 θ + 2 n o 2 n e 2 γ 42 sin 2 θ + n e 2 γ 33 cos 2 θ ) .

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