Abstract

We have developed a scannerless three-dimensional imaging approach that uses a pulsed laser to illuminate a target and an intensified charge-coupled device as the receiver with linearly modulated gain in gated time. The target range is extracted by processing an intensity image with linearly modulated gain and an intensity image with constant gain. Feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by an indoor experiment. Our prototype system can produce 256×256 pixel range images at a 20Hz frame rate in an outdoor test. The test results indicate that range accuracy is related to the slope coefficient and initial value of the modulated gain.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. F. Aull and R. M. Marino, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 6014, 60140D (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Albota, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, D. G. Fouche, B. E. Player, M. E. O'Brien, B. F. Aull, J. J . Zayhowski, J. Mooney, B. C. Willard, and R. R. Carlson, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon-counting avalanche photodiode array and microchip laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7671-7678 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Gelbart, B. C. Redman, R. S. Light, C. A. Schwartzlow, and A. J. Griffis, “Flash lidar based on multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 4723, 9-18 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Busck, “Underwater 3-D optical imaging with a gated viewing laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 44, 116001 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, “Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar,” Appl.Opt. 43, 4705-4710 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. L. Stann, W. C. Ruff, and Z. G. Sztankay, “Intensity-modulated diode laser radar using frequency-modulation/continuous-wave ranging techniques,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3270-3278 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Stann, B. C. Redman, W. Lawler, M. Giza, J. Dammann, and K. Krapels, “Chirped amplitude modulation ladar for range and Doppler measurements and 3-D imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6550, 655005 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Scott and P. Garcia, “Use of predetection mixing of intensity modulated optical beams,” Appl.Opt. 27, 5119-5122(1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. W. Scott, “Range imaging laser radar,” U.S. Patent 4,935,616 (19 June 1990).
  10. P. Garcia, J. P. Anthes, J. T. Pierce, P. V. Dressendorfer, I. K. Evans, B. D. Bradley, J. T. Sackos, and M. M. LeCavalier, “Characterization of a scannerless ladar system,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 23-30 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. R. Muguira, J. T. Sackos, and B. D. Bradley, “Scannerless range imaging with a square wave,” Proc. SPIE 2472, 106-113 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. P. Anthes, P. Garcia, J. T. Pierce, and P. V. Dressendorfer, “Nonscanned ladar imaging and applications,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 11-22 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, and G. Studor, “Miniature, high-resolution laser radar operating at video rates,” Proc. SPIE 4035, 279-286 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, G. Studor, and G. H. James III, “Ladar measurements of the International Space Station,” Proc. SPIE 4377, 65-72 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. O. Nellums, R. D. Habbit, M. R. Heying, T. A. Pitts, and J. V. Sandusky, “3D scannerless LADAR for Orbiter inspection,” Proc. SPIE 6220, 62200G (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. J. DeWeert, “ Intensified CCD (ICCD) dynamic range and noise performance,” Proc. SPIE 3173, 430-457(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. G. Driggers, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. M. Devitt, C. E. Halford, and K. J. Barnard, “Impact of speckle on laser range-gated shortwave infrared imaging system target identification performance,” Proc. SPIE 4719, 1-14 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

B. Stann, B. C. Redman, W. Lawler, M. Giza, J. Dammann, and K. Krapels, “Chirped amplitude modulation ladar for range and Doppler measurements and 3-D imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6550, 655005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. O. Nellums, R. D. Habbit, M. R. Heying, T. A. Pitts, and J. V. Sandusky, “3D scannerless LADAR for Orbiter inspection,” Proc. SPIE 6220, 62200G (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. F. Aull and R. M. Marino, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 6014, 60140D (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Busck, “Underwater 3-D optical imaging with a gated viewing laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 44, 116001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, “Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar,” Appl.Opt. 43, 4705-4710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

A. Gelbart, B. C. Redman, R. S. Light, C. A. Schwartzlow, and A. J. Griffis, “Flash lidar based on multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 4723, 9-18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Albota, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, D. G. Fouche, B. E. Player, M. E. O'Brien, B. F. Aull, J. J . Zayhowski, J. Mooney, B. C. Willard, and R. R. Carlson, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon-counting avalanche photodiode array and microchip laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7671-7678 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Driggers, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. M. Devitt, C. E. Halford, and K. J. Barnard, “Impact of speckle on laser range-gated shortwave infrared imaging system target identification performance,” Proc. SPIE 4719, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, G. Studor, and G. H. James III, “Ladar measurements of the International Space Station,” Proc. SPIE 4377, 65-72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, and G. Studor, “Miniature, high-resolution laser radar operating at video rates,” Proc. SPIE 4035, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. J. DeWeert, “ Intensified CCD (ICCD) dynamic range and noise performance,” Proc. SPIE 3173, 430-457(1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. L. Stann, W. C. Ruff, and Z. G. Sztankay, “Intensity-modulated diode laser radar using frequency-modulation/continuous-wave ranging techniques,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3270-3278 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. R. Muguira, J. T. Sackos, and B. D. Bradley, “Scannerless range imaging with a square wave,” Proc. SPIE 2472, 106-113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. P. Anthes, P. Garcia, J. T. Pierce, and P. V. Dressendorfer, “Nonscanned ladar imaging and applications,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 11-22 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Garcia, J. P. Anthes, J. T. Pierce, P. V. Dressendorfer, I. K. Evans, B. D. Bradley, J. T. Sackos, and M. M. LeCavalier, “Characterization of a scannerless ladar system,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 23-30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. Scott and P. Garcia, “Use of predetection mixing of intensity modulated optical beams,” Appl.Opt. 27, 5119-5122(1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, K. J.

R. G. Driggers, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. M. Devitt, C. E. Halford, and K. J. Barnard, “Impact of speckle on laser range-gated shortwave infrared imaging system target identification performance,” Proc. SPIE 4719, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Halford, C. E.

R. G. Driggers, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. M. Devitt, C. E. Halford, and K. J. Barnard, “Impact of speckle on laser range-gated shortwave infrared imaging system target identification performance,” Proc. SPIE 4719, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kocher, D. G.

Albota, M. A.

Anthes, J. P.

J. P. Anthes, P. Garcia, J. T. Pierce, and P. V. Dressendorfer, “Nonscanned ladar imaging and applications,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 11-22 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Garcia, J. P. Anthes, J. T. Pierce, P. V. Dressendorfer, I. K. Evans, B. D. Bradley, J. T. Sackos, and M. M. LeCavalier, “Characterization of a scannerless ladar system,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 23-30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B. F.

Bradley, B. D.

M. R. Muguira, J. T. Sackos, and B. D. Bradley, “Scannerless range imaging with a square wave,” Proc. SPIE 2472, 106-113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Garcia, J. P. Anthes, J. T. Pierce, P. V. Dressendorfer, I. K. Evans, B. D. Bradley, J. T. Sackos, and M. M. LeCavalier, “Characterization of a scannerless ladar system,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 23-30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Busck, J.

J. Busck, “Underwater 3-D optical imaging with a gated viewing laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 44, 116001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, “Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar,” Appl.Opt. 43, 4705-4710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, R. R.

Dammann, J.

B. Stann, B. C. Redman, W. Lawler, M. Giza, J. Dammann, and K. Krapels, “Chirped amplitude modulation ladar for range and Doppler measurements and 3-D imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6550, 655005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devitt, N. M.

R. G. Driggers, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. M. Devitt, C. E. Halford, and K. J. Barnard, “Impact of speckle on laser range-gated shortwave infrared imaging system target identification performance,” Proc. SPIE 4719, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeWeert, M. J.

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. J. DeWeert, “ Intensified CCD (ICCD) dynamic range and noise performance,” Proc. SPIE 3173, 430-457(1997).
[CrossRef]

Dressendorfer, P. V.

P. Garcia, J. P. Anthes, J. T. Pierce, P. V. Dressendorfer, I. K. Evans, B. D. Bradley, J. T. Sackos, and M. M. LeCavalier, “Characterization of a scannerless ladar system,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 23-30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Anthes, P. Garcia, J. T. Pierce, and P. V. Dressendorfer, “Nonscanned ladar imaging and applications,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 11-22 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Driggers, R. G.

R. G. Driggers, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. M. Devitt, C. E. Halford, and K. J. Barnard, “Impact of speckle on laser range-gated shortwave infrared imaging system target identification performance,” Proc. SPIE 4719, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elkins, W. P.

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. J. DeWeert, “ Intensified CCD (ICCD) dynamic range and noise performance,” Proc. SPIE 3173, 430-457(1997).
[CrossRef]

Evans, I. K.

P. Garcia, J. P. Anthes, J. T. Pierce, P. V. Dressendorfer, I. K. Evans, B. D. Bradley, J. T. Sackos, and M. M. LeCavalier, “Characterization of a scannerless ladar system,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 23-30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fouche, D. G.

Garcia, P.

P. Garcia, J. P. Anthes, J. T. Pierce, P. V. Dressendorfer, I. K. Evans, B. D. Bradley, J. T. Sackos, and M. M. LeCavalier, “Characterization of a scannerless ladar system,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 23-30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Anthes, P. Garcia, J. T. Pierce, and P. V. Dressendorfer, “Nonscanned ladar imaging and applications,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 11-22 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Scott and P. Garcia, “Use of predetection mixing of intensity modulated optical beams,” Appl.Opt. 27, 5119-5122(1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelbart, A.

A. Gelbart, B. C. Redman, R. S. Light, C. A. Schwartzlow, and A. J. Griffis, “Flash lidar based on multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 4723, 9-18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giza, M.

B. Stann, B. C. Redman, W. Lawler, M. Giza, J. Dammann, and K. Krapels, “Chirped amplitude modulation ladar for range and Doppler measurements and 3-D imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6550, 655005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griffis, A. J.

A. Gelbart, B. C. Redman, R. S. Light, C. A. Schwartzlow, and A. J. Griffis, “Flash lidar based on multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 4723, 9-18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Habbit, R. D.

R. O. Nellums, R. D. Habbit, M. R. Heying, T. A. Pitts, and J. V. Sandusky, “3D scannerless LADAR for Orbiter inspection,” Proc. SPIE 6220, 62200G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heinrichs, R. M.

Heiselberg, H.

J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, “Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar,” Appl.Opt. 43, 4705-4710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heying, M. R.

R. O. Nellums, R. D. Habbit, M. R. Heying, T. A. Pitts, and J. V. Sandusky, “3D scannerless LADAR for Orbiter inspection,” Proc. SPIE 6220, 62200G (2006).
[CrossRef]

James, G. H.

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, G. Studor, and G. H. James III, “Ladar measurements of the International Space Station,” Proc. SPIE 4377, 65-72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krapels, K.

B. Stann, B. C. Redman, W. Lawler, M. Giza, J. Dammann, and K. Krapels, “Chirped amplitude modulation ladar for range and Doppler measurements and 3-D imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6550, 655005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lawler, W.

B. Stann, B. C. Redman, W. Lawler, M. Giza, J. Dammann, and K. Krapels, “Chirped amplitude modulation ladar for range and Doppler measurements and 3-D imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6550, 655005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lebien, S. M.

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, G. Studor, and G. H. James III, “Ladar measurements of the International Space Station,” Proc. SPIE 4377, 65-72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, and G. Studor, “Miniature, high-resolution laser radar operating at video rates,” Proc. SPIE 4035, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

LeCavalier, M. M.

P. Garcia, J. P. Anthes, J. T. Pierce, P. V. Dressendorfer, I. K. Evans, B. D. Bradley, J. T. Sackos, and M. M. LeCavalier, “Characterization of a scannerless ladar system,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 23-30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Light, R. S.

A. Gelbart, B. C. Redman, R. S. Light, C. A. Schwartzlow, and A. J. Griffis, “Flash lidar based on multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 4723, 9-18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marino, R. M.

B. F. Aull and R. M. Marino, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 6014, 60140D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, J.

Moran, S. E.

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. J. DeWeert, “ Intensified CCD (ICCD) dynamic range and noise performance,” Proc. SPIE 3173, 430-457(1997).
[CrossRef]

Muguira, M. R.

M. R. Muguira, J. T. Sackos, and B. D. Bradley, “Scannerless range imaging with a square wave,” Proc. SPIE 2472, 106-113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nellums, R. O.

R. O. Nellums, R. D. Habbit, M. R. Heying, T. A. Pitts, and J. V. Sandusky, “3D scannerless LADAR for Orbiter inspection,” Proc. SPIE 6220, 62200G (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, G. Studor, and G. H. James III, “Ladar measurements of the International Space Station,” Proc. SPIE 4377, 65-72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, and G. Studor, “Miniature, high-resolution laser radar operating at video rates,” Proc. SPIE 4035, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, M. E.

Pierce, J. T.

J. P. Anthes, P. Garcia, J. T. Pierce, and P. V. Dressendorfer, “Nonscanned ladar imaging and applications,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 11-22 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Garcia, J. P. Anthes, J. T. Pierce, P. V. Dressendorfer, I. K. Evans, B. D. Bradley, J. T. Sackos, and M. M. LeCavalier, “Characterization of a scannerless ladar system,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 23-30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, T. A.

R. O. Nellums, R. D. Habbit, M. R. Heying, T. A. Pitts, and J. V. Sandusky, “3D scannerless LADAR for Orbiter inspection,” Proc. SPIE 6220, 62200G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Player, B. E.

Redman, B. C.

B. Stann, B. C. Redman, W. Lawler, M. Giza, J. Dammann, and K. Krapels, “Chirped amplitude modulation ladar for range and Doppler measurements and 3-D imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6550, 655005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Gelbart, B. C. Redman, R. S. Light, C. A. Schwartzlow, and A. J. Griffis, “Flash lidar based on multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 4723, 9-18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruff, W. C.

B. L. Stann, W. C. Ruff, and Z. G. Sztankay, “Intensity-modulated diode laser radar using frequency-modulation/continuous-wave ranging techniques,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3270-3278 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sackos, J. T.

M. R. Muguira, J. T. Sackos, and B. D. Bradley, “Scannerless range imaging with a square wave,” Proc. SPIE 2472, 106-113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Garcia, J. P. Anthes, J. T. Pierce, P. V. Dressendorfer, I. K. Evans, B. D. Bradley, J. T. Sackos, and M. M. LeCavalier, “Characterization of a scannerless ladar system,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 23-30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sandusky, J. V.

R. O. Nellums, R. D. Habbit, M. R. Heying, T. A. Pitts, and J. V. Sandusky, “3D scannerless LADAR for Orbiter inspection,” Proc. SPIE 6220, 62200G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwartzlow, C. A.

A. Gelbart, B. C. Redman, R. S. Light, C. A. Schwartzlow, and A. J. Griffis, “Flash lidar based on multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 4723, 9-18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scott, M.

M. Scott and P. Garcia, “Use of predetection mixing of intensity modulated optical beams,” Appl.Opt. 27, 5119-5122(1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, M. W.

M. W. Scott, “Range imaging laser radar,” U.S. Patent 4,935,616 (19 June 1990).

Smithpeter, C. L.

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, G. Studor, and G. H. James III, “Ladar measurements of the International Space Station,” Proc. SPIE 4377, 65-72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, and G. Studor, “Miniature, high-resolution laser radar operating at video rates,” Proc. SPIE 4035, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stann, B.

B. Stann, B. C. Redman, W. Lawler, M. Giza, J. Dammann, and K. Krapels, “Chirped amplitude modulation ladar for range and Doppler measurements and 3-D imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6550, 655005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stann, B. L.

B. L. Stann, W. C. Ruff, and Z. G. Sztankay, “Intensity-modulated diode laser radar using frequency-modulation/continuous-wave ranging techniques,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3270-3278 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strittmatter, R. L.

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. J. DeWeert, “ Intensified CCD (ICCD) dynamic range and noise performance,” Proc. SPIE 3173, 430-457(1997).
[CrossRef]

Studor, G.

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, G. Studor, and G. H. James III, “Ladar measurements of the International Space Station,” Proc. SPIE 4377, 65-72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, and G. Studor, “Miniature, high-resolution laser radar operating at video rates,” Proc. SPIE 4035, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sztankay, Z. G.

B. L. Stann, W. C. Ruff, and Z. G. Sztankay, “Intensity-modulated diode laser radar using frequency-modulation/continuous-wave ranging techniques,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3270-3278 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ulich, B. L.

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. J. DeWeert, “ Intensified CCD (ICCD) dynamic range and noise performance,” Proc. SPIE 3173, 430-457(1997).
[CrossRef]

Vollmerhausen, R. H.

R. G. Driggers, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. M. Devitt, C. E. Halford, and K. J. Barnard, “Impact of speckle on laser range-gated shortwave infrared imaging system target identification performance,” Proc. SPIE 4719, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Willard, B. C.

Zayhowski, J. J .

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl.Opt. (2)

M. Scott and P. Garcia, “Use of predetection mixing of intensity modulated optical beams,” Appl.Opt. 27, 5119-5122(1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, “Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar,” Appl.Opt. 43, 4705-4710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (2)

B. L. Stann, W. C. Ruff, and Z. G. Sztankay, “Intensity-modulated diode laser radar using frequency-modulation/continuous-wave ranging techniques,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3270-3278 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Busck, “Underwater 3-D optical imaging with a gated viewing laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 44, 116001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (11)

A. Gelbart, B. C. Redman, R. S. Light, C. A. Schwartzlow, and A. J. Griffis, “Flash lidar based on multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar,” Proc. SPIE 4723, 9-18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Stann, B. C. Redman, W. Lawler, M. Giza, J. Dammann, and K. Krapels, “Chirped amplitude modulation ladar for range and Doppler measurements and 3-D imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6550, 655005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Garcia, J. P. Anthes, J. T. Pierce, P. V. Dressendorfer, I. K. Evans, B. D. Bradley, J. T. Sackos, and M. M. LeCavalier, “Characterization of a scannerless ladar system,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 23-30 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Muguira, J. T. Sackos, and B. D. Bradley, “Scannerless range imaging with a square wave,” Proc. SPIE 2472, 106-113 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Anthes, P. Garcia, J. T. Pierce, and P. V. Dressendorfer, “Nonscanned ladar imaging and applications,” Proc. SPIE 1936, 11-22 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, and G. Studor, “Miniature, high-resolution laser radar operating at video rates,” Proc. SPIE 4035, 279-286 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Smithpeter, R. O. Nellums, S. M. Lebien, G. Studor, and G. H. James III, “Ladar measurements of the International Space Station,” Proc. SPIE 4377, 65-72 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Nellums, R. D. Habbit, M. R. Heying, T. A. Pitts, and J. V. Sandusky, “3D scannerless LADAR for Orbiter inspection,” Proc. SPIE 6220, 62200G (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Moran, B. L. Ulich, W. P. Elkins, R. L. Strittmatter, and M. J. DeWeert, “ Intensified CCD (ICCD) dynamic range and noise performance,” Proc. SPIE 3173, 430-457(1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Driggers, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. M. Devitt, C. E. Halford, and K. J. Barnard, “Impact of speckle on laser range-gated shortwave infrared imaging system target identification performance,” Proc. SPIE 4719, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Aull and R. M. Marino, “Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 6014, 60140D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. W. Scott, “Range imaging laser radar,” U.S. Patent 4,935,616 (19 June 1990).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram and time sequence of GMPLI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup and (b) targets used for the indoor experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the indoor experiment: (a) intensity image with modulated gain, (b) intensity image with constant gain, (c) modulated gain, (d) range image of the targets.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Targets used for the outdoor test and (b) the illuminated area of the targets.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linearly modulated gains used for the outdoor test.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Criterion intensity image of the targets with a constant gain.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a)–(i) Range images of targets with different modulated gains of Line_A–Line_I during the outdoor test.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Range Accuracies for the Targets in the Outdoor Test

Equations (17)

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Δ t ( i , j ) = t r ( i , j ) t s .
R ( i , j ) = c Δ t ( i , j ) 2 ,
G ( t ) = { G s t t s T d G s + k ( t t s T d ) T d < t t s < T d + T G G s t t s T d + T G ,
A ( i , j ) = γ P ( i , j ) G ( t ) rect [ t t r ( i , j ) τ ] d t ,
A ( i , j ) = γ P ( i , j ) τ G [ t r ( i , j ) ] = γ P ( i , j ) τ [ G s + k ( Δ t ( i , j ) T d ) ] .
B ( i , j ) = γ P ( i , j ) G 0 rect [ t t r ( i , j ) τ ] d t = γ P ( i , j ) τ G 0 .
Δ t ( i , j ) = 1 k [ A ( i , j ) B ( i , j ) G 0 G s ] + T d .
R ( i , j ) = c 2 k [ A ( i , j ) B ( i , j ) G 0 G s ] + c T d 2 = R o ( i , j ) + R d ,
σ ε = Σ ( i , j ) ϵ σ R ( i , j ) K ε ,
σ R ( i , j ) 2 = [ R ( i , j ) A ( i , j ) ] 2 σ A ( i , j ) 2 + [ R ( i , j ) B ( i , j ) ] 2 σ B ( i , j ) 2 + ( c 2 ) 2 σ t r ( i , j ) 2 ,
σ R ( i , j ) 2 = [ c G 0 2 k A ( i , j ) B ( i , j ) ] 2 [ σ A ( i , j ) 2 A 2 ( i , j ) + σ B ( i , j ) 2 B 2 ( i , j ) ] + ( c 2 ) 2 σ t r ( i , j ) 2 .
σ R ( i , j ) 2 = [ c 2 ] 2 [ G s k + Δ t ( i , j ) T d ] 2 [ σ A ( i , j ) 2 A 2 ( i , j ) + σ B ( i , j ) 2 B 2 ( i , j ) ] + ( c 2 ) 2 σ t r ( i , j ) 2 .
σ A ( i , j ) 2 = γ 2 τ 2 G 2 [ t r ( i , j ) ] σ P ( i , j ) 2 + γ 2 P 2 ( i , j ) G 2 [ t r ( i , j ) ] σ τ 2 + γ 2 P 2 ( i , j ) τ 2 σ G 2 [ t r ( i , j ) ] ,
σ A ( i , j ) 2 A 2 ( i , j ) = σ P ( i , j ) 2 P 2 ( i , j ) + σ τ 2 τ 2 + σ G 2 [ t r ( i , j ) ] G 2 [ t r ( i , j ) ] .
σ B ( i , j ) 2 B 2 ( i , j ) = σ P ( i , j ) 2 P 2 ( i , j ) + σ τ 2 τ 2 + σ G 0 2 G 0 2 ,
σ R ( i , j ) 2 = [ c 2 ] 2 { [ G s k + Δ t ( i , j ) T d ] 2 [ 2 σ P ( i , j ) 2 P 2 ( i , j ) + 2 σ τ 2 τ 2 + σ G 2 [ t r ( i , j ) ] G 2 [ t r ( i , j ) ] + σ G 0 2 G 0 2 ] + σ t r ( i , j ) 2 } .
σ ε = c 2 K ε ( i , j ) ε { [ G s k + Δ t ( i , j ) T d ] 2 [ 2 σ P ( i , j ) 2 P 2 ( i , j ) + 2 σ τ 2 τ 2 + σ G 2 [ t r ( i , j ) ] G 2 [ t r ( i , j ) ] + σ G 0 2 G 0 2 ] + σ t r ( i , j ) 2 } 1 / 2 .

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