Abstract

We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a new nanophotonic device comprising a two-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lens of size 3×4μm fabricated in silicon-on-insulator. The PhC lens is put at the output of a planar waveguide of width 4.5μm to couple light into a planar waveguide of width 1μm, with two waveguides being of length 5mm. A 1μm off-axis displacement of the smaller waveguide leads to an 8-fold reduction of output light intensity, which means that the focal spot size at output of the PhC lens in silicon is less than 1μm. The simulation has shown that the PhC lens has maximal transmittance at 1.55μm, with the coupling efficiency being 73%. The focal spot size of the lens in air calculated at the FWHM is 0.32λ (where λ is the wavelength).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (6)

S. Haxha and F. AbdelMalek, “A novel design of photonic crystal lens based on negative refractive index,” PIERS Online 4, 296-300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Triandafilov and V. V. Kotlyar, “Photonic crystal Mikaelian lens,” Opt. Mem. Neural Netw. 17, 1-7 (2008).

D. M. Beggs, L. O' Faolain, and T. F. Krauss “Accurate determination of the functional hole size in photonic crystal slabs using optical methods”, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 213-218 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Minin, O. V. Minin, Y. R. Triandafilov, and V. V. Kotlyar, “Subwavelength diffractive photonic crystal lens,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 7, 257-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Asatsume and T. Baba, “Abberation reduction and unique light focusing in a photonic crystal negative refractive lens,” Opt. Express 16, 8711-8718 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, J. M. Gibbons, and W. Park “Graded negative index lens by photonic crystal”, Opt. Express 16, 16941-16949(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

2006 (9)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Fabre, S. Fasquel, C. Legrand, X. Melique, M. Muller, M. Francois, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Toward focusing using photonic crystal flat lens,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 225-232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Michaelis, C. Wachter, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, and A. Brauer, “Micro-optical assisted high-index waveguide coupling,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1831-1838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, M. Holt, and A. L. Efros, “Far-field imaging by the Veselago lens made of a photonic crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 490-497 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Kong, J. Kim, H. Choi, J. E. Im, B. Park, V. Paek, and B. H. Lee, “Lensed photonic crystal fiber obtained by use of an arc discharge,” Opt. Lett. 31, 894-896 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yang, C. Hong, and H. Yang, “Focusing concave lens photonic crystals with magnetic materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 956-959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Li, J. M. Holt, and A. L. Efros, “Imaging by the Veselago lens based upon a two-dimensional photonic crystal with a triangular lattice,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 963-968(2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, K. Eom, and T. Baba, “Focusing of light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal slab superlens on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2786-2788(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2003 (6)

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

1951 (1)

A. L. Mikaelian, “Harnessing medium properties for wave focusing,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 81, 2406-2415 (1951) (in Russian).

AbdelMalek, F.

S. Haxha and F. AbdelMalek, “A novel design of photonic crystal lens based on negative refractive index,” PIERS Online 4, 296-300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Agio, M.

Allington-Smith, J. R.

Almeida, V. R.

Asatsume, T.

Assefa, S.

Augustin, M.

E. Pshenay-Severin, C. C. Chen, T. Pertsch, M. Augustin, A. Chipoline, and A. Tunnermann, “Photonic crystal lens for photonic crystal waveguide coupling,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2006 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CThK3.
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and high efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151-156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

Bachim, B. L.

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and high efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151-156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, P. E.

Beggs, D. M.

D. M. Beggs, L. O' Faolain, and T. F. Krauss “Accurate determination of the functional hole size in photonic crystal slabs using optical methods”, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 213-218 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Bienstman, S. Assefa, S. G. Johson, J. D. Joannopoulos, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Koloziejski, “Taper structures for coupling into photonic crystal slab waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1817-1821 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonzaida, N.

Brauer, A.

Burger, S.

Cassan, E.

Chang, K.

P. Luan and K. Chang, “Photonic crystal lens coupler using negative refraction,” PIERS Online 3, 91-95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Chen, C. C.

E. Pshenay-Severin, C. C. Chen, T. Pertsch, M. Augustin, A. Chipoline, and A. Tunnermann, “Photonic crystal lens for photonic crystal waveguide coupling,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2006 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CThK3.
[CrossRef]

Chipoline, A.

E. Pshenay-Severin, C. C. Chen, T. Pertsch, M. Augustin, A. Chipoline, and A. Tunnermann, “Photonic crystal lens for photonic crystal waveguide coupling,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2006 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CThK3.
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

Chong, H.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cluzel, B.

N. Fabre, L. Lalonat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. deFornel, and O. Vanbesien, “Measurement of a flat lens focusing in a 2D photonic crystal at optical wavelength,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuDD6.
[PubMed]

Corbett, J. C. W.

De La Rue, R. M.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

deFornel, F.

N. Fabre, L. Lalonat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. deFornel, and O. Vanbesien, “Measurement of a flat lens focusing in a 2D photonic crystal at optical wavelength,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuDD6.
[PubMed]

Efros, A. L.

Eom, K.

Fabre, N.

N. Fabre, S. Fasquel, C. Legrand, X. Melique, M. Muller, M. Francois, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Toward focusing using photonic crystal flat lens,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 225-232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Fabre, L. Lalonat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. deFornel, and O. Vanbesien, “Measurement of a flat lens focusing in a 2D photonic crystal at optical wavelength,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuDD6.
[PubMed]

Fasquel, S.

N. Fabre, S. Fasquel, C. Legrand, X. Melique, M. Muller, M. Francois, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Toward focusing using photonic crystal flat lens,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 225-232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

Francois, M.

N. Fabre, S. Fasquel, C. Legrand, X. Melique, M. Muller, M. Francois, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Toward focusing using photonic crystal flat lens,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 225-232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Geng, T.

Gibbons, J. M.

Gualous, H.

Happ, T. D.

Haxha, S.

S. Haxha and F. AbdelMalek, “A novel design of photonic crystal lens based on negative refractive index,” PIERS Online 4, 296-300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heitzmann, M.

Holt, J. M.

Holt, M.

Hong, C.

Hugonin, J. P.

Im, J. E.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johson, S. G.

Kamp, M.

Kim, H.

H. Kim, S. Lee, B. O. S. Park, and E. Lee, “High efficiency coupling technique for photonic crystal waveguides using a waveguide lens,” in Frontiers in Optics, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper MT68.

Kim, J.

Koloziejski, L. A.

Kong, G.

Koster, A.

Kotlyar, V. V.

Y. R. Triandafilov and V. V. Kotlyar, “Photonic crystal Mikaelian lens,” Opt. Mem. Neural Netw. 17, 1-7 (2008).

I. V. Minin, O. V. Minin, Y. R. Triandafilov, and V. V. Kotlyar, “Subwavelength diffractive photonic crystal lens,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 7, 257-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ya. R. Triandafilov and V. V. Kotlyar, “A photonic crystal Mikaelian lens,” Computer Opt. 31, 27-31 (2007) (in Russian).

Krauss, T. F.

D. M. Beggs, L. O' Faolain, and T. F. Krauss “Accurate determination of the functional hole size in photonic crystal slabs using optical methods”, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 213-218 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Coupling into a low-mode photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2638-2640 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and high efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151-156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Lalonat, L.

N. Fabre, L. Lalonat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. deFornel, and O. Vanbesien, “Measurement of a flat lens focusing in a 2D photonic crystal at optical wavelength,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuDD6.
[PubMed]

Lardenois, S.

Laval, S.

Layadi, A.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, E.

H. Kim, S. Lee, B. O. S. Park, and E. Lee, “High efficiency coupling technique for photonic crystal waveguides using a waveguide lens,” in Frontiers in Optics, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper MT68.

Lee, R. K.

Lee, S.

H. Kim, S. Lee, B. O. S. Park, and E. Lee, “High efficiency coupling technique for photonic crystal waveguides using a waveguide lens,” in Frontiers in Optics, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper MT68.

Legrand, C.

N. Fabre, S. Fasquel, C. Legrand, X. Melique, M. Muller, M. Francois, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Toward focusing using photonic crystal flat lens,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 225-232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Li, C. Y.

Lin, T.

Lippens, D.

N. Fabre, S. Fasquel, C. Legrand, X. Melique, M. Muller, M. Francois, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Toward focusing using photonic crystal flat lens,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 225-232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Fabre, L. Lalonat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. deFornel, and O. Vanbesien, “Measurement of a flat lens focusing in a 2D photonic crystal at optical wavelength,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuDD6.
[PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Lu, Z.

Luan, P.

P. Luan and K. Chang, “Photonic crystal lens coupler using negative refraction,” PIERS Online 3, 91-95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

McIntyre, D.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Mekis, A.

Melique, X.

N. Fabre, S. Fasquel, C. Legrand, X. Melique, M. Muller, M. Francois, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Toward focusing using photonic crystal flat lens,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 225-232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Fabre, L. Lalonat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. deFornel, and O. Vanbesien, “Measurement of a flat lens focusing in a 2D photonic crystal at optical wavelength,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuDD6.
[PubMed]

Michaelis, D.

Mikaelian, A. L.

A. L. Mikaelian, “Harnessing medium properties for wave focusing,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 81, 2406-2415 (1951) (in Russian).

Minin, I. V.

I. V. Minin, O. V. Minin, Y. R. Triandafilov, and V. V. Kotlyar, “Subwavelength diffractive photonic crystal lens,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 7, 257-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minin, O. V.

I. V. Minin, O. V. Minin, Y. R. Triandafilov, and V. V. Kotlyar, “Subwavelength diffractive photonic crystal lens,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 7, 257-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

Mollard, L.

Muller, M.

N. Fabre, S. Fasquel, C. Legrand, X. Melique, M. Muller, M. Francois, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Toward focusing using photonic crystal flat lens,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 225-232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

Murakowski, J. A.

O' Faolain, L.

D. M. Beggs, L. O' Faolain, and T. F. Krauss “Accurate determination of the functional hole size in photonic crystal slabs using optical methods”, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 213-218 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O'Faolain, L.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Orobtchouk, R.

Paek, V.

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Panepucci, R. R.

Park, B.

Park, B. O. S.

H. Kim, S. Lee, B. O. S. Park, and E. Lee, “High efficiency coupling technique for photonic crystal waveguides using a waveguide lens,” in Frontiers in Optics, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper MT68.

Park, W.

Pascal, D.

Pertsch, T.

E. Pshenay-Severin, C. C. Chen, T. Pertsch, M. Augustin, A. Chipoline, and A. Tunnermann, “Photonic crystal lens for photonic crystal waveguide coupling,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2006 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CThK3.
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

Pokrovsky, A. L.

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Prather, D. W.

Pshenay-Severin, E.

E. Pshenay-Severin, C. C. Chen, T. Pertsch, M. Augustin, A. Chipoline, and A. Tunnermann, “Photonic crystal lens for photonic crystal waveguide coupling,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2006 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CThK3.
[CrossRef]

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Roelkens, G.

Schuetz, C. A.

Sharkawy, A.

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Soukoulis, C. M.

Srinivasan, K.

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and high efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151-156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Talneau, A.

Thoms, S.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Triandafilov, Y. R.

Y. R. Triandafilov and V. V. Kotlyar, “Photonic crystal Mikaelian lens,” Opt. Mem. Neural Netw. 17, 1-7 (2008).

I. V. Minin, O. V. Minin, Y. R. Triandafilov, and V. V. Kotlyar, “Subwavelength diffractive photonic crystal lens,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 7, 257-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Triandafilov, Ya. R.

Ya. R. Triandafilov and V. V. Kotlyar, “A photonic crystal Mikaelian lens,” Computer Opt. 31, 27-31 (2007) (in Russian).

Tunnermann, A.

E. Pshenay-Severin, C. C. Chen, T. Pertsch, M. Augustin, A. Chipoline, and A. Tunnermann, “Photonic crystal lens for photonic crystal waveguide coupling,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2006 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CThK3.
[CrossRef]

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F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and high efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151-156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and high efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151-156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vanbesien, O.

N. Fabre, S. Fasquel, C. Legrand, X. Melique, M. Muller, M. Francois, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Toward focusing using photonic crystal flat lens,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 225-232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Fabre, L. Lalonat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. deFornel, and O. Vanbesien, “Measurement of a flat lens focusing in a 2D photonic crystal at optical wavelength,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuDD6.
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Yariv, A.

Yuan, X.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Zschiedrich, L.

PIERS Online (1)

P. Luan and K. Chang, “Photonic crystal lens coupler using negative refraction,” PIERS Online 3, 91-95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Computer Opt. (1)

Ya. R. Triandafilov and V. V. Kotlyar, “A photonic crystal Mikaelian lens,” Computer Opt. 31, 27-31 (2007) (in Russian).

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (1)

A. L. Mikaelian, “Harnessing medium properties for wave focusing,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 81, 2406-2415 (1951) (in Russian).

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, and T. F. Krauss, “Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42, 1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (10)

G. Kong, J. Kim, H. Choi, J. E. Im, B. Park, V. Paek, and B. H. Lee, “Lensed photonic crystal fiber obtained by use of an arc discharge,” Opt. Lett. 31, 894-896 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsumoto, K. Eom, and T. Baba, “Focusing of light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal slab superlens on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2786-2788(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. F. Krauss, “Coupling into a low-mode photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2638-2640 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Bachim, O. O. Ogunsola, and T. K. Gaylord, “Optical fiber-to-waveguide coupling using carbon-dioxide-laser-induced long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2080-2082 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Adiabatic coupling between conventional dielectric waveguides with discrete translational symmetry,” Opt. Lett. 25, 755-757 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Happ, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Photonic crystal tapers for ultracompact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1102-1104(2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Talneau, P. Lalanne, M. Agio, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-reflection photonic crystal taper for efficient coupling between guide sections of arbitrary widths,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1522-1524(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, C. Chen, and D. Pustai, “High-efficiency coupling structure for a single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1601-1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bonzaida, and L. Mollard, “Low-loss submicrometer silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides and corner mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1150-1153 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mem. Neural Netw. (1)

Y. R. Triandafilov and V. V. Kotlyar, “Photonic crystal Mikaelian lens,” Opt. Mem. Neural Netw. 17, 1-7 (2008).

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

N. Fabre, S. Fasquel, C. Legrand, X. Melique, M. Muller, M. Francois, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Toward focusing using photonic crystal flat lens,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 225-232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. (1)

D. M. Beggs, L. O' Faolain, and T. F. Krauss “Accurate determination of the functional hole size in photonic crystal slabs using optical methods”, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 213-218 (2008).
[CrossRef]

PIERS Online (1)

S. Haxha and F. AbdelMalek, “A novel design of photonic crystal lens based on negative refractive index,” PIERS Online 4, 296-300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Electromagn. Res. B (1)

I. V. Minin, O. V. Minin, Y. R. Triandafilov, and V. V. Kotlyar, “Subwavelength diffractive photonic crystal lens,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 7, 257-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. Pshenay-Severin, C. C. Chen, T. Pertsch, M. Augustin, A. Chipoline, and A. Tunnermann, “Photonic crystal lens for photonic crystal waveguide coupling,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2006 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CThK3.
[CrossRef]

N. Fabre, L. Lalonat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. deFornel, and O. Vanbesien, “Measurement of a flat lens focusing in a 2D photonic crystal at optical wavelength,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuDD6.
[PubMed]

H. Kim, S. Lee, B. O. S. Park, and E. Lee, “High efficiency coupling technique for photonic crystal waveguides using a waveguide lens,” in Frontiers in Optics, 2003 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper MT68.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 2D PhC–ML comprising 12 × 17 holes in silicon of size 3 × 4 μm ; (b) diffraction field from a plane TE wave or a 2D intensity distribution | E x | 2 (y is the vertical axis and z is the horizontal axis); (c) axial intensity distribution; (d) intensity distribution in the focal plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) 2D PhC lens in waveguide output; (b) half-tone diffraction pattern of the plane TE wave of amplitude ex incident on the input of the 5 μm waveguide with a 3 μm lens at the output, and the intensity distribution (c) on the axis and (d) in the lens focus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram of coupling two planar waveguides with a PhC lens; (b) instantaneous diffraction pattern of a TE wave, calculated by the FDTD method using the FullWAVE 6.0; (c) magnified fragment of the pattern at the output of the 0.5 μm waveguide; (d) output intensity distribution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) 2D arrangement for coupling two waveguides by means of a PhC lens for a Δ z = 1 μm interwaveguide spacing (white—material, black—air); (b) instantaneous intensity distribution of the TE wave, calculated in FullWAVE; and the coupling efficiency as a function of (c) the interwaveguide spacing Δ z and (d) the output waveguide width W 2 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM (x7000) photograph of two waveguides fabricated in the Si film and coupled with the PhC lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical setup used for studying the nanophotonic devices (comprising a pair of waveguides combined with a PhC lens).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Emission spectrum of the light source.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized spectrum of the transmitted light with respect to the intensity of the light source measured using an optical setup of Fig. 6 for the samples under study shown in Fig. 5, for the following values of the interwaveguide spacing: (a)  Δ z = 0 μm (curve 1), Δ z = 1 μm (curve 2), and Δ z = 3 μm (curve 3), with (b) the following off-axis displacements with respect to the output waveguide optical axis: Δ x = 0 μm (curve 3), Δ x = 0.5 μm (curve 2), Δ x = + 0.5 μm (curve 4), Δ x = 1 μm (curve 5), and Δ x = + 1 μm (curve 1).

Equations (1)

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n ( r ) = n 0 [ cosh ( π r 2 L ) ] 1 ,

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